Berlin School of electronic music
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|Stylistic origins||Krautrock, psychedelic rock, electronic art music, minimalism|
|Cultural origins||Early 1970s, West Berlin|
|Typical instruments||Synthesizer, sequencer, mellotron, guitar|
|Derivative forms||Ambient, electronica, New Age, trance|
|Düsseldorf School of electronic music|
The Berlin School of electronic music or Berlin School was a development of electronic music in the 1970s. An outgrowth of Krautrock, Berlin School was so named because most of its early practitioners were based in West Berlin, Germany. It was shaped by artists such as Tangerine Dream, Klaus Schulze, and Ashra. Music from this school is sometimes considered a sub-branch of New Age or ambient although it predates the widespread usage of both terms.
The genre's identification with space music made it distinct from the more percussive and rhythm-oriented Düsseldorf School which included Can, Cluster, Kraftwerk, and Neu!. These latter bands have had a greater impact upon synth pop and techno while the Berlin School provides roots for ambient, electronica, New Age and trance.
Vintage Berlin School tracks typically ran about twenty or thirty minutes, filling one side of a vinyl LP. With the advent of the compact disc, artists were no longer limited by the need to flip over a vinyl record. Consequently, some newer works run continuously as a single track for almost 80 minutes. Sound loops of unlimited length are now possible with MP3s. The music may also be tied to visuals, as in the 2008 project Via Lucis, an integration of ambient music by Berlin School artist Kirk Monteux and the sculptor Siegfried Speckhardt.
Classic Period 
In 1977 Ashra (Manuel Göttsching) released New Age of Earth along with Michael Hoenig's Departure from the Northern Wasteland. Tangerine Dream toured the United States and released a double live album, Encore, with three sides of Berlin School and a side of proto-ambient music.
Latter-Day Berlin School 
During the 1990s, several current mainstay groups were formed, including Radio Massacre International and Redshift (fronted by Mark Shreeve, who had worked in the genre in the early 80s as well). Many of them had a "retro" or back-to-basics approach, seen for example in Redshift's usage of vintage Moog synthesizers. An interview with Mark Shreeve by Paul Graham of Trancine in April 2004 indicated that Redshift make use of a Minimoog and 2 Moog 8*3 sequencers.* 
Klaus Schulze still continues work in and around the genre, and while Tangerine Dream have moved on, they continue to send an occasional nod in that direction, such as the album Mota Atma from 2003.
Notable latter day artists of Berlin School include:
See also 
Various contributors, All Music Guide to Electronica, Backbeat Books, San Francisco, 2001.