|Town of Appalachia, Virginia|
|— Town —|
|• Mayor||Jessie "Jay" Swiney, III|
|• Town Council|
|• Total||2.3 sq mi (6.0 km2)|
|• Land||2.3 sq mi (6.0 km2)|
|• Water||0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)|
|Elevation||1,647 ft (502 m)|
|• Density||797/sq mi (307.8/km2)|
|U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Population Estimates|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||1481331|
Appalachia is located at .(36.906505, -82.785560)
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.3 square miles (6.0 km²), all of it land.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1839 people, 790 households, and 515 families residing in the town. The population density was 797.3 people per square mile (307.4/km²). There were 891 housing units at an average density of 386.3 per square mile (148.9/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 94.18% White, 4.57% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.38% from other races, and 0.44% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.20% of the population.
There were 790 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.4% were married couples living together, 17.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.8% were non-families. 33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.95. h In the town the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 86.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.5 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $20,405, and the median income for a family was $25,221. Males had a median income of $26,842 versus $18,864 for females. The per capita income for the town was $11,782. About 28.0% of families and 29.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.0% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of those age 65 or over.
Appalachia is surrounded by numerous coal camp communities. They include Andover, Arno, Derby, Roda, Imboden, Exeter, Dunbar, Pardee, Osaka, and Stonega. Many of these communities formed at the beginning of the century with the arrival of the mining and railroad industry.
Appalachia is home to one public school, Appalachia Elementary School. Prior to the 2011 school year Appalachia High School was merged with Powell Valley High School in neighboring Big Stone Gap to form Union High School. Their mascot is the Bears.
Each year, usually in the first week of August, the residents of Appalachia and the surrounding area celebrate their heritage in a week long celebration known as Coal/Railroad Days. The festival includes a 5K road race, music concerts at the town's amphitheater, amusement rides, street vendors, a parade, and numerous other festival type events. Twice, Coal/Railroad days has coincided with other celebrations in Appalachia. In 2000 the town took part in a mass high school reunion, known as Appy 2000. In 2006, the festival was part of the Appalachia 100 celebration that marked the 100th birthday of the Town of Appalachia.In 2010 it was their 104th birthday.
The town of Appalachia holds two world records.
- Bee Rock Tunnel, the world's second-shortest railroad tunnel.
- The Peake Building, an apartment house with street-level access on all four floors.
- Peggie Castle - Film actress.
- Bob Thomas - Actor, dialogue coach, television writer, and radio personality.
- Ollan Cassell - Winner of a gold medal in the 4x400 m relay at the 1964 Summer Olympics.
- Thomas Jones - NFL Player
- Julius Jones - NFL Player
- Sam Church - Former President of United Mine Workers of America.
- Willie Horton - Major League Baseball player
On March 6, 2006, a grand jury in Wise County, Virginia indicted fourteen Appalachia residents with charges relating to an alleged electoral fraud conspiracy. The town's mayor and the head of the town's police department were among the individuals charged. 
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Willie Horton Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- Lester, Jeff (2006-03-21). "Thirteen of 14 defendants pleaded not guilty Tuesday in the massive investigation of alleged election fraud and corruption in the town of Appalachia". Coalfield Progress (Coalfield.com). Retrieved 2006-11-20.
- "Ex-mayor pleads guilty to 243 felonies". breitbart.com. Associated Press. 2006-12-01. Archived from the original on 4 January 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
- The Roanoke Times (2007-02-01). "Ex-mayor sentenced in election fraud case". roanoke.com. Retrieved 2007-02-10.