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Location of Bijeljina within Bosnia and Herzegovina
|Country||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|• Mayor||Mićo Mićić (SDS) |
|• City||733,85 km2 (28,334 sq mi)|
|Elevation||90 m (300 ft)|
|Population (2013 census)|
|• Density||156,3/km2 (4,050/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Bijeljina (Serbian Cyrillic: Бијељина; pronounced [bijêːʎina]) is a city and municipality in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. The city is the second largest in the Republika Srpska entity after Banja Luka and fifth largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina (after Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Tuzla and Zenica), and is situated on the plains of Semberija. Bijeljina is the unofficial center of eastern part of Republika Srpska, with 114,663 inhabitants. Bijeljina is located at 6 km (4 mi) from the border of Serbia and 40 km (25 mi) from Croatia.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Architecture
- 4 Education
- 5 Transportation
- 6 Geography
- 7 Tourism
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Sports
- 10 International relations
- 11 Notable people
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina are Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian. The Bosnian and Serbian languages use both the Cyrillic and Latin alphabet, while Croatian only uses Latin. The town's name in Cyrillic is Бијељина.
Prehistory and Antiquity
The earliest confirmed traces of human life in the area of today's City of Bijeljina date from the New Stone Age (5000-3000 BC). Most of the traces from prehistoric periods were found in the villages Ostojićevo, Batković, Glavičice, Dvorovi, Kojčinovac, Patkovača and Triješnica. Characteristics of pottery, tools and weapons emphatically confirm cultural connections of indigenous inhabitants of Semberija with the eneolithic and Bronze Age cultures - Vučedol, Kostolac and Baden culture.
Old Slavs and Middle Ages
The oldest archeological site of this period is located on both sides of channel Bistrik, between the villages Batković and Ostojićevo and it consists of four smaller sites which date from the period of the 7th to the 12th century. On localities Jazbina and Oraščić were found remains of a settlement with half-buried huts, but the most significant discovery was a complex of metallurgical workshop at the site Čelopek where iron was melted in the 8th century and where iron tools were manufactured. At this time the village Bistrik was called Bistrica and it was the center of the parish, which covered the entire territory of today’s City of Bijeljina.
Although the name Bijeljina was first mentioned in 1446, this name was in use only after 1918. During Austro-Hungarian period, the town had the name Bjelina and, before that, Belina or Bílina.
In 1838, the first confessional elementary school was opened. A modern school building was built in 1902. In this school worked Jovan Dučić between 1893–95. Jovan Dučić was a famous Hercegovinian Serb poet, writer and diplomat. Today a street in central Bijeljina is named after him.
In front of the city hall is a statue of King Peter I of Serbia, who ruled the Kingdom of Serbia between 1903 and 1918. During the Second World War, the Ustaša troops removed it. After World War II, the communist government refused to return the monument. The first non-communist local government returned the monument in the early 1990s.
In its emerging Bijeljina has experienced its boom after joining up in Yugoslavia and especially in the second half of the 20th century, when it received significant facilities for its economic and cultural development: new factories, schools, medical facilities and cultural organizations.
In April 1992, Serbian forces (most likely those of Željko Ražnatović under direct order from the Milošević government in Belgrade) invaded Bijeljina. The practice of ethnic cleansing was enforced by the Serbian forces, with non-Serbs being either killed or expelled and former Muslim property being acquired by the paramilitaries and local Serbs.
The village Batković in the municipality of Bijeljina was the site of the Batković concentration camp, believed to be the first concentration camp in operation during the Bosnian War. It was run by Serbs from 1 April 1992 until late January 1996. The prisoners were predominately ethnic Bosniaks, who were tortured, sexually assaulted, and killed by Serbs.
The photographer Ron Haviv was given permission by Ražnatović to photograph the city during the siege. Although Ražnatović later took a quantity of film from Haviv to prevent him from publishing the images taken, a quantity made it back to the USA and were subsequently published. These published photos showed the brutality of the Serbian paramilitary force, and the destruction of the Bosnian Muslim population. After the publication of the photographs by Haviv, Ražnatović reportedly issued threats on the photographer's life.
During the war, Bijeljina saw a large influx of Serb refugees from other areas of the country.
New birth of Bijeljina is experienced in the late 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century. After a population boom due to war events and population saturation and insufficient capacity of the city that was built in less need, today you can see re-building of Bijeljina in the big city, with new settlements, roads, schools, universities, and cultural institutions.
Serbian Orthodox Church (Svetog Đorđa) Saint George which was built in 1872. The second oldest building is the Semberija. Museum which was built in 1876. It is noted that the oldest building in Bijeljina was Atik Mosque in the city centre, built in 1530 and demolished to the ground during the Bosnian War 1992–1995.
Basil of Ostrog Monastery in the center of Bijeljina is a newly built monastery (2001.) Dedicated to St. Basil of Ostrog. The bell tower with a clock of over 30 meters dominates the surroundings and a symbol of the monastery. As part of the monastery is a museum, dining room, library, hermitages for monks. Inside the temple is painted magnificent frescoes. It is particularly valuable copy Trojeručica miraculous icons, the gift from Hilandar monastery. In Bijeljina, also located the Holy Temple, the Church of St. Petka and the old Catholic church.
The City Park (Gradski Park) was founded in 1892.
Museum of Semberija began working as a museum collection 1972. And later grew into a museum facility with over 10,000 exhibits and 3 of the permanent exhibition. Located in the heart of the city, and it takes place and various cultural events.
The Library "Filip Višnjić" is the oldest cultural institution in Bijeljina - founded in 1932 year, thanks to prominent people and intellectuals. Played a major role in raising the cultural level of the construction and opening of reading rooms in rural villages of Semberija. Now located in a modern building and has over 100,000 books.
The Tavna Monastery is located in the southern part of the Bijeljina municipality. The date of foundation is hidden somewhere in the shadows of the far past. The cronichles of monasteries Tronosha and Pech say it was built by Dragutin's sons Vladislav i Urosic. Stefan Dragutin was the King of Serbia from 1276 to 1282 and king of Srem from 1282 to 1316. The present church of monastery Tavna, is built in the same place as the original one. The Tavna Monastery is older than the other monasteries in the region such as Ozrena, Liplja, Vozuce and Gostovica. Tavna was damaged in the first years of Turkish rule, but was restored by the people. This was not the only time the monastery was damaged. It was damaged many times during the Turkish period and also during World War Two. Between 1941 and 1945 Tavna was bombed by the Ustase. On one of the gravestones it says "Zdravko Jovacnovic Killed 1943 by the Ustasa Blue Division protecting and defending the monastery". After World War Two Tavna was rebuilt.
The first literate people in Semberija originally attended the monasteries. The first primary school in Bijeljina was opened in 1838. After the Second World War, changes were made to the school system, and in 1951 the first elementary school was opened. In 1956, a second elementary school was opened. The third and fourth elementary schools opened in 1959, and subsequently 1966. As of 1953, a basic music school has been operating in the city. Primary schools in Bijeljina include the following: OS Sveti Sava, OS Knez Ivo od Semberije, OS Vuk Karadžić, OS Jovan Dučić. There are several high schools operating in the city, such as Gymnasium Filip Višnjić, Music School Stevan Stojanovic Mokranjac, an agricultural high school, an economic and a technical school.
Within the University of Bijeljina, several faculties are operated, those of which include law, economics, education and business economics. The main private universities in the city are Slobomir P University and University Sinergija. With the construction of a large University building in Bijeljina, the city became one of the most important centers for education in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and a campus for many students around the region.
The basic street network is dependent on the main routes: the M-14.1 Brcko-Zvornik and the M-18 Raca-Ugljevik. The complete road network in contact with the city and the urban traffic network is extremely radial orientation. She had eleven major transportation routes, which link directly to the city. Around the city is located bypass, but isn't fully completed. The main bus station in Bijeljina is located in the central zone of the city. The main bus station in Bijeljina is owned by Semberija Transport. From Bijeljina passengers can travel to other cities in the region as well as some cities in Europe such as Ljubljana, Vienna, Berlin, Munich, Zürich, Stockholm. There is only one railway line in Bijeljina. That railway line stretches from Bijeljina to Šid in Serbia. From Šid it joins another line going east towards Belgrade or going west to Croatia.
The main public transport system in Bijeljina is made up of bus routes that provide transportation from surrounding villages to the city center. Public passenger transport performed in Bijeljina 50 buses. There are 12 lines of public transport in the city. Price of one-way ticket is 1.5 kilometres (1 mile).
|2||Bijeljina Center-Velika Obarska|
|6A||Bijeljina Center-Novo nasalje Janja|
|8||Bijeljina Center-Slobomir University|
- Sarajevo: 210 kilometres (130 mi);
- Belgrade: 139 kilometres (86 mi);
- Banja Luka: 273 kilometres (170 mi);
- Vienna: 645 kilometres (401 mi);
- Budapest: 407 kilometres (253 mi).
Semberija is a flat region which is bound by the rivers Sava, Drina and the Majevica mountains.The entire Semberija area is typically an agricultural region which has fertile land and suitable weather conditions.
Semberija has the most developed agricultural area in Republika Srpska. The focus of the production is on wheat and corns, vegetables, cabbage, paprika, tomato and water-melon. Also, cattle-breeding (fattening of cows and pigs) and growing fruits.
Places in the Bijeljina municipality: Amajlije, Balatun, Banjica, Batar, Batković, Bijeljina, Bjeloševac, Brijesnica, Brodac Donji, Brodac Gornji, Bukovica Donja, Bukovica Gornja, Crnjelovo Donje, Crnjelovo Gornje, Čađavica Donja, Čađavica Gornja, Čađavica Srednja, Čardačine, Čengić, Ćipirovine, Dazdarevo, Dragaljevac Donji, Dragaljevac Gornji, Dragaljevac Srednji, Dvorovi, Glavičice, Glavičorak, Glogovac, Gojsovac, Golo Brdo, Hase, Janja, Johovac, Kacevac, Kojčinovac, Kovanluk, Kriva Bara, Ljeljenča, Ljeskovac, Magnojević Donji, Magnojević Gornji, Magnojević Srednji, Međaši, Modran, Novo Naselje, Novo Selo, Obrijež, Ostojićevo, Patkovača, Piperci, Popovi, Dijelovi, Pučile, Ruhotina, Suho Polje, Triješnica, Trnjaci, Velika Obarska, Velino Selo, Vršani, Zagoni.
Bijeljina holds an international Folklore Festival known as Semberija folk fest, Rhythm of Europe. The festival is held each year in the period 04.08. The Mascot of the festival is a Hedgehog as a symbol of good fellowship. The aim of the Festival is to cherish and promote the folklore tradition of the people from all over the world. Ethno village Stanišić is a well known tourist location in the country. Ethno village Stanišic takes people back in time making people closer to nature and ancestors, and making people admire the simplicity of rural life of the past. Ethno village Stanišić contains the Serbian Orthodox Monastery Sveti Nikola (St Nicolas), Hotel Pirg, and ethno restaurant.
The Dvorovi Spa is one of the most famous spas in the Republika Srpska. The Dvorovi Spa was formed after the discovery of thermal water drilling for oil exploration 1957th in Semberija. The depth of the source is at 1435 meters, the water is oligomineral, and the thermal temperature is 75 ° S.
At the 1991 census, Bijeljina municipality had 96,796 inhabitants, including:
The town itself had 39,414 residents.
- 19.024 (52,24%) Bosniaks
- 10.450 (28,69%) Serbs
- 3.452 (9,47%) Yugoslavs
- 3.488 (9,60%) others
Basketball clubs include:
Twin towns – Sister cities
Bijeljina is twinned with:
- Admir Smajić, footballer
- Ana Mirjana Račanović, former Miss Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Bego Ćatić, retired footballer
- Cvijetin Mijatović, Chairman of the Collective Presidency of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav People's Hero
- Elez Dervišević, soldier of the Austro-Hungarian Army and one of the youngest soldiers in the First World War
- Filip Višnjić, epic poet
- Frenkie, rapper
- Mirza Begić, basketball player
- Faruk Buljubašić songwriter
- Nevenka Tadić, neuropsychiatrist and mother of former president of Serbia Boris Tadić
- Nihad Hrustanbegovic, composer, accordionist and pianist
- Rodoljub Čolaković, politician and writer
- Srđan Vuletić, filmmaker
- Savo Milošević, footballer
- Dragan Mićić, retired footballer
- Sead Mehić, footballer
- Slobodan Pejić, sculptor and painter
- Enid Tahirović, handball goalkeeper
- Ottó Hátszeghy, Hungarian fencer
- Prostorni plan Republike Srpske do 2015. Banja Luka, April 2008. p. 67 & 69
- Pravopisna komisija (1960). Pravopis srpskohrvatskoga književnog jezika. Novi Sad, Zagreb: Matica srpska, Matica hrvatska.
- Bijeljina na Internetu - skolstvo
- "Preživjeli logoraš iz Batkovića: I danas sanjam da mi neko ulazi u kuću i stavlja pušku na čelo". Oslobođenje. 1 April 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
- "FRIENDSHIPS FLOURISHED IN BATKOVIC PRISON CAMP". Sense Agency. 3 April 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
- "The Serbian Project and Its Adversaries: A Strategy of War Crimes". Google Books. 2003. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
- Tavna monastery / english lang
-  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1991 census. Retrieved on 3 May 2007.
- "МЕЖДУНАРОДНО СЪТРУДНИЧЕСТВО НА ОБЩИНА РУСЕ - Побратимени градове". Община Русе [Municipality Ruse] (in Bulgarian). Archived from the original on 2013-08-05. Retrieved 2013-08-12.
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