ZAP (motor company)
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Public company (OTCQB: ZAAP)|
|Founder||Gary Starr (Co-Founder)
|Headquarters||Santa Rosa, California, United States|
|Priscilla Lu (Chairman)
Steven Schneider (CEO)
Wang Gang (co-CEO)
Gary Dodd (President)
H. David Jones (COO)
William Hartman (CFO)
ZAP Electric Taxi
|Revenue||US$-4.07 million (2009)|
|US$10.69 million (2009)|
|Total assets||US$13.78 million (2009)|
|Total equity||US$3.52 million (2009)|
|Subsidiaries||Zhejiang Jonway (51%)|
ZAP is an American electric vehicle company that designs, produces and markets vehicles including automobiles, motorcycles, bicycles, scooters, personal watercraft, hovercraft, ATVs, neighborhood electric vehicles and commercial vehicles. The name stands for Zero Air Pollution. The company headquarters are located in Santa Rosa, California.
- 1 History
- 2 Retail and subsidiaries
- 3 Fleets
- 4 Under development
- 5 Controversy
- 6 Public involvement
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
ZAP Power Systems (for zero air pollution), was launched by Jim McGreen in 1992 with the goal of designing, building and selling innovative electric vehicles. The company was incorporated on September 23, 1994 as ZAP Power Systems of Sebastopol, California, by McGreen, Gary Starr where they started manufacturing electric powered kits and bikes and then later the zappy scooter. In 1993 Automotive News named Starr among the top ten authorities in the electric car industry. He had previous experience with electric cars, including his work at Solar Electric Engineering and U.S. Electricar, which converted hundreds of vehicles including trucks for Ford and General Motors and is currently known as Enova Systems. Starr was involved in electric conversion projects, various production cars and kit cars.
1997 – Arrangement with Chinese bicycle companies for ZAP's drive system supply. In April, agrees to sell electric bikes to Brunswick Corp, by May signed a distribution agreement with Fondmetal Export AG export company.
1998 – First electric bike store opened in San Francisco. Starr and ZAP was honored with CALSTART's 1998 Blue Sky Merit Award. CALSTART,"Gary Starr has probably been responsible for the marketing of more EVs than anyone I can think of," said CALSTART CEO Mike Gage. "Responsible for more than 20 thousand, I think that is more than all the tier one automakers." 
Mergers and acquisitions
Retail and subsidiaries
ZAP Electric Vehicles
The company operates a retail car lot for sales of its automotive product line which includes the ZAPTRUCK XL and ZAPVAN Shuttle, two low-speed vehicles for the fleet market, the ZAP Xebra Truck and Sedan, also develops and commercializes electric power-assist system motor kits for bicycles, as well as electric bicycles, electric ATVs and personal electric scooters.
Currently the wholly owned subsidiaries are: Voltage Vehicles, a Nevada company engaged in the distribution and sale of advanced technology and conventional automobiles; ZAPWorld Stores, Inc., engaged in consumer sales of ZAP products in one location; ZAP Manufacturing, Inc., also a Nevada company, engaged in the distribution of ZAP products; RAP Group, Inc., was engaged in the sale and liquidation of conventional automobiles; and ZAP Rental Outlet, a Nevada company. (ZAP World Outlet, ZAP Rental Outlet and RAP Group are not currently operating subsidiaries).
This division is focused on Portable Energy (batteries), the company through the Recharge-It-All line sells battery packs to power or charge a range of mobile electronics such as cellular phones, digital cameras and laptops, providing significantly more charge time than available technologies. The Portable Energy devices fall under two product lines. It includes the universal chargers and iPOD models and the iPhone. The universal chargers are rechargeable battery packs that extend the use of small and medium-sized electronic devices up to two to five times their normal battery life.
The reorganized ZAP's market strategy was announced to cover fleet needs, with four tangible products launched until date, the ZAP Xebra(2006), ZAP Dude(2008), ZAP Truck XL(2008) and the ZAP Shuttle Van(2008).
The ZAP Xebra is a three-wheeled all-electric city car capable of 40 mph (64 km/h), charges off of a 110 volt outlet. Serves Domino's Pizza delivery service in Las Vegas, Aspen in the USA, Coca-Cola distribution model in Montevideo, Uruguay and includes an adapted version: The Xebra Truck. The United Parcel Service (UPS) in Northern California combines a fleet of Xebra trucks and sedans to expand small parcel deliveries, after UPS delivery vans transfer smaller packages to locked storage unit, an electric Xebra car/truck transports packages into dense urban and residential areas where parking and traffic are easier for the smaller vehicles. After several hundred vehicles produced, the production of this vehicle have been phased out since 2009.
- Xebra Legal Issues: Massachusetts
According to a July 31, 2008, editorial in Wired Magazine, motorists in Massachusetts are unable to register the ZAP Xebra legally, because the vehicle doesn't fit the state's definition of either a car or a motorcycle. Registrants of ZAP Xebras received letters from the state's Registry of Motor Vehicles stating that their vehicle registration plates had been revoked and their registrations were invalid.
Both the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate found it as an nihilism, when they passed the legislation on December 31, allowing three-wheeled motor vehicles in Boston roads. The change was achieved through joint efforts by the Registry of Motor Vehicles, state Senator Robert L. Hedlund, a Weymouth Republican, and state Representative Garrett J. Bradley, a Hingham Democrat.
The electric four-wheeled all-terrain vehicle ZAP Dude ATV, designed for installation security patrols and maintenance functions, can go up to 25 mph (40 km/h) and has a range of 25 miles (40 km) with a 48 volt permanent-magnet brush DC motor and standard 65 amp hour absorbed glass mat (AGM) lead acid batteries, fact that sacrifices charging time to 4 to 6 hours and the continuous power to 4 kW, both indicators improvable with a lithium battery technology. Is the cheapest in the company's electric vehicle portfolio, been introduced to natural reserve patrols, US Military and agriculture and farming markets, where usage is scheduled and power stations are strategically located.
- Dude atv specifications
|Motor||48V DC motor|
|Continuous Power / Peak Horse Power||4 kW / 12 hp|
|Length/ Width/ Height/ Weight||76"/ 40"/ 43"/ 707 lbs|
|Max. Capacity (Weight/ Tow/ Rack)||290 lbs/ 650 lbs/ 100 lbs (front & rear)|
|Wheelbase/ Turning Radius||46.5"/ 124"|
- There was an attached statement that range would vary depending on hill grade, speed, and rider weight.
ZAP Truck XL
The ZAPTRUCK XL classifies as a Zero Emission Vehicle(ZEV), with an off-road payload up to 1,900 lb (860 kg) and a convertible truck bed, have served a small contractor company from California, Ghilotti Construction Co., to move parts off site, UPS delivery services have also add the four-wheeled vehicle mostly to its Bay Area parcel fleet needs, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) have added the vehicle to their transportation operating mode. The U.S. Military has been putting the vehicle to test by engaging them into logistics tasks since 2009.
The ZAP-X is an electric crossover SUV previously expected to be launched in 2008 by ZAP and Lotus Engineering based on the Lotus APX prototype platform. The claimed potential performance was a total of 644 bhp (480 kW; 653 PS) from four in-wheel electric motors, a 350-mile (560 km) single-charge range, 155 mph (249 km/h) top speed, 0 to 60 mph (97 km/h) acceleration in 4.8 seconds and a 10-minute recharge time, with an estimated production cost of over $395 million together with the Alias. This product have not been offered for sale to the public.
ZAP Electric SUV/Taxi
ZAP is developing the ZAP Electric SUV/Taxi, an all-electric family SUV, tested at the Korea Electric Vehicle Challenge from March to early April, an on-road multistage demonstration event of three rest and recharge stops that includes a 220 km freeway rally at average speeds of 80–85 km/h(52.8 mph). Vehicle presented ahead of the Beijing International Automotive Exhibition by the CEO of ZAP, Steve Schneider, as the company latest effort. The model also available with a fuel efficient engine based on Jonway's A380 platform,.
The ZAP Alias Roadster is a plug-in electric three-wheeled sports car from the American electric car maker ZAP that was originally scheduled to go into production in 2009, with two wheels at the front, each containing an electric wheel-motor, and one at the rear, the project initiated in 2007 through a collaboration between ZAP and Lotus Engineering, the UK-based automotive engineering company, who are assisting with the development of the vehicle. Was supposed to have gone into production in 2009. The performance announced in 2008, was 0-60 mph (97 km/h) mph in 5.7 seconds, with a top speed of 156 mph (251 km/h) mph and a range of 100 miles (160 km). The vehicle was a finalist at the 2010 Progressive Insurance X Prize driven by Al Unser, Jr., but was eliminated due to mechanical failure in the 97th mile of a 100-mile track event.
ZAP has had a history of production delays. While the company sold the low-end Xebra for a number of years, more expensive, higher-performance models have been repeatedly announced but not produced.
ZAP did reportedly become the first company in the USA to sell the micro Smart Car. According to greenchipstocks, In 2004 Daimler Chrysler abandoned their Smart Car division in the U.S., claiming there was not enough demand. In 2005, ZAP took the initiative and started Americanizing Smart Cars they purchased from European dealers. In doing so they secured orders totaling in $2.2 billion. 
In the case ZAP v. Daimler Chrysler AG, et al., Superior Court of California, County of Los Angeles, Case No. BC342211. On October 28, 2005, ZAP filed a complaint against Daimler Chrysler Corporation and others in the Los Angeles Superior Court. The complaint includes claims for intentional and negligent interference with prospective economic relations, trade libel, defamation, breach of contract - agreement to negotiate in good faith, breach of implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing, and unfair competition. The complaint alleges that Daimler Chrysler has engaged in a series of anti-competitive tactics aimed at defaming ZAP and disrupting its third-party business relationships. As a result of the allegations, the complaint requests damages in excess of $500 million and such other relief as the court deems just and proper. 
ZAP sold shares and dealer franchises, partially based on its intention to sell and finance the retrofitting of the Smart Car to USA standards. The importation and conversion to meet US safety and EPA regulations was engineered and performed by G&K Automotive of Santa Ana, CA. Zap quoted mileage figures for the car as being the mid 40 range. This calculation was taken from UK test figures and was based on the larger(+20%) Imperial gallon. When tested by the EPA at their Ann Arbor lab, it was found that true mpg figures were in the low to mid 30'sSmart cars, but Daimler-Chrysler, the Smart car's manufacturer, said that ZAP's behavior revealed "both the sham nature of its purported business and a lack of trustworthiness that is nothing short of stunning."Although ZAP never claimed to have a deal with Daimler Chrysler directly, according to filed reports ZAP was the first company to import Smart cars to the USA and did sell 300 Smart cars that it bought from independent Daimler-Chrysler distributors, it also filed suit against Daimler-Chrysler in California for Libel and Business Interference. ZAP lost the initial filings and also subsequent appeals based solely on jurisdiction.
2001 – The SWIMMY was chosen as finalist for NASDAQ Sports Product of the Year in January, by Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association. ZAP held an international songwriting contest, "Pollution Solution", for Earth Day 2001, with a $5000 prize. Unveiled the ZAPADAPT, an electric-assist for manual wheelchairs at the Abilities Expo.
2010 – Engineering contract awarded for design and development of a version of the Grumman Long Life Vehicle, the boxy truck used by postal delivery workers since 1987.
2010 – ZAP was the official sponsor of EV Korea 2010 along with Samyang Optics, with support from the Korean Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Presidential Committee on Green Growth, Seoul Metropolitan Government, the Korea Transport Institute, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Korea Electronics Technology Institute Korea, Automotive Research Institute, Korea Electric Vehicle Industry Association and others. Event held concurrently with the New & Renewable Energy and Battery Expo 2010, with around 98 exhibitors and up to 25,000 attendees.
- "ZAP 2009 Form 10-K". Retrieved August 4, 2010.
- "ZAP (Form: DEF 14A, Received: 09/20/2002 12:21:57)". Esignal.brand.edgar-online.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Beer, Matt. "Sebastopol’s Zap Power Systems is banking on battery-powered bikes". Retrieved September 27, 1998. Check date values in:
- "Newsmaker: Gary Starr – - Aftermarket Business – Wholesaler, retailer automotive parts". Aftermarketbusiness.search-autoparts.com. May 13, 2008. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Parrish, Michael (December 2, 1991). "New Buzz in Automobiles, The industry as a Whole Is Beginning to Plug Into Electric Cars". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 4, 2010.
- +Chosen+to...-a057613746 "U.S. Electricar Announces New Name; ``Enova Systems'' Chosen to Reflect New Company Direction and Products. – Free Online Library". TheFreeLibrary.com. November 17, 1999. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Electric Bicycle History | V is for Voltage electric vehicle forum". Visforvoltage.org. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "bikes specifications specifications". Bikesdetails.info. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Power To The Pedals – Page 6 – Orlando Sentinel". Articles.orlandosentinel.com. May 6, 1999. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Zap'S New Electric Powerbike Puts A Charge Into Everyday Cycling – Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. August 21, 1995. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Mechanical Engineering Power". Memagazine.org. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ZAP – ZAAP Securities Registration: Small Business (SB-2/A) FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS". Sec.edgar-online.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ELECTROSOURCE and ZAP Power Systems sign electric bike agreement". AllBusiness.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "SHANGHAI'S GASOLINE-BIKE BAN KICK-STARTS CALIFORNIA FIRM.(Getaways) – Seattle Post-Intelligencer | HighBeam Research – FREE trial". Highbeam.com. February 13, 1997. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ELECTRIC BIKE EXPORTED TO AMERICA – AsiaInfo Services | HighBeam Research – FREE trial". Highbeam.com. December 8, 1997. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ELECTRIC BIKE FIRM GETS EPA GRANT TO MARKET IN CHINA – Industrial Environment | HighBeam Research – FREE trial". Highbeam.com. May 1, 1997. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=SA&p_theme=sa&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EAFED8EA77E540C&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM. Missing or empty
- http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=SA&p_theme=sa&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EAFED9D47ED534A&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM. Missing or empty
- Einstein, David (March 18, 1998). "Wake Up To A New Commute / Personal Transit Modules, E-Bikes Could Save Us From Our Car-Loving Selves". The San Francisco Chronicle.
- Fulmer, Mark. "ZAP’s Gary Starr Honored with California Clean Air Award". Retrieved February 9, 1999. Check date values in:
- "ZAP Power Systems Changes Name to ZAPWORLD.COM. – Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. May 18, 1999. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ZAP Signs Marketing Agreement with Smith & Wesson". PowerPulse.Net. January 21, 1999. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ZAP Signs Distribution Contract with Veiculos Electricos". PowerPulse.Net. February 16, 1999. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ZAP Partners With CSW Total EV on Electric Vehicle Franchise Stores". Business Wire. April 7, 1999.
- "ZAP Reaches Distribution Agreement with Electric Motorbike". PowerPulse.Net. July 12, 1999. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ZAP Unveils Electric Z-Boat". PowerPulse.Net. March 30, 1999. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ZAP Introduces Sea Scooter.(Brief Article)". Electric Vehicle Online Today. May 11, 2000.
- Reuters http://in.reuters.com/finance/stocks/keyDevelopments?symbol=ZAAP.OB&pn=10. Missing or empty
- "ZAP Appoints John Dabels as President". Theautochannel.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ZAP Introduces SKOOTR-X, Rolling Blackout Edition (OTCBB:ZAAP)". Globenewswire.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Arik Hesseldahl, 12.05.01, 10:00 am ET (December 5, 2001). "Segway's Boring. Bring On The Hovercraft". Forbes. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Zapworld.Com Forms Agreement with Ningbo Topp Industrial to Distribute EVs in China". PowerPulse.Net. August 22, 2000. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ZAP Taps into Solar Energy (OTCBB:ZAAP)". Globenewswire.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Zapworld.Com Announces Joint Venture Agreement with Voltage Vehicles". PowerPulse.Net. May 23, 2001. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- sebastian blanco (February 7, 2008). "Zap Alias will revive Detroit Electric brand". Autoblog. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- "ZAP Enters China Electric Vehicle Market With Holley Group, the Global Leader in Electric Power Meters: Financial News – Yahoo! Finance". Ca.us.biz.yahoo.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ZAP-Jonway Moves Forward, A380 EV Exposed". ChinaAutoWeb.com.
- Bailey, David (July 8, 2010). "Electric carmaker ZAP plans JV with China's Jonway". Reuters. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
- "China Government Approves ZAP Acquisition of Majority Stake in Jonway Auto". Forbes. September 16, 2010. Retrieved November 27, 2010.[dead link]
- "Electric Vehicles | ZAP Electric Vehicles". Zapworld.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Rechargeable Lithium Universal Batteries and Chargers by ZAP Portable Energy". Zapportableenergy.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Vehicle List". Voltagevehicles.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ZAP Debuts New Recharge-It-All for Powering iPhone, BlackBerry, Palm and Other Mobile Electronics". Marketwire.com. September 10, 2008. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "iZAP battery works with the iPhone | MacNews". Macsimumnews.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ZAP Electric Vehicles Qualify for GSA Requisition". Marketwire.com. January 12, 2010. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Can America's masses get charged on electric cars?". Reuters. May 18, 2007.
- "Domino's Electrifies Pizza Delivery – Car News". Car and Driver. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ZAP 100% Electric Car Delivers for Dominos Pizza in Aspen, CO " ZAP Global Blog". Zapglobal.wordpress.com. March 8, 2010. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Dexler, Paul (July 6, 2010). "ZAP Xebra Electric Trucks Deliver in Urban Settings – Articles – Fuel Management". Business Fleet. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Richter, Judy (December 19, 2007). "UPS, FedEx busy as ever this year". The San Francisco Chronicle.
- "EDGAR Pro". Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- Barry, Keith (July 2008). "Massachusetts Pulls the Plug on ZAP's EV". Wired. Retrieved June 24, 2009.
- DeMarco, Peter (January 18, 2009). "Stay alert for some new rules of the road – The Boston Globe". Boston Globe. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "zap dude - Search Results - Motor Sports Newswire". Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- Ashe, Suzanne (June 10, 2010). "Zap shows off EVs at Fort Bliss Renewable Energy Rodeo | The Car Tech blog – CNET Reviews". Reviews.cnet.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Electric ATV maker hopes to tap farmers market". AllBusiness.com. March 16, 2009. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- sebastian blanco (May 12, 2010). "AFVI 2010: Zap Dude is not an urban achiever". Autoblog. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- Simon, Chad. "Fleets Become Electrified – Article". Business Fleet. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Hendler, Jason (January 2, 2010). "Nemo Motors Announces Quebec Government Takes Delivery of Low Speed Electric Vehicle". All Cars Electric. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "UPS Leases Fleet of ZAP Electric Trucks for Third Consecutive Year, Totaling 92 Vehicles Since 2007". Theautochannel.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Automotive Fleet". Automotive Fleet. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "U.S. Military Reorders ZAP Electric Truck". Marketwire.com. September 9, 2009. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ZAP-X Electric Crossover A Powerful, Stylish SUV". May 24, 2007. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
- Gordon, Jacob (March 31, 2010). "A Fusion of Electric Vehicles From ZAP! – MSN Autos". Editorial.autos.msn.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Alias electric car and Jonway A380 electric SUV on Korea Electric Vehicle Challenge". Automofile. March 31, 2010. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Watch ZAP in First Leg of Korea Electric Vehicle Challenge " ZAP Global Blog". Zapglobal.wordpress.com. April 6, 2010. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ZAP Introduces Electric Taxi at Beijing Motor Show". Inautonews.com. April 21, 2010. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ZAP Buying Chinese Carmaker Jonway to Make SUV, Taxi". BusinessWeek. July 8, 2010. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Gary Cleland (February 7, 2008). "Three-wheeled ZAP Alias can beat a Porsche". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved February 7, 2008.
- "ZAP brings Alias highway electric car project closer to reality". Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- Steve Hart (July 28, 2010). "Zap finalist for $10 million prize". Press Democrat. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
- "A Race to the Finish!". Progress Automotive X Prize. August 3, 2010. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
- Ahrens, Ronald (September 16, 2010). "3 Teams Win Automotive X Prize". New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
- "Jocks". Forbes. Retrieved November 27, 2010.[dead link]
- Palmer, Fred. 29, 2007 "Car Maker ZAP Exposes Daimler Chrysler" Check
- californiaappellate courts (August 21, 2006). "S162223". Retrieved August 22, 2010.
- californiaappellate courts (May 14, 2008). "Disposition ZAP v. DAIMLERCHRYSLER AG Case Number S162223". Retrieved August 22, 2010.
- Electric car company coming to Franklin, Ky. Retrieved October 14, 2008
- ZAP electric car in Kentucky Retrieved October 14, 2008
- "Zap Racing Team Shatters World Electric Bike Records – Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. August 21, 1995. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "ZAP's SWIMMY(tm) Chosen as Finalist for NASDAQ Sports Product of the Year (OTCBB:ZAAP)". Globenewswire.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Environmental Songwriting Contest Seeks 'Pollution Solution' for Earth Day 2001 (OTCBB:ZAAP)". Globenewswire.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Reuters http://in.reuters.com/sectors/industries/significant?industryCode=72&categoryId=201&pageId=90. Missing or empty
- "Mobility & MORE". Paraplegia News. 2001.
- "USPS Awards ZAP Contract for Electric Mail Truck". Electric Cars Report. February 17, 2010. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "EV KOREA 2010". Evkorea.kr. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "EV KOREA 2010". Evkorea.kr. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to ZAP vehicles.|