Demographics of Slovenia

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Slovenia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

With 101 inhabitants per square kilometre (262/sq mi), Slovenia ranks low among the European countries in population density (compared to 402/km² (1042/sq mi) for the Netherlands or 195/km² (505/sq mi) for Italy). The Notranjska-Kras statistical region has the lowest population density while the Central Slovenian statistical region has the highest.[1]

According to the 2002 census, Slovenia's main ethnic group are the Slovenes (83%). At least 13% of the population were immigrants from other parts of Former Yugoslavia and their descendants.[2] They have settled mainly in cities and suburbanised areas.[3] Relatively small but protected by the Constitution of Slovenia are the Hungarian and the Italian national community.[4][5][6] A special position is held by the autochthonous and geographically dispersed Roma ethnic community.[7][8]

Slovenia is among the European countries with the most pronounced ageing of population, ascribable to a low birth rate and increasing life expectancy.[9] Almost all Slovenian inhabitants older than 64 are retired, with no significant difference between the genders.[10] The working-age group is diminishing in spite of immigration.[11] The proposal to raise the retirement age from the current 57 for women and 58 for men was rejected in a referendum in 2011.[12] Also the difference among the genders regarding life expectancy is still significant.[10] In 2007, it was 74.6 years for men and 81.8 years for women.[13] In addition, in 2009, the suicide rate in Slovenia was 22 per 100,000 persons per year, which places Slovenia among the highest ranked European countries in this regard.[14]

Vital statistics [15][edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1920 1 296 35 246 26 678 8 568 27.2 20.6 6.6
1921 1 304 39 681 27 711 11 970 30.4 21.3 9.2
1922 1 310 39 346 25 088 14 258 30.0 19.2 10.9
1923 1 319 40 710 25 003 15 707 30.9 19.0 11.9
1924 1 328 40 215 23 297 16 918 30.3 17.5 12.7
1925 1 338 39 476 23 405 16 071 29.5 17.5 12.0
1926 1 347 38 267 23 307 14 960 28.4 17.3 11.1
1927 1 355 37 794 23 324 14 470 27.9 17.2 10.7
1928 1 364 37 359 22 355 15 004 27.4 16.4 11.0
1929 1 370 35 201 23 189 12 012 25.7 16.9 8.8
1930 1 379 38 346 20 846 17 500 27.8 15.1 12.7
1931 1 389 36 851 22 925 13 926 26.5 16.5 10.0
1932 1 398 36 832 23 849 12 983 26.3 17.1 9.3
1933 1 407 34 587 22 035 12 552 24.6 15.7 8.9
1934 1 418 33 373 19 585 13 788 23.5 13.8 9.7
1935 1 428 32 433 20 590 11 843 22.7 14.4 8.3
1936 1 436 32 630 20 479 12 151 22.7 14.3 8.5
1937 1 442 31 520 21 221 10 299 21.9 14.7 7.1
1938 1 444 31 199 20 392 10 807 21.6 14.1 7.5
1939 1 447 31 251 19 910 11 341 21.6 13.8 7.8
1940 1 450 31 536 21 001 10 535 21.7 14.5 7.3
1941 1 452 32 456 19 812 12 644 22.4 13.6 8.7
1942 1 449 30 681 22 061 8 620 21.2 15.2 5.9
1943 1 441 31 434 25 149 6 285 21.8 17.5 4.4
1944 1 430 27 379 26 609 770 19.1 18.6 0.5
1945 1 416 20 239 28 572 -8 333 14.3 20.2 -5.9
1946 1 415 28 599 18 145 10 454 20.2 12.8 7.4
1947 1 429 31 312 18 708 12 604 21.9 13.1 8.8
1948 1 443 31 538 17 884 13 654 21.9 12.4 9.5
1949 1 454 33 284 18 838 14 446 22.9 13.0 9.9
1950 1 467 35 992 17 335 18 657 24.5 11.8 12.7 3.01
1951 1 480 34 819 18 497 16 322 23.5 12.5 11.0 2.83
1952 1 494 34 165 15 617 18 548 22.9 10.5 12.4 2.75
1953 1 508 33 754 14 948 18 806 22.4 9.9 12.5 2.81
1954 1 521 31 828 14 897 16 931 20.9 9.8 11.1 2.59
1955 1 534 32 096 15 109 16 987 20.9 9.8 11.1 2.58
1956 1 546 31 466 16 351 15 115 20.4 10.6 9.8 2.51
1957 1 556 30 086 14 545 15 541 19.3 9.3 10.0 2.38
1958 1 567 28 284 14 082 14 202 18.0 9.0 9.1 2.22
1959 1 576 28 429 15 357 13 072 18.0 9.7 8.3 2.23
1960 1 580 27 825 15 145 12 680 17.6 9.6 8.0 2.18
1961 1 595 28 955 14 013 14 942 18.2 8.8 9.4 2.26
1962 1 605 29 035 15 866 13 169 18.1 9.9 8.2 2.27
1963 1 614 29 174 15 102 14 072 18.1 9.4 8.7 2.28
1964 1 631 29 184 16 729 12 455 17.9 10.3 7.6 2.32
1965 1 650 30 587 15 987 14 600 18.5 9.7 8.8 2.45
1966 1 670 30 941 15 248 15 693 18.5 9.1 9.4 2.47
1967 1 690 29 824 16 353 13 471 17.6 9.7 8.0 2.38
1968 1 704 28 580 17 446 11 134 16.8 10.2 6.5 2.28
1969 1 714 27 883 18 564 9 319 16.3 10.8 5.4 2.17
1970 1 727 27 432 17 353 10 078 15.9 10.0 5.8 2.21
1971 1 738 28 278 17 425 10 853 16.3 10.0 6.2 2.16
1972 1 752 28 713 18 153 10 560 16.4 10.4 6.0 2.14
1973 1 766 29 548 17 614 11 934 16.7 10.0 6.8 2.18
1974 1 782 28 625 17 206 11 419 16.1 9.7 6.4 2.10
1975 1 800 29 786 18 180 11 606 16.5 10.1 6.4 2.16
1976 1 819 30 339 18 157 12 182 16.7 10.0 6.7 2.17
1977 1 839 29 904 17 633 12 271 16.3 9.6 6.7 2.16
1978 1 863 30 354 18 357 11 997 16.3 9.9 6.4 2.19
1979 1 882 30 604 18 148 12 456 16.3 9.6 6.6 2.22
1980 1 901 29 902 18 820 11 082 15.7 9.9 5.8 2.11
1981 1 917 29 220 18 733 10 487 15.2 9.8 5.5 1.96
1982 1 925 28 894 19 647 9 247 15.0 10.2 4.8 1.93
1983 1 933 27 200 20 703 6 497 14.1 10.7 3.4 1.82
1984 1 943 26 274 20 214 6 060 13.5 10.4 3.1 1.75
1985 1 973 25 933 19 854 6 079 13.1 10.1 3.1 1.72
1986 1 981 25 570 19 499 6 071 12.9 9.8 3.1 1.65
1987 1 989 25 592 19 837 5 755 12.9 10.0 2.9 1.64
1988 2 000 25 209 19 126 6 083 12.6 9.6 3.0 1.63
1989 1 999 23 447 18 669 4 778 11.7 9.3 2.4 1.52
1990 1 998 22 368 18 555 3 813 11.2 9.3 1.9 1.46
1991 2 002 21 583 19 324 2 259 10.8 9.7 1.1 1.42
1992 1 996 19 982 19 333 649 10.0 9.7 0.3 1.34
1993 1 991 19 793 20 012 -219 9.9 10.1 -0.1 1.33
1994 1 989 19 463 19 359 104 9.8 9.7 0.1 1.32
1995 1 988 18 980 18 968 12 9.5 9.5 0.0 1.29
1996 1 991 18 788 18 620 168 9.4 9.4 0.1 1.28
1997 1 987 18 165 18 928 -763 9.1 9.5 -0.4 1.25
1998 1 983 17 856 19 039 -1 183 9.0 9.6 -0.6 1.23
1999 1 986 17 533 18 885 -1 352 8.8 9.5 -0.7 1.21
2000 1 990 18 180 18 588 -408 9.1 9.3 -0.2 1.26
2001 1 992 17 477 18 508 -1 031 8.8 9.3 -0.5 1.21
2002 1 996 17 501 18 701 -1 200 8.8 9.4 -0.6 1.21
2003 1 996 17 321 19 451 -2 130 8.7 9.7 -1.1 1.20
2004 1 997 17 961 18 523 -562 9.0 9.3 -0.3 1.25
2005 2 001 18 157 18 825 -668 9.1 9.4 -0.3 1.26
2006 2 007 18 932 18 180 752 9.4 9.1 0.4 1.31
2007 2 018 19 823 18 584 1 239 9.8 9.2 0.6 1.38
2008 2 029 21 817 18 308 3 509 10.8 9.0 1.7 1.53
2009 2 039 21 856 18 750 3 106 10.7 9.2 1.5 1.53
2010 2 050 22 343 18 609 3 734 10.9 9.1 1.8 1.57
2011 2 052 21 947 18 799 3 248 10.7 9.2 1.6 1.56
2012 2 054 21 938 19 257 2 681 10.7 9.4 1.3 1.58
2013 2 056 21 283 10.4

Ethnic groups[edit]

The majority of Slovenia's population is Slovene (83.06%). Hungarians and Italians have the status of indigenous minorities under the Constitution of Slovenia, which guarantees them seats in the National Assembly. Most other minority groups, particularly those from other parts of the former Yugoslavia (except for one part of autochthonous community of Serbs and Croats), relocated after World War II for economic reasons.

Around 12.4% of the inhabitants of Slovenia were born abroad.[16] According to data from 2008, there were around 100,000 non-EU citizens living in Slovenia, or around 5% of the overall population of the country.[17] The highest number came from Bosnia-Hercegovina, followed by immigrants from Serbia, Macedonia, Croatia and Kosovo. The number of people migrating to Slovenia has been steadily rising from 1995;[18] and has been increasing rapidly in recent years. Since Slovenia joined the EU in 2004, the yearly inflow of immigrants has doubled by 2006 and tripled by 2009.[19] In 2007, Slovenia was one of the countries with the fastest growth of net migration rate in the European Union.[18]

Population of Slovenia according to ethnic group 1948-20021
Ethnic
group
census 1948 census 1953 census 1961 census 1971 census 1981 census 1991 census 2002
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Slovenes 1,350,149 97.0 1,415,448 96.5 1,522,248 95.6 1,578,963 94.0 1,668,623 90.8 1,689,657 88.3 1,631,363 83.1
Serbs 7,048 0.5 11,225 0.8 13,609 0.9 20,209 1.2 41,695 2.3 47,401 2.5 38,964 2.0
Croats 16,069 1.2 17,978 1.2 31,429 2.0 41,556 2.5 53,882 2.9 52,876 2.8 35,642 1.8
Muslims 179 0.0 1,617 0.1 465 0.0 3,197 0.2 13,339 0.7 26,577 1.4 10,467 0.5
Bosniacs 21,542 1.1
Hungarians 10,579 0.8 11,019 0.8 10,498 0.7 8,943 0.5 8,777 0.5 8,000 0.4 6,243 0.3
Albanians 216 0.0 169 0.0 282 0.0 1,266 0.1 1,933 0.1 3,534 0.2 6,186 0.3
Macedonians 366 0.0 640 0.0 1,009 0.1 1,572 0.1 3,227 0.2 4,371 0.2 3,972 0.2
Romani 46 0.0 1,663 0.1 158 0.0 951 0.1 1,393 0.1 2,259 0.1 3,246 0.2
Montenegrins 521 0.0 1,356 0.1 1,384 0.1 1,950 0.1 3,175 0.2 4,339 0.2 2,667 0.1
Italians 1,458 0.1 854 0.1 3,072 0.2 2,987 0.2 2,138 0.1 2,959 0.2 2,258 0.1
Others/undeclared 5.242 0.4 4,456 0.3 7,369 0.5 19,212 1.1 40,199 2.2 79,374 4.1 201,486 10.3
Total 1,391,873 1,466,425 1,591,523 1,679,051 1,838,381 1,913,355 1,964,036
1 Source: [1].

Religion[edit]

Traditionally, Slovenes are predominantly Roman Catholic. Before World War II, 97% of Slovenes declared as Roman Catholics, around 2.5% were Lutheran, and only around 0.5% belonged to other denominations. Catholicism was an important feature of both social and political life in pre-Communist Slovenia. After 1945, the country underwent a process of gradual but steady secularization. After a decade of severe persecution of religions, the Communist regime adopted a policy of relative tolerance towards the churches, but limited their social functioning. After 1990, the Roman Catholic Church regained some of its former influence, but Slovenia remains a largely secularized society. According to the 2002 census, 57.8% of the population is Roman Catholic. As elsewhere in Europe, affiliation with Roman Catholicism is dropping: in 1991, 71.6% were self-declared Catholics, which means a drop of more than 1% annually.[20] The vast majority of Slovenian Catholics belong to the Latin Rite. A small number of Greek Catholics live in the White Carniola region.[21]

Despite a relatively small number of Protestants (less than 1% in 2002), the Protestant legacy is important because of its historical significance, since the bases of Slovene standard language and Slovene literature were established by the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. Nowadays, a significant Lutheran minority lives in the easternmost region of Prekmurje, where they represent around a fifth of the population and are headed by a bishop with the seat in Murska Sobota.[22]

Besides these two Christian denominations, a small Jewish community has also been historically present. Despite the losses suffered during the Holocaust, Judaism still numbers a few hundred adherents, mostly living in Ljubljana, site of the sole remaining active synagogue in the country.[23]

According to the 2002 census, Islam is the second largest religious denomination with around 2.4% of the population. Most Slovenian Muslims came from Bosnia, Kosovo, and Macedonia.[24] The third largest denomination, with around 2.2% of the population, is Orthodox Christianity, with most adherents belonging to the Serbian Orthodox Church while a minority belongs to the Macedonian and other Orthodox churches.

In the 2002, around 10% of Slovenes declared themselves as atheists, another 10% professed no specific denomination, and around 16% decided not answer the question about their religious affiliation. According to the Eurobarometer Poll 2005,[25] 37% of Slovenian citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 46% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 16% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".

The distribution of the residents of Slovenia by religion is the following: Roman Catholic 57.8%, atheist 10.1%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox Christian 2.3%, Protestant 0.9%, other and unknown 26.5% (2002).

Language[edit]

The official language in Slovenia is Slovene, which is a member of the South Slavic language group. In 2002, Slovene was the native language of around 88% of Slovenia's population according to the census, with more than 92% of the Slovenian population speaking it in their home environment.[26][27] This places Slovenia among the most homogeneous countries in the EU in terms of the share of speakers of predominant mother tongue.[28] Slovene is sometimes characterized as the most diverse Slavic language in terms of dialects,[29] with different degrees of mutual intelligibility.[citation needed] Accounts of the number of dialects range from as few as seven[30][31][32] dialects, often considered dialect groups or dialect bases that are further subdivided into as many as 50 dialects.[33] Other sources characterize the number of dialects as nine[34] or eight.[35]

The distribution of speakers by language is the following: Slovene 87.7%, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian 8%, Hungarian 0.4%, Albanian 0.4%, Macedonian 0.2%, Romani 0.2%, Italian 0.2%, German 0.1%, other 0.1% (Russian, Czech, Ukrainian, English, Slovak, Polish, Romanian, Turkish, French, Bulgarian, Arabic, Spanish, Dutch, Vlach, Rusyn, Greek, Swedish, Danish or Armenian), unknown 2.7% (2002)

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

1,996,617 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure[edit]


0–14 years: 13.4% (male 138,604/female 130,337)
15–64 years: 69.8% (male 703,374/female 692,640)
65 years and over: 16.8% (male 132,096/female 203,068) (2011 est.)

Median age[edit]

total: 42.8 years
male: 41.1 years
female: 44.5 years (2012 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 50% of total population (2012 est.)
rate of urbanization: 0.2% annual rate of change (2010-2015 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]


at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate[edit]

4.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2010)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]


total population: 77.48 years
male: 73.83 years
female: 81.36 years (Est)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.stat.si/letopis/2010/30_10/30-09-10.htm
  2. ^ Medvešek, Mojca (2007). "Kdo so priseljenci z območja nekdanje Jugoslavije" [Who Are the Immigrants from the Area of Former Yugoslavia]. Razprave in gradivo (in Slovene) (53–54) (Institute for Ethnic Studies). p. 34. 
  3. ^ Repolusk, Peter (2006). "Narodnostno neopredeljeno prebivalstvo ob popisih 1991 in 2002 v Sloveniji" [Ethnically Undeclared Population in Slovenian Population Censuses 1991 and 2002]. Dela (in Slovene, with an English abstract and summary) 25 (Anton Melik Geographical Institute). pp. 87–96. 
  4. ^ "International Mother Language Day 2010". Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. 19 February 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2011. 
  5. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia". National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  6. ^ Šabec, Ksenija (2009). Poročilo: Italijanska narodna skupnost v Slovenski Istri [Report: The Italian National Community in the Slovenian Istria] (in Slovene). Center for Cultural and Religious Studies, University of Ljubljana. p. 7. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  7. ^ Gajšek, Nina (2004). Pravice romske skupnosti v Republiki Sloveniji [Rights of the Roma Community in the Republic of Slovenia] (in Slovene). Faculty of Social Science, University of Ljubljana. 
  8. ^ Zupančič, Jernej (2007). "Romska naselja kot poseben del naselbinskega sistema v Sloveniji" [Roma Settlements as a Specific Part Of Settlement System in Slovenia]. Dela (in Slovene, with an English abstract and summary) 27 (Institute of Geography). pp. 215–246. 
  9. ^ Zupanič, Milena (20 June 2011). "Demografski preobrat: tiha revolucija med nami" [The Demographic Overturn: The Silent Revolution Among Us]. Delo.si (in Slovene) (Delo, d. d.). ISSN 1854-6544. 
  10. ^ a b Hlebec, Valentina; Šircelj, Milivoja (September 2011). "Population Ageing in Slovenia and Social Support Networks of Older People". In Hoff, Andreas. Population Ageing in Central and Eastern Europe: Societal and Policy Implications. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 118–119. ISBN 978-0-7546-7828-1. 
  11. ^ "Strong Growth but an Ageing Workforce". Slovenia. OECD Publishing. July 2009. p. 34. ISBN 978-92-64-06894-0. 
  12. ^ Naidu-Ghelani, Rajeshni (23 January 2012). "Countries with Aging Populations". Cnbc.com (CNBC LLC). 
  13. ^ Complete life table for the population of Slovenia, 2007, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009.
  14. ^ "World Suicide Prevention Day 2010". Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. September 2010. 
  15. ^ Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia
  16. ^ Vsak osmi prebivalec Slovenije priseljenec :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija. Rtvslo.si. Retrieved on 26 December 2010.
  17. ^ Odgovor na pisno poslansko vprašanje v zvezi z nastanitvijo tujcev v Sloveniji – Računovodja.com. Racunovodja.com. Retrieved on 26 December 2010.
  18. ^ a b Statistični urad RS – Selitveno gibanje, Slovenija, 2007. Stat.si. Retrieved on 26 December 2010.
  19. ^ http://www.stat.si/pxweb/Database/Dem_soc/05_prebivalstvo/20_selitve/01_05563_meddrzavne_selitve/01_05563_meddrzavne_selitve.asp
  20. ^ Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Census of Population, Households and Housing, 2002
  21. ^ Uskoška dediščina Bele krajine na RTVS|Ljudje|Lokalno aktualno. Lokalno.si. Retrieved on 26 December 2010.
  22. ^ Predstavitev. Evang-cerkev.si. Retrieved on 26 December 2010.
  23. ^ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/slovenia.html
  24. ^ http://www.islamska-skupnost.si/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1&Itemid=2
  25. ^ "Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 – page 11" (PDF). Retrieved 5 May 2007. 
  26. ^ Slovenščina materni jezik za 88 odstotkov državljanov. SiOL.net (19 February 2009). Retrieved on 26 December 2010.
  27. ^ verska, jezikovna in narodna sestava.pmd. (PDF) . Retrieved on 26 December 2010.
  28. ^ "Linguist Says Slovenian Language Not Endangered". Slovenian Press Agency. 21 February 2010. 
  29. ^ "International Mother Language Day". Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. 19 February 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  30. ^ McDonald, Gordon C. 1979. Yugoslavia: A Country Study. Washington, DC: American University, p. 93
  31. ^ Greenberg, Marc L. 2009. "Slovene." In Keith Brown & Sarah Ogilvie (eds.), Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, pp. 981–984. Oxford: Elsevier, p. 981.
  32. ^ Brown, E. K. & Anne Anderson. 2006. Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics: Sca-Spe. Oxford: Elsevier, p. 424
  33. ^ Sussex, Roland, & Paul V. Cubberley. 2006. The Slavic languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 502.
  34. ^ Sławski, Franciszek. 1962. Zarys dialektologii południowosłowiańskiej. Warsaw: PAN.
  35. ^ Priestly, Tom M. S. 1993. "On 'Drift' in Indo-European Gender Systems.' Journal of Indo-European Studies 11: 339–363.

External links[edit]