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This article is about the year 1606.
|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1570s 1580s 1590s – 1600s – 1610s 1620s 1630s|
|Years:||1603 1604 1605 – 1606 – 1607 1608 1609|
|1606 by topic:|
|Arts and Science|
|Architecture - Art - Literature - Music - Science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors - State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2359|
|English Regnal year||3 Ja. 1 – 4 Ja. 1|
|Chinese calendar||乙巳年 (Wood Snake)
4302 or 4242
— to —
丙午年 (Fire Horse)
4303 or 4243
|- Vikram Samvat||1662–1663|
|- Shaka Samvat||1528–1529|
|- Kali Yuga||4707–4708|
|Japanese calendar||Keichō 11
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||306 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2148–2149|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1606.|
- January 26 – Pedro Fernandes de Queirós discovers the Pitcairn Islands.
- January 27 – Gunpowder Plot: The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators for plotting against Parliament and James I of England begins.
- January 31 – Guy Fawkes is executed.
- February 9 – Pedro Fernandes de Queirós discovers Mehetia.
- February 12 – Pedro Fernandes de Queirós discovers Tauere atoll.
- February 26 – Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon makes the first confirmed sighting of Australia by a European.
- March – The Duke of York's ship Duyfken, under Captain Willem Janszoon, explores the western coast of Cape York Peninsula.
- March 19 – Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, in the Fortezza Vecchia Chapel of Saint Francesco, elevates Livorno to the rank of city.
- April 10 – Charter of 1606: The First Charter of Virginia is adopted, by which King James I of England grants rights to the Virginia Company (comprising the London Company and Plymouth Company) to settle parts of the east coast of North America.
- April 12 – First version of the Union Flag created, to be worn as a national flag by English and Scots ships.
- May – Pedro Fernandes de Queirós discovers the islands of Vanuatu; believing them to be Australia, he names them La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo.
- May 17 – Supporters of Vasili Shuisky invade the Kremlin and kill Tsar Dimitri II of Russia.
- August (approx.) – Possible first performance of William Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth in London.
- August 14 – A Dutch fleet is defeated by the Portuguese in the Battle of Cape Rachado.
- October – Luís Vaz de Torres is the first European to sail through the Torres Strait.
- November 11 – Peace of Zsitvatorok between the Ottoman and Holy Roman Empires. The independence of Transylvania is recognized by both sides and Austria's annual tribute to the Ottomans is abolished.
- A storm buries the village of St Ismail near modern-day Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales.
- The Jesuit Joannis Stribingius visits Latvia, and describes Latvian mythology.
- The Evangelic Lyceum (Evanjelické lýceum), a Lutheran high school is founded in Bratislava.
- The cryptographic text Steganographia, written by Johannes Trithemius c.1499, is published in Frankfurt.
- Gregor Richter succeeds Martin Möller as the chief pastor of Görlitz.
- February 13 – John Winthrop, the Younger, Governor of Connecticut (d. 1676)
- March – Henry Pierrepont, 1st Marquess of Dorchester (d. 1680)
- March 3 – Edmund Waller, English poet (d. 1687)
- May 12 – Joachim von Sandrart, German art-historian and painter (d. 1688)
- May 23 – Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Spanish writer (d. 1682)
- May 25 – Saint Charles Garnier, Jesuit missionary (d. 1649)
- June 6 – Pierre Corneille, French author (d. 1684)
- June 16 – Arthur Chichester, 1st Earl of Donegall, Irish soldier (d. 1675)
- June 19 – James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton, Scottish statesman (d. 1649)
- July 15 – Rembrandt, Dutch painter (d. 1669)
- September 22 – Li Zicheng, Chinese rebel (d. 1645)
- September 27 – Richard Busby, English clergyman (d. 1695)
- November 12 – Jeanne Mance, French settler in Montreal (d. 1673)
- date unknown
- Leonard Calvert, governor of Baltimore (d. 1647)
- Edmund Castell, English orientalist (d. 1685)
- William Davenant, English poet and playwright (d. 1668)
- Giovanni Francesco Grimaldi, Italian architect and painter (d. 1680)
- Thomas Harrison, English puritan soldier and Fifth Monarchist (d. 1660)
- Thomas Herbert, English traveller and historian (d. 1682)
- John Robartes, 1st Earl of Radnor (d. 1685)
- Pierre du Ryer, French dramatist (d. 1658)
- Tokugawa Tadanaga, Japanese nobleman (d. 1633)
- Thomas Washbourne, English clergyman and poet (d. 1687)
- January 30
- January 31
- March 10 – Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (killed in battle)
- March 16 – Gaspar de Zúñiga y Acevedo, Count of Monterrey, Spanish colonial administrator and Viceroy of Mexico (b. 1540)
- March 23
- March 25 – François de Bar, French scholar (b. 1538)
- April 3 – Charles Blount, 1st Earl of Devon, English politician (b. 1563)
- May 3 – Henry Garnet, English Jesuit (executed) (b. 1555)
- May 17 – False Dmitriy I, pretender to the Russian throne
- May 30 – Guru Arjan Dev, fifth of the Sikh gurus (executed) (b. 1563)
- September 2 – Carel van Mander, Dutch painter and poet (b. 1548)
- September 9 – Leonhard Lechner, German composer and music editor (b. 1553)
- September 28 – Nicolaus Taurellus, German philosopher and theologian (b. 1547)
- October 5 – Philippe Desportes, French poet (b. 1546)
- November 13 – Geronimo Mercuriali, Italian philologist and physician (b. 1530)
- November 20 – (burial date) John Lyly, English writer (b. 1553)
- date unknown – Akaza Naoyasu, Japanese nobleman
- McHugh, Evan (2006). 1606: An Epic Adventure. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-86840-866-8.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- Richardson, William A. R. (2008). Was Australia Charted Before 1606: the Jave la Grande Inscriptions. Australia: Everbest. p. 20.
- Scholars date completion as between 1603 and 1606. Boyce, Charles (1990). Encyclopaedia of Shakespeare. New York: Roundtable Press.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 166–168. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.