Possessions of Muhammad
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Possessions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad are known with unique names.
Muhammad had nine swords: 2 through inheritance, 3 as booty, and some from being given as gifts. Eight of the nine swords of Muhammed are in the Topkapi Palace, Turkey. The 9th one is in Cairo, Egypt.
- Al-’Adb (Arabic: العَضب) is the name of sword meaning “cutting” or “sharp.” This sword was sent to Muhammad by one of his friends just before the Battle of Badr. Muhammad also used this sword at the Battle of Uhud and his followers used it to demonstrate their fealty to him. Currently the sword is in the Husain mosque in Cairo, Egypt.
- Al-Ma’thur (Arabic: المأثُوُر), also known as “Ma’thur al-Fijar” is the sword which was owned by Muhammad before he received his first revelations in Mecca. This sword was given to him due to the will of his father. When Muhammad migrated from Mecca to Medina, the sword remained with him until it was transferred to Ali ibn Abi Talib, along with other war equipment. The length of blade of this sword is 99 cm . The handle is make of gold in the shape of two serpents, and is encrusted with emeralds and turquoise. Near the handle is an inscription saying: Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib. This sword is housed in the Topkapi Museum, Istanbul.
- Ar-Rasub (Arabic: الرسَّوب). It is said that the weapons of the house of Muhammad were kept among his family just like the Ark was kept with the Israelites. The sword is preserved in the Topkapi museum, Istanbul. The blade of this sword is 140 cm in length. It has gold circles.
- Al-Battar (Arabic: البَتَّار) sword was taken by Muhammad as booty from the Banu Qaynaqa. It is called the “sword of the prophets” and is inscribed in Arabic with the names of David, Solomon, Moses, Aaron, Joshua, Zechariah, John, Jesus, and Muhammad. It also has a drawing of King David cutting off the head of Goliath. The sword also features a Nabataean inscription. The length of blade of this sword is 101 cm. It is currently in the Topkapi Museum in Istanbul, along with eight of the nine preserved swords of Muhammad. It is claimed by some to be the sword that Jesus will use when he returns to Earth to defeat the anti-Christ, Dajjal.
- Hatf (Arabic: الحتف) is a sword which Muhammad took as booty from the Banu Qaynaqa. It is said that King David took the sword “al-Battar” from Goliath as booty when he defeated him, when he was less than 20 years old. God gave King David the ability to work with iron, to make armour and weapons and instruments of war, and using his ability made for himself a sword. It was thus that the Hatf sword came about, resembling the al-Battar but larger than it. He used this sword and it was passed onto the tribe of Levites who kept the weapons of the Israelites until it passed into the hands of Muhammad. Nowadays this sword is housed in the Topkapi museum. The blade of this sword is 112 cm in length and has a width of 8 cm.
- Qal’i (Arabic: القلعى) sword is known as “Qal’i” or “Qul’ay.” The name may be related to a place in Syria or a place in India near China. Some scholars said that the adjective “qal’i” refers to “tin” or “white lead” which was mined in different locations. This sword is one of the three swords which Muhammad acquired as booty from the Banu Qaynaqa. It is also reported that the grandfather of Muhammad discovered “swords of Qal’i” when he uncovered the Well of Zamzam in Mecca. Now the sword is preserved in the Topkapi Museum, Istanbul. Its blade is 100 cm in length. Inscribed in Arabic on its blade above the handle is: “This is the noble sword of the house of Muhammad the prophet, the apostle of God.” The blade of this sword is distinguished from the other swords because of its wave-like design.
- Dhu al-Faqar (Arabic: الفَقَار) was taken as booty by Muhammad at the Battle of Badr. It is reported that Muhammad gave the sword to Ali b. Abi Talib, and that Ali returned from the Battle of Uhud covered with blood from his hands to his shoulders, having Dhu al-Faqar with him. Many sources report that this sword remained with Ali b. Abi Talib and his family, and that the sword had two points, perhaps represented here by the two lines engraved on the blade.
- Al-Mikhdham (Arabic: المِخذَم) is reported to have passed from Muhammad to Ali b. Abi Talib, and from him to his sons. Some report that the sword was taken as booty by Ali b. Abi Talib from a raid he led in Syria. The sword is now in the Topkapi Museum, Istanbul. The blade is 97 cm in length.
- Al-Qadib (Arabic: القَضيب) is a thin-bladed sword which, it was said, resembled a rod. It was a sword of defense or companionship for the traveller but not used to battle. Written on the side of the sword in silver is the inscription: “There is no god but God, Muhammad the apostle of God–Muhammad b. Abdallah b. Abd al-Muttalib.” There is no indication in any historical source that this sword was used in any battle. It stayed in the house of Muhammad. The sword is 100 cm in length and has a scabbard of dyed animal hide. This sword is housed in the Topkapi Museum, Istanbul.
Muhammad owned 6 bows.
- Az-Zawra (Arabic: الزوراء)
- Ar-Rauha (Arabic: الروحاء)
- As-Safra (Arabic: الصفراء)
- Al-Bayda (Arabic: البيضاء)
- Al-Katum (Arabic: الكتوم): This bow broke during the Battle of Uhud and later was taken by Qatadah bin an-Nu’man
- As-Saddad (Arabic: السداد)
Muhammad owned five spears:
- Al-Muthwi (Arabic: المثوي)
- Al-Muthni (Arabic: المثنى)
- An-Nab’ah (Arabic: النعبة): a small spear
- Al-Baydal (Arabic: البيضاء) a bigger spear
- Anazah (Arabic: العنزة): a short lance, which Muhammad held while attending the ‘Id festivals, and used to place in front of him when he led the prayer, using it as a sutrah. Sometimes, Muhammad walked while holding the ‘Anazah.
Muhammad had seven pieces of armor:
- Dhat al-Fudul (Arabic: ذات الفضول), which he later pawned with Abu ash-Shahm, a Jew, in return for some 30 sa’ (weights relate to food) of barley for his family. The debt was for a year. This armor was made of iron.
- Dhat al-Wishah (Arabic: ذات الوشاح)
- Dhat al-Hawashi (Arabic: ذات الحواشي)
- As-Sa’diyyah (Arabic: السعدية)
- Fiddah (Arabic: فضة)
- Al-Batra (Arabic: البتراء)
- Al-Khirniq (Arabic: الخرنق)
Muhammad had also owned helmets:
- Al-Muwashah (Arabic: الموشح): a helmet made of iron, adorned with copper.
- As-Sabugh (Arabic: السبوغ) or Dhu as-Sabugh (Arabic: ذو السبوغ)
Muhammad had several shields:
- Az-Zalluq (Arabic: الزلوق)
- Al-Futaq (Arabic: الفتق) was given to Muhammad as a gift, It is also said that there was a picture of a statue on the shield. Muhammad always placed his hand on the image of the statue on his shield. Allah made the image fade away.
Clothing and accessories
Muhammad owned three long shirts (jubbas in Arabic). These shirts he wore during battle. One of them was said to be made of fine green silk brocade (sundus). It is well known that Urwah bin az-Zubayr had an outer garment made of silk brocade (dibaj) with embroidery made of fine green silk, and used to wear it during war. In one of the narrations from Ahmad, he said that it is allowed to wear silk during war.
Accessory items included:
- Al-'Uqab (Arabic: العقاب): a black banner or flag. According to hadith of Abu Dawud's "Sunan" from one of the Companions who said: "I saw the Prophet’s banner, it was yellow."
- White banners that were sometimes mixed with black.
- A pavilion called Al-Kann (Arabic: الكن), and a crook that was one cubit's length long. Muhammad would carry while walking or riding.
- A baton called Al-'Arjun.
- A staff called Al-Mamshuq. It is said that this is the same staff that the khulafa (succeeding Muhammad) used to hold in their hands.