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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1540s 1550s 1560s – 1570s – 1580s 1590s 1600s|
|Years:||1568 1569 1570 – 1571 – 1572 1573 1574|
|1571 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2324|
|English Regnal year||13 Eliz. 1 – 14 Eliz. 1|
— to —辛未年十二月十五日
|- Vikram Samvat||1627–1628|
|- Shaka Samvat||1493–1494|
|- Kali Yuga||4672–4673|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||571–572|
|Japanese calendar||Genki 2
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||1571 MDLXXI|
|Minguo calendar||341 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2114|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1571|
- January 11 – The Austrian nobility are granted freedom of religion.
- January 23 – The Royal Exchange opens in London, England.
- May 24 – Fire of Moscow: Moscow is burnt by the Crimean army under Devlet I Giray.
- June 3 – Following conquest of the Kingdom of Maynila, Spanish Conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi makes Manila a city and the capital of the Philippines.
- June 25 – Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Horncastle, is founded in Lincolnshire, England.
- June 27 – Establishment of Jesus College "within the City and University of Oxford of Queen Elizabeth's foundation" in England by Welsh cleric and lawyer Hugh Price.
- July 25 – St Olave's Grammar School is founded in Tooley Street, London.
- August 1 – Ottoman conquest of Cyprus is concluded by the surrender of Famagusta. Cyprus is established as an Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire and the first Turkish colony moves into the island.
- August 29 – Foundation of Liliw, Laguna, Philippines, by Gat Tayaw, followers and residents as a municipality of Laguna.
- September 28 – The House of Commons of England introduces the first pro forma bill, symbolizing its authority over its own affairs.
- October 7 – Battle of Lepanto: Spanish, Venetian, and Papal naval forces under Don John of Austria defeat the Turkish fleet of Ali Monizindade Pasha.
Date unknown 
- Spanish silver mines open in Latin America; thus begins the great silver flow that links the New and Old Worlds.
- January 9 – Charles Bonaventure de Longueval, Count of Bucquoy, soldier in Habsburg service (d. 1621)
- January 27 – Abbas I of Safavid, Shah of Iran (d. 1629)
- February 15 – Michael Praetorius, German composer and writer on music (d. 1621)
- May 11 – Niwa Nagashige, Japanese warlord (d. 1637)
- September 29 – Caravaggio, Venetian artist (d. 1610)
- October 18 – Wolfgang Ratke, German educationist (d. 1635)
- December 9 – Metius, Dutch mathematician and astronomer (d. 1635)
- December 27 – Johannes Kepler, German astronomer (d. 1630)
- date unknown
- Henry Ainsworth, English Nonconformist clergyman and scholar (d. 1622)
- William Bedell, Anglican churchman (d. 1642)
- Willem Blaeu, Dutch cartographer (d. 1638)
- Frederick de Houtman, Dutch explorer (d. 1627)
- Hugh Roe O'Donnell, Irish chieftain and rebel (d. 1603)
- Aleksander Ostrogski, Polish nobleman (d. 1603)
- Alessandro Peretti di Montalto, Venetian cardinal (d. 1623)
- Thomas Storer, English poet (d. 1604)
- Thomas Wintour, English Gunpowder Plot conspirator (d. 1606)
- Paulus Moreelse, Dutch painter (d. 1638)
- January 3 – Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg (b. 1505)
- January 9 – Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon, French naval officer (b. 1510)
- February 12 – Nicholas Throckmorton, English diplomat and politician (b. 1515)
- February 13 – Benvenuto Cellini, Italian artist (b. 1500)
- February 14 – Odet de Coligny, French cardinal and Protestant (b. 1517)
- March 6 – Tsukahara Bokuden, Japanese swordsman (b. 1489)
- March 21 – Hans Asper, Swiss painter (b. 1499)
- April 6 – John Hamilton, Scottish prelate and politician (b. 1511)
- May 4 – Pierre Viret, Swiss theologian (b. 1511)
- June 1 – John Story, English Catholic (martyred) (b. 1504)
- July 6 – Mori Motonari, Japanese warlord (b. 1497)
- July 15 – Shimazu Takahisa, Japanese samurai and warlord (b. 1514)
- July 17 – Georg Fabricius, German poet (b. 1516)
- September 4 – Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox (b. 1516)
- October 7 – Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg, consort of Christian III of Denmark (b. 1511)
- date unknown
- Hibbert, Christopher, ed. (1988). The Encyclopædia of Oxford. London: Macmillan. p. 198. ISBN 0-333-39917-X.
- "The Library of Parliament's research tool for finding information on legislation". Library of Parliament. 2010-01-28. Archived from the original on 02 February 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2010.