Demographics of Russia

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Demographics of Russia
Population of Russia.PNG
Population (in millions) 1950 – January 2014.[1]
Population 143,700,000 (Official Estimate – January 2014)[2]
Growth rate 0.23% (2012)
Birth rate 13.3 births/1,000 population (2013)[3]
Death rate 13.1 deaths/1,000 population (2013)[4]
Life expectancy 70.8 years (2013)[5]
 • male 65.1 years
 • female 76.5 years
Fertility rate 1.7 children born/woman (2012)[6]
Infant mortality rate 7.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2011)
Net migration rate 2.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011)population growth is growing.
Age structure
0–14 years 16.8%
15–64 years 70.1%
65 and over 13.1% (2013)
Sex ratio
Total 0.86 male(s)/female (2009)
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 1.05 male(s)/female (male 10,806,895/female 10,285,532)
15–64 years 0.92 male(s)/female (male 48,864,763/female 53,048,315)
65 and over 0.46 male(s)/female (male 5,969,976/female 12,928,498)
Nationality
Nationality noun: Russian(s) adjective: Russian
Major ethnic Russians
Language
Spoken Russian, others

The demographics of Russia is about the demographic features of the population of the Russian Federation,[7] including population growth, population density, ethnic composition, education level, health, economic status and other aspects.

According to an official estimate for 1 January 2014, the population of Russia is 143,700,000.[8]

The population hit a historic peak at 148,689,000 in 1991, just before the breakup of the Soviet Union, but then began a decade-long decline, falling at a rate of about 0.5% per year due to declining birth rates, rising death rates and emigration.[9]

The decline slowed considerably in late 2000s, and in 2009 Russia recorded population growth for the first time in 15 years, adding 23,300 people.[10][11] Key reasons for the slow current population growth are improving health care, changing fertility patterns among younger women, falling emigration and steady influx of immigrants from the ex-USSR countries. In 2012, Russia's population increased by 292,400 people.[12]

As of 2013, Russian TFR of 1.707 children per woman[6] was the highest in Eastern, Southern and Central Europe. In 2013, Russia experienced the first natural population growth since 1990 at 22,700 people. Taking into account immigration, the population grew by 294,500 people.[13]

According to the 2010 census, ethnic Russian people make up 81% of the total population. This share remained steady over the last few decades.[14][15] Six other ethnicities have a population exceeding 1 million – Tatars (3.9%), Ukrainians (1.4%), Bashkir (1.1%), Chuvash (1%), Chechens (1%) and Armenians (0.9%). In total, 160 different ethnic groups live within the Russian Federation's borders.

Russia's population density is 8.4 people per square kilometre (22 per square mile), making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. The population is most dense in the European part of the country, with milder climate, centering around Moscow and Saint Petersburg. 74% of the population is urban, making Russia a highly urbanized country.

Main trends[edit]

Natural population growth of Russia since 1950.[10][16][17]
  Birth rate
  Death rate
  Natural growth rate

The population of Russia peaked at 148,689,000 in 1991, just before the breakup of the Soviet Union. Low birth rates and abnormally high death rates caused Russia's population to decline at a 0.5% annual rate, or about 750,000 to 800,000 people per year from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s. The UN warned in 2005 that Russia's then population of about 143 million could fall by a third by 2050, if trends did not improve.[18][19]

The Russian state statistics service Rosstat had more optimistic forecasts in 2009, whose Medium variant predicted that Russia's population would only fall to 139 million by 2030[20] (Low: 127 million; High: 147 million). Furthermore, in 2008 one demographic analyst (correctly) predicted a resumption in population growth by 2010, and of natural population growth by 2013.[21]

The number of Russians living in poverty has decreased by 50% since the economic crisis following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the improving economy had a positive impact on the country's low birth rate. The latter rose from its lowest point of 8.27 births per 1000 people in 1999 to 12.6 per 1000 in 2010. Likewise, the fertility rate rose from its lowest point of 1.16 in 1999 to 1.54 in 2009. 2007 marked the highest growth in birth rates that the country had seen in 25 years, and 2009 marked the highest total birth rate since 1991.[22]

While the Russian birth rate is comparable to that of other developed countries, its death rate is much higher, especially among working-age males due to a comparatively high rate of fatalities caused by heart disease and other external causes such as accidents. The Russian death rate in 2010 was 14.3 per 1000 citizens. For comparison, the US[23] death rate in 2009 was 8.4 per 1000 .

Demographic crisis and recovery prospects[edit]

The causes for this sharp increase in mortality are widely debated. According to a 2009 report by The Lancet,[24] a British medical journal, mass privatization, an element of the economic-reform package nicknamed shock therapy, clearly correlates with higher mortality rates. The report argues that advocates of economic reforms ignored the human cost of the policies they were promoting, such as unemployment and human suffering, leading to an early death. These conclusions were criticized by The Economist.[25] A WHO press-release in 2000, on the other hand, reported widespread alcohol abuse in Russia being used as the most common explanation of higher men's mortality.[26]

A 2009 study blamed alcohol for more than half the deaths (52%) among Russians aged 15 to 54 in the '90s. For the same demographic, this compares to 4% of deaths for the rest of the world. The study claimed alcohol consumption in mid-90s in Russia averaged 10.5 litres, and was based on personal interviews conducted in three Siberian industrial cities, Barnaul, Biysk and Omsk.[27]

According to the Russian demographic publication Demoscope,[28] the rising male death rate was a long-term trend from 1960 to 2005. The only significant reversion of the trend was caused by Mikhail Gorbachev's anti-alcohol campaign, but its effect was only temporary. According to the publication, the sharp rise of death rates in the early 1990s was caused by the exhaustion of the effect of the anti-alcohol campaign, while the market reforms were only of secondary importance. The authors also claimed the Lancet's study is flawed because it used the 1985 death rate as the base, while that was in fact the very maximum of the effect of the anti-alcohol campaign.[28]

Other factors contributing to the collapse, along with the economic problems, include the dying off of a relatively large cohort of people born between 1925 and 1940 (between the Russian Civil War and World War II), when Russian birth rates were very high, along with, ironically enough, an "echo boom" in the 1980s that may have satisfied the demand of women for children, leading to a subsequent drop in birth rates.

In 2006, the Minister of Health Mikhail Zurabov and Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Committee for Health Protection Nikolai Gerasimenko proposed reinstating the Soviet-era tax on childlessness, which ended in 1992.[29] So far, it has not been reinstated.[29]

Government measures to halt the demographic crisis was a key subject of Vladimir Putin's 2006 state of the nation address.[30] As a result, a national programme was developed with the goal to reverse the trend by 2020. Soon after, a study published in 2007 showed that the rate of population decrease had begun to slow: if the net decrease from January to August 2006 was 408,200 people, it was 196,600 in the same period in 2007. The death rate accounted for 357,000 of these, which is 137,000 less than in 2006.[31]

At the same time period in 2007, there were just over one million births in Russia (981,600 in 2006), whilst deaths decreased from 1,475,000 to 1,402,300. In all, the number of deaths exceeded the number of births by 1.3 times, down from 1.5 in 2006. 18 of the 83 provinces showed a natural growth of population (in 2006: 16). The Russian Ministry of Economic Development expressed hope that by 2020 the population would stabilize at 138–139 million, and by 2025, to increase again to its present day status of 143–145, also raising the life expectancy to 75 years.[31]

The natural population decline continued to slow through 2008—2012 due to declining death rates and increasing birth rates. In 2009 the population saw yearly growth for the first time in 15 years.[10][11] In September 2009, the Ministry of Health and Social Development reported that Russia recorded natural population growth for the first time in 15 years, with 1,000 more births than deaths in August.[32] In April 2011 the Russian Prime Minister (Russian president as of 2012) Vladimir Putin pledged to spend the 1.5 trillion rubles (£32.5 billion or $54 billion) on various measures to boost Russia's declining birthrate by 30 per cent in the next four years.[33]

In 2012, the birth rate increased again. Russia recorded 1,896,263 births, the highest number since 1990, and even exceeding annual births during the period 1967–1969, with a TFR of about 1.7, the highest since 1991. (Source: Vital statistics table below). In fact, Russia, despite having only slightly more people than Japan, has recently had nearly twice as many births as that country. The number of births is expected to fall over the next few years as women born during the baby bust in the 1990s enter their prime childbearing years, but this would not have an effect on the TFR. The preliminary 2013 figure again shows 1.9 million births, about the same as in 2012, but because the number of women of childbearing age is dropping, especially for those in their early 20s, the TFR will actually show a rise.

Immigration[edit]

In 2006, in a bid to compensate for the country's demographic decline, the Russian government started simplifying immigration laws and launched a state program "for providing assistance to voluntary immigration of ethnic Russians from former Soviet republics".[34] In August 2012, as the country saw its first demographic growth since the 1990s, President Putin declared that Russia's population could reach 146 million by 2025, mainly as a result of immigration.[35]

There are an estimated 4 million illegal immigrants from the ex-Soviet states in Russia.[36] In 2012, the Russian Federal Security Service's Border Service stated there had been an increase in illegal migration from the Middle East and Southeast Asia.[37] Under legal changes made in 2012, illegal immigrants who are caught will be banned from reentering the country for 10 years.[38][39][40]

In recent years,[when?] most immigrants have come from Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. This has resulted in ethnic tension. Every year, 300,000 immigrants arrive in Russia, of which almost half are ethnic Russians. In the 1990s, immigration was the main reason Russia didn't suffer substantial population decline. It reached a peak of 1,200,000 in 1994, mostly ethnic Russians from ex-Soviet states fleeing from social, economic or political reasons such as the civil war in Tajikistan from 1992 to 1997. It has been noted that in the Far East a number of Mongols and Chinese immigrate for work. The problem has become so severe it has caused a rise in Russian nationalism, and spawned groups like Movement Against Illegal Immigration.[41][42]

Population statistics[edit]

Population pyramid of Russia as of 1 January 2010. "Waves" are caused by huge losses in the WWII. The sharp narrowing in the base of pyramid is caused by consequenses of economic collapse of 1990s.

Population density[edit]

8.4 people per square kilometer (2010 Russian Census)[43]

Population distribution[edit]

74% urban, 26% rural (2010 Russian Census)

Population growth rate[edit]

0.23% (2012)[44]

Median age[edit]

total: 39.4 years
male: 36.5 years
female: 41.8 years (2009)[45]

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.46 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2009)[45]

Natural increase current[edit]

Natural population growth rates (per 1,000 population) by Federal subject in 2012
Birth rate by regions in 2012
Death rate by regions in 2012
TFR by regions in 2011.
Urban TFR by regions in 2011
Rural TFR by regions in 2011

The number of births during the month of February 2014 increased by 5270 relative to February 2013 and for the period January–February 2014 an decreased to 391 compared to the period January–February 2013.

-Number of births during February 2013 = Decrease 142,973

-Number of births during February 2014 = Increase 148,243

-The birth rate for January–February 2014 was 13.0 births per 1,000 population versus 13.0 during the same period in 2013.

-Number of births from January–February 2013 = Increase 301,903

-Number of births from January–February 2014 = Decrease 301,512

The number of deaths during the same period increased 1375 during this same month and for the period February 2014 and a decrease to 11376 compared to the period January–February 2013.

-Number of deaths during February 2013 = Decrease 148,581

-Number of deaths during February 2014 = Increase 149,956

-The death rate for January–February 2014 was 13.7 per 1,000 population, versus 14.2 during the same period in 2013.

-Number of deaths from January–February 2013 = Decrease 329,135

-Number of deaths from January–February 2014 = Decrease 317,939

Total natural increase during January–February 2014 has halved during the same period from an increase of 0.7 in 1000 against an increase to 1.2 in 1000 during the period January–February 2013.

Natural increase in February 2013 = Decrease - 5,608

Natural increase in February 2014 = Decrease - 1,713

Natural increase between January–February 2013 = Decrease - 27,412

Natural increase between January–February 2014 = Decrease - 16,427

January–February Birth/2014 Birth/2013 Death/2014 Death/2013
Russian Federation 13,0 Steady 13,0 Increase 13,7 Decrease 14,2 Decrease
North Caucasian Federal District 17,5 Decrease 17,8 Decrease 9,1 Increase 8,8 Decrease
Chechnya 25,4 Decrease 28,0 Decrease 5,2 Decrease 5,9 Decrease
Ingushetia 21,8 Decrease 23,1 Decrease 3,3 Decrease 3,4 Decrease
Dagestan 19,3 Increase 18,6 Increase 6,3 Increase 5,7 Decrease
Kabardino-Balkaria 15,8 Increase 15,6 Decrease 10,2 Increase 9,6 Decrease
North Ossetia-Alania 15,3 Decrease 16,5 Increase 11,9 Steady 11,9 Decrease
Karachay-Cherkessia 14,3 Decrease 14,5 Increase 11,5 Increase 10,6 Decrease
Stavropol Krai 12,7 Steady 12,7 Increase 13,3 Increase 13,0 Decrease
Ural Federal District 14,7 Decrease 15,1 Increase 12,9 Decrease 13,5 Decrease
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug 16,9 Increase 16,5 Increase 5,3 Decrease 5,7 Decrease
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug 16,5 Decrease 17,4 Increase 6,5 Steady 6,5 Decrease
Tyumen Oblast 16,5 Decrease 17,0 Increase 8,4 Decrease 8,8 Decrease
Sverdlovsk Oblast 14,1 Decrease 14,3 Increase 14,5 Decrease 15,2 Increase
Chelyabinsk Oblast 13,9 Decrease 14,2 Increase 14,5 Decrease 14,8 Increase
Kurgan Oblast 13,7 Decrease 14,2 Increase 17,1 Decrease 18,3 Increase
Siberian Federal District 14,4 Decrease 14,6 Increase 13,9 Decrease 14,4 Decrease
Tuva 25,0 Decrease 26,3 Decrease 10,8 Decrease 12,0 Decrease
Altai Republic 23,3 Increase 20,2 Decrease 13,1 Decrease 13,3 Steady
Buriatia 17,1 Increase 16,9 Increase 12,0 Decrease 122 Decrease
Irkutsk Oblast 15,3 Decrease 15,5 Decrease 14,3 Decrease 15,0 Decrease
Khakassia 15,2 Decrease 15,9 Increase 14,3Increase 13,6 Decrease
Zabaykalsky Krai 14,8 Decrease 15,7 Decrease 13,5 Increase 13,4 Decrease
Omsk Oblast 14,7 Increase 14,5 Increase 13,5 Decrease 14,6 Increase
Krasnoyarsk Krai 14,2 Decrease 14,3 Increase 13,1 Decrease 14,1 Decrease
Novosibirsk Oblast 13,6 Decrease 14,0 Increase 13,4 Decrease 14,6 Increase
Kemerovo Oblast 13,3 Decrease 13,4 Increase 15,5 Decrease 15,7 Decrease
Altai Krai 13,0 Decrease 13,6 Increase 15,2 Increase 15,0 Decrease
Tomsk Oblast 12,4 Decrease 12,8 Increase 12,3 Decrease 12,5 Decrease
Far East Federal District 14,1 Increase 13,7 Increase 13,8 Steady 13,8 Decrease
Sakha Republic 17,6 Steady 17,6 Increase 8,5 Decrease 9,5 Increase
Amur Oblast 14,1 Increase 13,9 Decrease 16,2 Increase 14,6 Decrease
Khabarovsk Krai 13,7 Increase 13,5 Increase 14,2 Decrease 14,8 Increase
Jewish Autonomous Oblast 13,6 Decrease 14,4 Decrease 17,7 Increase 16,7 Decrease
Kamchatka Krai 13,4 Increase 12,9 Increase 12,8 Increase 12,1 Decrease
Primorsky Krai 13,2 Increase 12,6 Increase 15,2 Increase 14,9 Decrease
Sakhalin Oblast 13,1 Increase 12,2 Increase 13,3 Decrease 14,2 Decrease
Magadan Oblast 12,0 Decrease 12,3 Increase 13,1 Increase 12,7 Decrease
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug 11,0 Increase 9,1 Decrease 10,2 Decrease 10,5 Decrease
Volga Federal District 13,2 Increase 13,1 Increase 14,3 Decrease 15,2 Increase
Orenburg Oblast 15,2 Increase 14,9 Increase 15,1 Decrease 15,3 Increase
Mari El 15,1 Increase 14,5 Increase 13,9 Decrease 14,1 Increase
Bashkortostan 14,8 Increase 14,1 Decrease 13,5 Decrease 14,3 Increase
Perm Krai 14,5 Steady 14,5 Increase 14,4 Decrease 15,8 Increase
Udmurtia 14,4 Decrease 14,7 Decrease 12,7 Decrease 14,0 Increase
Tatarstan 14,4 Decrease 14,6 Decrease 12,5 Decrease 12,8 Decrease
Chuvashia Republic 13,7 Steady 13,7 Increase 13,1 Decrease 13,9 Increase
Kirov Oblast 12,2 Decrease 12,8 Increase 16,1 Decrease 17,3 Steady
Samara Oblast 12,2 Increase 12,0 Increase 14,8 Decrease 15,2 Increase
Ulyanovsk Oblast 11,8 Increase 11,5 Increase 14,9 Decrease 16,0 Increase
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 11,7 Increase 11,6 Increase 16,1 Decrease 17,3 Increase
Saratov Oblast 11,2 Steady 11,2 Decrease 14,6 Decrease 16,1 Increase
Penza Oblast 10,7 Increase 10,3 Increase 15,7 Decrease 16,7 Decrease
Mordovia 10,3 Increase 10,0 Increase 14,7 Decrease 15,6 Increase
Southern Federal District 12,7 Increase 12,4 Increase 14,5 Increase 14,1 Decrease
Astrakhan Oblast 15,5 Increase 14,9 Increase 13,4 Decrease 13,1 Decrease
Kalmukia 14,6 Increase 14,5 Increase 10,6 Increase 10,4 Decrease
Krasnodar Krai 13,3 Increase 13,0 Steady 14,6 Increase 13,7 Decrease
Adygea 11,9 Decrease 13,4 Increase 13,6 Decrease 13,9 Decrease
Rostov Oblast 12,0 Increase 11,5 Decrease 15,1 Increase 14,9 Steady
Volgograd Oblast 11,1 Decrease 11,6 Increase 14,2 Decrease 14,7 Decrease
North-West Federal District 11,5 Decrease 11,8 Increase 13,8 Decrease 14,8 Decrease
Nenets Autonomous Okrug 14,1 Decrease 17,2 Increase 10,2 Decrease 11,4 Increase
Komi Republic 13,6 Decrease 14,7 Increase 12,9 Steady 12,9 Decrease
Kaliningrad Oblast 12,7 Decrease 13,1 Increase 14,0 Decrease 14,2 Decrease
Vologda Oblast 12,6 Decrease 13,5 Increase 15,3 Decrease 15,5 Decrease
Arkhangelsk Oblast 11,9 Decrease 12,3 Increase 13,7 Decrease 15,0 Increase
Republic of Karelia 11,9 Decrease 12,1 Decrease 15,6 Decrease 16,2 Increase
St-Petersburg 11,8 Decrease 12,0 Increase 12,1 Decrease 13,5 Decrease
Murmansk Oblast 11,4 Increase 11,3 Increase 11,7 Decrease 12,2 Increase
Pskov Oblast 10,6 Increase 10,4 Decrease 20,0 Decrease 20,9 Decrease
Novgorod Oblast 9,3 Decrease 10,5 Decrease 18,4 Decrease 19,3 Decrease
Leningrad Oblast 8,4 Decrease 8,7 Decrease 14,6 Decrease 15,7 Increase
Central Federal District 10,9 Steady 10,9 Increase 14,2 Decrease 14,8 Decrease
Kostroma Oblast 13,0 Increase 12,9 Increase 16,5 Decrease 17,5 Increase
Moscow Oblast 11,8 Increase 11,3 Increase 14,2 Decrease 14,9 Increase
Kursk Oblast 11,7 Decrease 12,1 Increase 17,5 Increase 17,1 Increase
Kaluga Oblast 11,5 Increase 11,2 Increase 16,1 Decrease 16,4 Decrease
Lipetsk Oblast 11,4 Steady 11,4 Increase 15,8 Decrease 16,2 Increase
Ivanovo Oblast 11,3 Increase 10,8 Decrease 16,5 Decrease 17,7 Decrease
Yaroslavl Oblast 11,2 Decrease 11,8 Increase 15,8 Decrease 17,7 Increase
Belgorod Oblast 11,2 Decrease 11,5 Decrease 15,1 Increase 14,8 Increase
Tver Oblast 11,0 Decrease 11,5 Increase 18,4 Decrease 19,9 Increase
Vladimir Oblast 10,8 Increase 10,6Increase 16,8 Decrease 17,7 Decrease
Oryol Oblast 10,7 Decrease 11,0 Increase 16,7 Decrease 17,9 Steady
Bryansk Oblast 10,6 Decrease 10,7 Increase 17,3 Decrease 17,5 Decrease
Ryazan Oblast 10,6 Decrease 10,7 Increase 16,9 Steady 16,9 Decrease
City of Moscow 10,6 Steady 10,6 Steady 10,0 Decrease 10,6 Increase
Voronezh Oblast 10,5 Decrease 10,8 Steady 16,4 Decrease 16,8 Decrease
Smolensk Oblast 10,4 Increase 10,0 Increase 17,0 Decrease 18,4 Increase
Tula Oblast 9,4 Decrease 9,7 Increase 17,8 Decrease 18,2 Increase
Tambov Oblast 9,3 Decrease 9,4 Increase 16,9 Decrease 17,4 Increase

Natural increase 2013[edit]

January–December 2013 Birth/2013 Birth/2012 Birth/2011 Death/2013 Death/2012 Death/2011
Russian Federation 13,3 Steady 13,3 Increase 12,6 Increase 13,1 Decrease 13,3 Decrease 13,5 Decrease
North Caucasian Federal District 17,2 Decrease 17,4 Increase 17,3 Increase 8,0 Decrease 8,2 Decrease 8,4 Decrease
Chechnya 24,9 Decrease 25,9 Decrease 28,9 Decrease 5,0 Decrease 5,4 Increase 5,3 Decrease
Ingushetia 21,4 Decrease 22,6 Decrease 25,9 Decrease 3,5 Decrease 3,7 Decrease 4,1 Decrease
Dagestan 18,8 Decrease 19,0 Increase 18,1 Increase 5,5 Decrease 5,6 Steady 5,6 Decrease
Kabardino-Balkaria 15,5 Decrease 15,9 Increase 14,9 Increase 8,9 Steady 8,9 Decrease 9,4 Increase
North Ossetia-Alania 15,3 Increase 15,0 Increase 14,5 Steady 10,5 Decrease 10,6 Decrease 10,8 Decrease
Karachay-Cherkessia 13,8 Increase 13,5 Increase 13,1 Increase 9,5 Decrease 9,7 Steady 9,7 Increase
Stavropol Krai 12,7 Increase 12,5 Increase 11,8 Decrease 11,7 Decrease 12,0 Decrease 12,3 Decrease
Ural Federal District 15,1 Steady 15,1 Increase 14,2 Increase 12,4 Decrease 12,6 Decrease 12,7 Decrease
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug 17,5 Decrease 17,6 Increase 16,4 Steady 6,3 Steady 6,3 Decrease 6,5 Decrease
Tyumen Oblast 17,0 Decrease 17,2 Increase 16,1 Decrease 8,2 Decrease 8,4 Decrease 8,6 Decrease
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug 16,4 Decrease 16,7 Increase 15,6 Decrease 5,1 Decrease 5,3 Decrease 5,4 Decrease
Sverdlovsk Oblast 14,5 Increase 14,3 Increase 13,5 Increase 13,8 Decrease 13,9 Decrease 14,1 Decrease
Chelyabinsk Oblast 14,2 Decrease 14,3 Increase 13,6 Increase 13,9 Decrease 14,2 Steady 14,2 Decrease
Kurgan Oblast 14,0 Increase 13,8 Increase 12,7 Decrease 16,1 Increase 15,9 Increase 15,7 Decrease
Siberian Federal District 14,9 Steady 14,9 Increase 14,1 Steady 13,3 Decrease 13,6 Decrease 13,8 Decrease
Tuva 26,1 Decrease 26,5 Decrease 27,1 Increase 11,0 Decrease 11,1 Increase 10,9 Decrease
Altai Republic 20,9 Decrease 22,4 Decrease 22,5 Increase 11,4 Steady 11,4 Decrease 12,2 Steady
Buriatia 17,6 Increase 17,4 Increase 16,9 Decrease 11,8 Decrease 12,4 Decrease 12,6 Decrease
Zabaykalsky Krai 15,9 Decrease 16,1 Increase 15,4 Increase 12,5 Decrease 13,0 Decrease 13,2 Decrease
Khakassia 15,7 Decrease 16,0 Increase 15,1 Increase 13,1 Decrease 13,3 Decrease 13,5 Decrease
Irkutsk Oblast 15,6 Decrease 15,9 Increase 15,3 Increase 13,7 Decrease 13,8 Decrease 14,0 Decrease
Omsk Oblast 14,8 Decrease 14,9 Increase 13,5 Decrease 13,4 Decrease 13,8 Increase 13,5 Decrease
Krasnoyarsk Krai 14,5 Steady 14,5 Increase 13,5 Increase 12,8 Decrease 12,9 Decrease 13,1 Decrease
Novosibirsk Oblast 14,2 Increase 13,9 Increase 13,1 Increase 13,6 Steady 13,6 Steady 13,6 Decrease
Tomsk Oblast 13,8 Increase 13,6 Increase 13,1 Decrease 11,8 Decrease 11,9 Decrease 12,2 Decrease
Kemerovo Oblast 13,6 Decrease 13,7 Increase 12,7 Decrease 14,6 Decrease 15,1 Decrease 15,5 Increase
Altai Krai 13,5 Decrease 13,6 Increase 12,7 Increase 14,2 Decrease 14,6 Steady 14,6 Decrease
Far East Federal District 13,9 Steady 13,9 Increase 13,2 Steady 12,6 Decrease 13,0 Decrease 13,4 Decrease
Sakha Republic 17,5 Decrease 17,6 Increase 17,1 Increase 8,7 Decrease 9,3 Steady 9,3 Decrease
Amur Oblast 14,1 Decrease 14,3 Increase 13,5 Increase 13,8 Decrease 14,7 Steady 14,7 Decrease
Khabarovsk Krai 14,0 Increase 13,6 Increase 12,9 Increase 13,4 Decrease 13,5 Decrease 14,6 Increase
Jewish Autonomous Oblast 13,7 Decrease 14,0 Decrease 14,1 Increase 14,5 Decrease 15,1 Decrease 15,3 Decrease
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug 13,1 Decrease 14,1 Increase 13,7 Decrease 10,5 Decrease 11,5 Increase 11,1 Decrease
Kamchatka Krai 13,0 Steady 13,0 Increase 12,4 Decrease 11,4 Decrease 11,5 Decrease 12,0 Decrease
Sakhalin Oblast 13,0 Increase 12,8 Increase 11,8 Decrease 13,1 Decrease 13,8 Decrease 14,1 Decrease
Primorsky Krai 12,6 Steady 12,6 Increase 11,9 Increase 13,5 Decrease 13,7 Decrease 14,1 Decrease
Magadan Oblast 12,5 Increase 12,4 Increase 11,5 Steady 11,9 Decrease 12,6 Decrease 12,9 Decrease
Volga Federal District 13,2 Steady 13,2 Increase 12,4 Steady 14,0 Increase 13,9 Decrease 14,4 Decrease
Orenburg Oblast 14,8 Increase 14,7 Increase 13,8 Decrease 13,9 Steady 13,9 Decrease 14,3 Decrease
Tatarstan 14,8 Increase 14,5 Increase 13,4 Increase 12,1 Decrease 12,2 Decrease 12,4 Decrease
Perm Krai 14,7 Decrease 14,8 Increase 14,0 Decrease 14,1 Decrease 14,2 Decrease 14,7 Decrease
Udmurtia 14,6 Decrease 15,2 Increase 14,3 Increase 12,8 Steady 12,8 Decrease 13,4 Decrease
Bashkortostan 14,6 Increase 14,5 Increase 13,7 Decrease 13,2 Increase 13,1 Decrease 13,4 Steady
Mari El 14,6 Increase 14,2 Increase 13,0 Increase 13,7 Increase 13,6 Decrease 14,1 Decrease
Chuvashia Republic 14,0 Steady 14,0 Increase 12,9 Steady 13,2 Decrease 13,3 Decrease 13,5 Decrease
Kirov Oblast 13,0 Increase 12,7 Increase 11,8 Decrease 15,4 Decrease 15,5 Decrease 15,8 Decrease
Samara Oblast 12,3 Increase 12,1 Increase 11,5 Increase 14,4 Increase 13,9 Decrease 14,4 Decrease
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 11,8 Steady 11,8 Increase 11,0 Increase 15,9 Decrease 16,0 Decrease 16,4 Increase
Ulyanovsk Oblast 11,6 Increase 11,3 Increase 10,8 Decrease 14,4 Increase 14,1 Decrease 14,8 Increase
Saratov Oblast 11,5 Increase 11,3 Increase 10,7 Decrease 14,4 Increase 14,2 Decrease 14,5 Decrease
Penza Oblast 10,7 Decrease 10,8 Increase 10,1 Increase 14,8 Decrease 14,9 Decrease 15,2 Decrease
Mordovia 10,1 Increase 9,9 Increase 9,5 Steady 14,8 Increase 14,4 Decrease 14,8 Decrease
Southern Federal District 12,6 Steady 12,6 Increase 11,8 Decrease 13,2 Decrease 13,4 Decrease 13,7 Decrease
Astrakhan Oblast 14,8 Decrease 15,1 Increase 14,2 Decrease 12,3 Decrease 12,6 Decrease 13,0 Decrease
Kalmukia 14,5 Decrease 14,8 Increase 14,5 Decrease 9,9 Decrease 10,0 Decrease 10,1 Decrease
Krasnodar Krai 13,2 Increase 13,1 Increase 12,2 Increase 12,9 Decrease 13,1 Decrease 13,6 Decrease
Adygea 12,7 Decrease 12,8 Increase 12,5 Decrease 13,2 Decrease 13,4 Decrease 13,8 Decrease
Rostov Oblast 11,7 Steady 11,7 Increase 10,9 Steady 13,8 Decrease 14,0 Decrease 14,2 Decrease
Volgograd Oblast 11,6 Decrease 11,7 Increase 11,1 Increase 13,5 Steady 13,5 Decrease 13,8 Decrease
North-West Federal District 12,2 Steady 12,2 Increase 11,5 Decrease 13,5 Decrease 13,8 Decrease 14,0 Decrease
Nenets Autonomous Okrug 16,6 Decrease 17,4 Increase 15,0 Decrease 10,7 Increase 10,2 Decrease 10,4 Decrease
Komi Republic 14,2 Increase 13,9 Increase 13,0 Increase 11,9 Decrease 12,1 Decrease 12,3 Decrease
Vologda Oblast 13,8 Decrease 13,9 Increase 12,9 Decrease 15,1 Increase 15,0 Decrease 15,7 Decrease
St-Petersburg 12,8 Increase 12,6 Increase 11,7 Decrease 12,0 Decrease 12,5 Decrease 12,7 Decrease
Arkhangelsk Oblast 12,7 Decrease 12,8 Increase 12,2 Decrease 13,4 Decrease 13,5 Decrease 13,8 Decrease
Kaliningrad Oblast 12,5 Increase 12,4 Increase 11,8 Increase 13,2 Steady 13,2 Decrease 13,3 Decrease
Republic of Karelia 12,0 Decrease 12,5 Increase 12,0 Decrease 14,7 Decrease 15,3 Increase 14,7 Decrease
Novgorod Oblast 12,0 Increase 11,9 Increase 11,5 Decrease 17,8 Decrease 17,9 Decrease 18,4 Steady
Murmansk Oblast 11,8 Increase 11,7 Increase 11,4 Decrease 11,0 Decrease 11,2 Decrease 11,5 Decrease
Pskov Oblast 11,0 Steady 11,0 Increase 10,5 Steady 18,6 Decrease 19,5 Increase 19,4 Decrease
Leningrad Oblast 9,0 Steady 9,0 Increase 8,7 Decrease 14,6 Decrease 14,7 Decrease 14,8 Decrease
Central Federal District 11,4 Steady 11,4 Increase 10,8 Decrease 13,7 Decrease 13,9 Decrease 14,0 Decrease
Kostroma Oblast 12,7 Decrease 12,8 Increase 12,2 Increase 16,2 Increase 16,0 Decrease 16,6 Decrease
Moscow Oblast 12,1 Increase 12,0 Increase 11,2 Increase 14,1 Decrease 14,4 Steady 14,4 Increase
Yaroslavl Oblast 12,1 Increase 11,9 Increase 11,2 Increase 15,9 Steady 15,9 Increase 15,8 Decrease
Kaluga Oblast 11,8 Steady 11,8 Increase 10,9 Decrease 15,3 Decrease 15,7 Increase 15,4 Increase
Kursk Oblast 11,7 Decrease 11,9 Increase 11,6 Decrease 16,3 Decrease 16,6 Decrease 16,8 Decrease
Belgorod Oblast 11,6 Decrease 11,7 Increase 11,0 Decrease 13,9 Decrease 14,0 Steady 14,0 Decrease
Tver Oblast 11,4 Decrease 11,6 Increase 11,0 Steady 18,1 Decrease 18,2 Decrease 18,7 Decrease
Lipetsk Oblast 11,4 Decrease 11,6 Increase 10,7 Decrease 15,3 Steady 15,3 Increase 15,2 Decrease
City of Moscow 11,3 Steady 11,3 Increase 10,7 Steady 9,7 Decrease 9,9 Increase 9,7 Decrease
Ivanovo Oblast 11,2 Increase 11,0 Increase 10,4 Increase 16,4 Decrease 16,8 Decrease 16,9 Decrease
Vladimir Oblast 11,1 Decrease 11,5 Increase 10,9 Increase 16,7 Increase 16,6 Decrease 17,1 Increase
Bryansk Oblast 11,1 Decrease 11,4 Increase 10,9 Decrease 15,9 Decrease 16,1 Steady 16,1 Decrease
Oryol Oblast 11,1 Steady 11,1 Increase 10,5 Decrease 16,3 Increase 16,2 Decrease 16,3 Decrease
Ryazan Oblast 10,8 Steady 10,8 Increase 10,3 Decrease 15,8 Decrease 16,3 Decrease 16,5 Increase
Voronezh Oblast 10,7 Decrease 10,9 Increase 10,2 Decrease 15,7 Increase 15,6 Decrease 15,9 Decrease
Smolensk Oblast 10,6 Increase 10,5 Increase 10,4 Increase 16,5 Decrease 16,7 Decrease 16,8 Decrease
Tula Oblast 9,9 Decrease 10,1 Increase 9,4 Decrease 17,4 Decrease 17,7 Steady 17,7 Decrease
Tambov Oblast 9,6 Steady 9,6 Increase 9,3 Increase 16,1 Steady 16,1 Decrease 16,4 Decrease

Net migration rate[edit]

2.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011)[46]

Vital statistics[edit]

Before WWII[edit]

No exact vital statistics for Russia are available for the period before WWII. Andreev[47] made the following estimates:

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates Life Expectancy (male) Life Expectancy (female)
1927 94,596,000 4,688,000 2,705,000 1,983,000 49.6 28.6 21.0 6.729 33.7 37.9
1928 96,654,000 4,723,000 2,589,000 2,134,000 48.9 26.8 22.1 6.556 35.9 40.4
1929 98,644,000 4,633,000 2,819,000 1,814,000 47.0 28.6 18.4 6.227 33.7 38.2
1930 100,419,000 4,413,000 2,738,000 1,675,000 43.9 27.3 16.7 5.834 34.6 38.7
1931 101,948,000 4,412,000 3,090,000 1,322,000 43.3 30.3 13.0 5.626 30.7 35.5
1932 103,136,000 4,058,000 3,077,000 981,000 39.3 29.8 9.5 5.093 30.5 35.7
1933 102,706,000 3,313,000 5,239,000 -1,926,000 32.3 51.0 -18.8 4.146 15.2 19.5
1934 102,922,000 2,923,000 2,659,000 264,000 28.7 26.1 2.6 3.566 30.5 35.7
1935 102,684,000 3,577,000 2,421,000 1,156,000 34.8 23.6 11.3 4.305 33.1 38.4
1936 103,904,000 3,899,000 2,719,000 1,180,000 37.5 26.2 11.4 4.535 30.4 35.7
1937 105,358,000 4,377,000 2,760,000 1,617,000 41.5 26.2 15.3 5.079 30.5 40.0
1938 107,044,000 4,379,000 2,739,000 1,640,000 40.9 25.6 15.3 4.989 31.7 42.5
1939 108,785,000 4,329,000 2,600,000 1,729,000 39.8 23.9 15.9 4.907 34.9 42.6
1940 110,333,000 3,814,000 2,561,000 1,253,000 34.6 23.2 11.4 4.260 35.7 41.9

After WWII[edit]

[47][48] [49] [50][51]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates Urban fertility Rural fertility Life Expectancy (male) Life Expectancy (female) Life Expectancy (total) Abortions reported
1946 98,028,000 2,546,000 1,210,000 1,336,000 26.0 12.3 13.6 2.806 46.6 55.3
1947 98,834,000 2,715,000 1,680,000 1,035,000 27.5 17.0 10.5 2.938 39.9 49.8
1948 99,706,000 2,516,000 1,310,000 1,206,000 25.2 13.1 12.1 2.604 47.0 56.0
1949 101,160,000 3,089,000 1,187,000 1,902,000 30.5 11.7 18.8 3.205 51.0 59.8
1950 102,833,000 2,859,000 1,180,000 1,679,000 27.8 11.5 16.7 2.889 52.3 61.0
1951 104,439,000 2,938,000 1,210,000 1,728,000 28.1 11.6 17.0 2.918 52.3 60.6
1952 106,164,000 2,928,000 1,138,000 1,790,000 27.6 10.7 17.0 2.871 54.6 62.9
1953 107,828,000 2,822,000 1,118,000 1,704,000 26.2 10.4 15.7 2.733 55.5 63.9
1954 109,643,000 3,048,000 1,133,000 1,915,000 27.8 10.3 17.6 2.970 55.9 64.1
1955 111,572,000 2,942,000 1,037,000 1,905,000 26.4 9.3 17.2 2.818 58.3 66.6
1956 113,327,000 2,827,000 956,000 1,871,000 24.9 8.4 16.8 2.731 60.1 68.8
1957 115,035,000 2,880,000 1,017,000 1,863,000 25.0 8.8 16.7 2.750 59.7 68.4 3,407,398
1958 116,749,000 2,861,000 931,000 1,930,000 24.5 8.0 17.0 2.689 61.8 70.4 3,939,362
1959 118,307,000 2,796,228 920,225 1,876,003 23.6 7.8 15.9 2.58 2.03 3.34 62.84 71.14 67.65 4,174,111
1960 119,906,000 2,782,353 886,090 1,896,263 23.2 7.4 15.8 2.56 2.06 3.26 63.67 72.31 68.67 4,373,042
1961 121,586,000 2,662,135 901,637 1,760,498 21.9 7.4 14.5 2.47 2.04 3.08 63.91 72.63 68.92 4,759,040
1962 123,128,000 2,482,539 949,648 1,532,891 20.2 7.7 12.4 2.36 1.98 2.92 63.67 72.27 68.58 4,925,124
1963 124,514,000 2,331,505 932,055 1,399,450 18.7 7.5 11.2 2.31 1.93 2.87 64.12 72.78 69.05 5,134,100
1964 125,744,000 2,121,994 901,751 1,220,243 16.9 7.2 9.7 2.19 1.88 2.66 64.89 73.58 69.85 5,376,200
1965 126,749,000 1,990,520 958,789 1,031,731 15.7 7.6 8.1 2.14 1.82 2.58 64.37 73.33 69.44 5,463,300
1966 127,608,000 1,957,763 974,299 983,464 15.3 7.6 7.7 2.13 1.85 2.58 64.29 73.55 69.51 5,322,500
1967 128,361,000 1,851,041 1,017,034 834,007 14.4 7.9 6.5 2.03 1.79 2.46 64.02 73.43 69.30 5,005,000
1968 129,037,000 1,816,509 1,040,096 776,413 14.1 8.1 6.0 1.98 1.75 2.44 63.73 73.56 69.26 4,872,900
1969 129,660,000 1,847,592 1,106,640 740,952 14.2 8.5 5.7 1.99 1.78 2.44 63.07 73.29 68.74 4,751,100
1970 130,252,000 1,903,713 1,131,183 772,530 14.6 8.7 5.9 2.00 1.77 2.52 63.07 73.44 68.86 4,837,700
1971 130,934,000 1,974,637 1,143,359 831,278 15.1 8.7 6.3 2.02 1.80 2.60 63.24 73.77 69.12 4,838,749
1972 131,687,000 2,014,638 1,181,802 832,836 15.3 9.0 6.3 2.03 1.81 2.59 63.24 73.62 69.02 4,765,900
1973 132,434,000 1,994,621 1,214,204 780,417 15.1 9.2 5.9 1.96 1.75 2.55 63.28 73.56 69.00 4,747,037
1974 133,217,000 2,079,812 1,222,495 857,317 15.6 9.2 6.4 2.00 1.78 2.63 63.12 73.77 68.99 4,674,050
1975 134,092,000 2,106,147 1,309,710 796,437 15.7 9.8 5.9 1.97 1.76 2.64 62.48 73.23 68.35 4,670,700
1976 135,026,000 2,146,711 1,352,950 793,761 15.9 10.0 5.9 1.96 1.74 2.62 62.19 73.04 68.10 4,757,055
1977 135,979,000 2,156,724 1,387,986 768,738 15.9 10.2 5.7 1.92 1.72 2.58 61.82 73.19 67.97 4,686,063
1978 136,922,000 2,179,030 1,417,377 761,653 15.9 10.4 5.6 1.90 1.70 2.55 61.83 73.23 68.01 4,656,057
1979 137,758,000 2,178,542 1,490,057 688,485 15.8 10.8 5.0 1.87 1.67 2.54 61.49 73.02 67.73 4,544,040
1980 138,483,000 2,202,779 1,525,755 677,024 15.9 11.0 4.9 1.87 1.68 2.51 61.38 72.96 67.70 4,506,249
1981 139,221,000 2,236,608 1,524,286 712,322 16.1 10.9 5.1 1.88 1.69 2.55 61.61 73.18 67.92 4,400,676
1982 140,067,000 2,328,044 1,504,200 823,844 16.6 10.7 5.9 1.96 1.76 2.63 62.24 73.64 68.38 4,462,825
1983 141,056,000 2,478,322 1,563,995 914,327 17.6 11.1 6.5 2.11 1.89 2.76 62.15 73.41 68.15 4,317,729
1984 142,061,000 2,409,614 1,650,866 758,748 17.0 11.6 5.3 2.06 1.86 2.69 61.71 72.96 67.67 4,361,959
1985 143,033,000 2,375,147 1,625,266 749,881 16.6 11.4 5.2 2.05 1.87 2.68 62.72 73.23 68.33 4,552,443
1986 144,156,000 2,485,915 1,497,975 987,940 17.2 10.4 6.9 2.18 1.98 2.83 64.77 74.22 69.95 4,579,400
1987 145,386,000 2,499,974 1,531,585 968,389 17.2 10.5 6.7 2.23 2.04 2.88 64.83 74.26 69.96 4,385,627
1988 146,505,000 2,348,494 1,569,112 779,382 16.0 10.7 5.3 2.12 1.96 2.80 64.61 74.25 69.81 4,608,953
1989 147,342,000 2,160,559 1,583,743 576,816 14.7 10.7 3.9 2.01 1.83 2.75 64.20 74.50 69.73 4,427,713
1990 147,969,000 1,988,858 1,655,993 332,865 13.4 11.2 2.3 1.888 1.70 2.60 63.76 74.32 69.36 4,103,425
1991 148,394,000 1,794,626 1,690,657 103,969 12.1 11.4 0.7 1.733 1.53 2.45 63.41 74.23 69.11 3,608,421
1992 148,538,000 1,587,644 1,807,441 -219,797 10.7 12.2 -1.5 1.552 1.35 2.22 61.96 73.71 67.98 4,436,695
1993 148,459,000 1,378,983 2,129,339 -750,356 9.3 14.3 -5.1 1.386 1.20 1.95 58.80 71.85 65.24 3,243,957
1994 148,408,000 1,408,159 2,301,366 -893,207 9.5 15.5 -6.0 1.385 1.24 1.92 57.38 71.07 63.93 3,060,237
1995 148,376,000 1,363,806 2,203,811 -840,005 9.2 14.9 -5.7 1.345 1.19 1.82 58.11 71.60 64.62 2,766,362
1996 148,160,000 1,304,638 2,082,249 -777,611 8.8 14.1 -5.2 1.281 1.14 1.71 59.61 72.41 65.89 2,652,038
1997 147,915,000 1,259,943 2,015,779 -755,836 8.5 13.6 -5.1 1.230 1.10 1.62 60.84 72.85 66.79 2,498,716
1998 147,671,000 1,283,292 1,988,744 -705,452 8.7 13.5 -4.8 1.240 1.11 1.64 61.19 73.12 67.14 2,346,138
1999 147,215,000 1,214,689 2,144,316 -929,627 8.3 14.6 -6.3 1.171 1.04 1.53 59.86 72.42 65.99 2,181,153
2000 146,597,000 1,266,800 2,225,332 -958,532 8.6 15.2 -6.5 1.195 1.09 1.55 58.99 72.25 65.38 2,138,800
2001 145,976,000 1,311,604 2,254,856 -943,252 9.0 15.4 -6.5 1.223 1.12 1.56 58.88 72.16 65.30 2,114,700
2002 145,306,496 1,396,967 2,332,272 -935,305 9.6 16.1 -6.4 1.286 1.19 1.63 58.68 71.90 64.95 1,944,481
2003 144,648,624 1,477,301 2,365,826 -888,525 10.2 16.4 -6.1 1.320 1.22 1.67 58.53 71.85 64.84 1,864,647
2004 144,067,312 1,502,477 2,295,402 -792,925 10.4 15.9 -5.5 1.344 1.25 1.65 58.91 72.36 65.31 1,797,567
2005 143,518,816 1,457,376 2,303,935 -846,559 10.2 16.1 -5.9 1.294 1.21 1.58 58.92 72.47 65.37 1,501,594
2006 143,049,632 1,479,637 2,166,703 -687,066 10.3 15.1 -4.8 1.305 1.21 1.60 60.43 73.34 66.69 1,423,711
2007 142,805,120 1,610,122 2,080,445 -470,323 11.3 14.6 -3.3 1.416 1.29 1.80 61.46 74.02 67.61 1,306,853
2008 142,742,368 1,713,947 2,075,954 -362,007 12.0 14.5 -2.6 1.502 1.37 1.91 61.92 74.28 67.99 1,268,434
2009 142,785,344 1,761,687 2,010,543 -248,856 12.3 14.1 -1.8 1.542 1.42 1.94 62.87 74.79 68.78 1,161,690
2010 142,849,472 1,788,948 2,028,516 -239,568 12.5 14.2 -1.7 1.567 1.44 1.98 63.09 74.88 68.94 1,054,820
2011 142,960,908 1,796,629 1,925,720 -129,091 12.6 13.5 -0.9 1.582 1.44 2.06 64.04 75.61 69.83 989,375
2012 143,201,700 1,902,084 1,906,335 -4,251 13.3 13.3 0.0 1.691 1.541 2.215 64.56 75.86 70.24 935,509
2013 143,502,097 1,895,822 1,871,809 24,013 13.2 13.0 0.2 1.707 1.551 2.264 65.14 76.31 70.77
Urban live births Urban deaths Urban natural change Urban rude birth rate (per 1,000) Urban rude death rate (per 1,000) Urban natural change (per 1,000) Rural live births Rural deaths Rural natural change Rural crude birth rate (per 1,000) Rural crude death rate (per 1,000) Rural natural change (per 1,000)
1950 1,171,250 436,792 734,458 26.1 9.7 16.4 1,574,747 594,218 980,529 27.5 10.4 17.1
1960 1,332,812 436,709 896,103 20.4 6.7 13.7 1,449,541 449,831 1,000,160 26.5 8.2 18.3
1970 1,205,207 646,129 559,078 14.8 7.9 6.9 698,506 485,054 213,452 14.3 10.0 4.3
1980 1,535,723 970,256 565,467 15.8 10.0 5.8 667,056 555,499 111,557 16.1 13.4 2.7
1990 1,386,247 1,140,613 245,634 12.7 10.5 2.2 602,611 515,380 87,231 15.5 13.2 2.3
1995 933,460 1,554,182 -620,722 8.7 14.4 -5.7 430,346 649,269 -219,283 10.9 16.5 -5.6
2000 886,908 1,564,034 -677,126 8.3 14.6 -6.3 379,892 661,298 -281,406 9.8 17.1 -7.3
2001 928,642 1,592,254 -663,612 8.7 14.9 -6.2 382,962 662,602 -279,640 10.0 17.3 -7.3
2002 998,056 1,638,822 -640,766 9.4 15.4 -6.0 398,911 693,450 -294,539 10.5 18.2 -7.7
2003 1,050,565 1,657,569 -607,004 9.9 15.6 -5.7 426,736 708,257 -281,521 11.1 18.4 -7.3
2004 1,074,247 1,606,894 -532,647 10.1 15.2 -5.1 428,230 688,508 -260,278 11.2 18.1 -6.9
2005 1,036,870 1,595,762 -558,892 9.8 15.1 -5.3 420,506 708,173 -287,667 11.0 18.6 -7.6
2006 1,044,540 1,501,245 -456,705 10.0 14.3 -4.3 435,097 665,458 -230,361 11.4 17.4 -6.0
2007 1,120,741 1,445,411 -324,670 10.7 13.8 -3.1 489,381 635,034 -145,653 12.9 16.7 -3.8
2008 1,194,820 1,443,529 -248,709 11.4 13.8 -2.4 519,127 632,425 -113,298 13.7 16.7 -3.0
2009 1,237,615 1,397,591 -159,976 11.8 13.3 -1.5 524,072 612,952 -88,880 13.9 16.3 -2.4
2010 1,263,893 1,421,734 -157,841 12.0 13.5 -1.5 520,055 606,782 -81,727 14.0 16.1 -2.1
2011 1,270,047 1,356,696 -88,649 12.0 12.8 -0.8 526,582 569,024 -42,442 14.1 15.2 -1.1
2012 1,355,674 1,353,635 2,039 12.8 12.8 0.0 546,410 552,700 -6,290 14.7 14.8 -0.1

Total fertility rates[edit]

Changes in the Russian TFR since 1990.

As of 2013, Russian TFR of 1.707 children per woman[6] is among the highest in the Eastern Europe, which means an average Russian family has more children (1.7) than an average family in most other Eastern European countries. Still, this rate is far below the replacement rate of 2.1 – 2.14.

In 1990, just prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia's total fertility rate (TFR) stood at 1.89. Fertility rates had already begun to decline in the late 80s due to the natural progression of Russia's demographic structure, but the rapid and widely negative changes in society following the collapse greatly influenced the rate of decline.[52] The TFR hit an historic low of 1.157 in 1999 and has since begun to rise again, reaching 1.707 in 2013 (growth of 47.5%).[53] The only federal subject of Russia to see a decline in fertility since 1999 is Ingushetia, where the TFR has fallen by 20% from 2.44 to 1.97 as of 2009.[54] However, TFR for Ingushetia for the year 2011 was recorded at 2.94.[55]

In 2009, 8 of Russia's federal subjects had a TFR above 2.1 children per woman (the approximate minimum required to ensure population replacement). These federal subjects are Chechnya (3.38), Tuva (2.81), Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug (2.73), Agin-Buryat Okrug (2.63), Komi-Permyak (2.16), Evenk Okrug (2.58), Altai Republic (2.36), Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2.1). Of these federal subjects, four have an ethnic Russian majority (Altai, Evenk, Ust-Orda and Nenets).[54][56] In 2011, the highest TFR were recorded in Chechnya (3.362), Tyva (3.249), Ingushetia (2.94), Altai Republic (2.836), Sakha Republic (2.057), Buryatia (2.027), and Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2.007).[55]

Until 2010, the Russian republic of Chechnya was the region with the highest birth rate in the former USSR (excluding Central Asia). However in 2011, the Armenian province of Qashatagh overtook it (28.9 vs 29.3 per 1,000).[57]

In 2010, The average number of children born to women has decreased from 1513 to 1000 women from 2002 to 1469 in 2010 in urban areas the figure was 1328 children (2002–1350), and in the village – 1876 (in 2002. – 1993 ).

A poster in Cheboksary, Chuvashia encouraging families to have more children. Text reads "Один ребёнок – хорошо, два лучше!" One child is good, two are better!.

In recent years the percentage of children per woman 16 years or more were:

Year : 2002–2010

1 child : 30.5%–31.2%

2 children : 33.7%–34.4%

3 children : 8.9%–8.7%

4 or more children : 5.2%–4.2%

no children : 21.7%–21.5%

Note that despite a decrease in women who have not had children, the number of three-child and large families has declined between 2002 and 2010.

In every region in Russia rural areas reported higher TFR compared to urban areas. In most of the federal subjects in Siberia and the Russian Far East, the total fertility rates were high, but not high enough to ensure population replacement. For example, Zabaykalsky Krai had a TFR of 1.82, which is higher than the national average, but less than the 2.1 needed for population replacement.[54]

Compared to other G8 countries, in 2011, Russian TFR of 1.61 children/ woman[58] was lower than that of  France (2.00), the  UK (1.97), the  USA (1.89). Yet its TFR is higher than in other G8 countries like  Germany (1.36),  Japan (1.39),  Canada (1.59) and  Italy (1.40).

Compared to other most populous nations, Russia has a lower TFR than  Nigeria (5.49),  Pakistan (3.42),  India (2.59),  Indonesia (2.09), the USA (1.895),[59]  Brazil (2.19), and higher TFR than  China (1.40).

Compared to its neighbors, in 2011 Russia has a lower TFR than  Kazakhstan (2.41),  Mongolia (2.19),  Azerbaijan (1.92),  Norway (1.88), North Korea (2.01),  Finland (1.83). While Russian TFR is higher than in  Estonia (1.52),  Lithuania (1.55),  Belarus (1.50),  Georgia (1.70),[citation needed]  Ukraine (1.45),  Poland (1.31) and  Latvia (1.32).

Also many other European countries like  Czech Republic (1.42),  Spain (1.35),  Greece (1.41),  Hungary (1.26),   Switzerland (1.53),  Portugal (1.51)  Albania (1.48) as well as East Asian countries and territories like  South Korea (1.23),  Taiwan (1.10),  Singapore (0.78),  Hong Kong (1.09),  Macau (0.92) have a lower TFR than Russia.

Children Born Per Woman by Oblast Total Fertility Rate/2012 Urban Fertility Rate/2012 Rural Fertility Rate/2012
Tuva Republic 3,35 2,31 5,95
Chechnya 3,08 3,14 3,04
Altai Republic 2,91 1,83 5,05
Nenets Autonomous Okrug 2,35 1,74 4,71
Ingushetia 2,27 2,30 2,26
Sakha Republic 2,17 1,89 2,81
Buriatia 2,13 1,77 2,88
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug 2,05 1,89 2,92
Kurgan Oblast 2,03 1,75 2,63
Dagestan 2,03 1,44 2,63
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug 2,02 1,99 2,40
Zabaykalsky Krai 2,00 1,73 2,78
Khakassia 2,00 1,70 2,75
North Caucasian Federal District 2,00
Tyumen Oblast 1,99 1,86 2,58
Udmurtia 1,98 1,70 2,86
Irkutsk Oblast 1,97 1,76 2,98
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug 1,97 1,65 2,51
North Ossetia-Alania 1,96 1,94 1,98
Orenburg Oblast 1,95 1,55 2,98
Astrakhan Oblast 1,93 1,78 2,21
Perm Krai 1,91 1,68 2,89
Kalmukia 1,89 1,84 1,93
Komi Republic 1,88 1,56 4,16
Ural Federal District 1,88
Omsk Oblast 1,86 1,60 2,75
Bashkortostan 1,86 1,68 2,30
Siberian Federal District 1,86
Vologda Oblast 1,84 1,64 2,60
Jewish Autonomous Oblast 1,84 1,68 2,32
Amur Oblast 1,83 1,60 2,61
Kabardino-Balkaria 1,83 1,71 1,96
Kostroma Oblast 1,83 1,64 2,45
Mari El 1,83 1,66 2,25
Sverdlovsk Oblast 1,83 1,74 2,44
Chuvashia Republic 1,83 1,54 2,58
Altai Krai 1,81 1,51 2,56
Kirov Oblast 1,81 1,57 3,20
Chelyabinsk Oblast 1,81 1,67 2,61
Tatarstan 1,80 1,73 2,09
Far East Federal District 1,78
Arkhangelsk Oblast 1,76 1,51 3,47
Kemerovo Oblast 1,76 1,68 2,31
Krasnoyarsk Krai 1,75 1,57 2,72
Kamchatka Krai 1,73 1,70 1,85
Volga Federal District 1,72
Novosibirsk Oblast 1,71 1,56 2,56
Adygea 1,71 1,47 1,97
Republic of Karelia 1,71 1,50 3,21
Sakhalin Oblast 1,71 1,61 2,32
Krasnodar Krai 1,70 1,68 1,72
Kursk Oblast 1,70 1,49 2,35
Novgorod Oblast 1,70 1,57 2,12
Khabarovsk Krai 1,70 1,59 2,39
Russia 1,69 1,54 2,22
Pskov Oblast 1,66 1,49 2,28
Magadan Oblast 1,65 1,62 2,74
Primorsky Krai 1,65 1,48 2,43
Tver Oblast 1,65 1,53 2,10
Kaliningrad Oblast 1,63 1,51 2,01
Karachay-Cherkessia 1,63 1,43 1,78
Lipetsk Oblast 1,63 1,49 1,90
Southern Federal District 1,63
Vladimir Oblast 1,62 1,56 1,84
Kaluga Oblast 1,62 1,56 1,85
Yaroslavl Oblast 1,60 1,51 2,13
Murmansk Oblast 1,57 1,55 1,95
Ulyanovsk Oblast 1,57 1,50 1,82
Bryansk Oblast 1,56 1,41 1,92
North-West Federal District 1,56
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 1,55 1,47 1,91
Tomsk Oblast 1,55 1,47 1,91
Volgograd Oblast 1,54 1,39 2,07
Oryol Oblast 1,54 1,19 2,44
Ryazan Oblast 1,54 1,32 2,28
Samara Oblast 1,54 1,46 1,91
Stavropol Krai 1,52 1,33 1,86
Belgorod Oblast 1,51 1,42 1,77
Ivanovo Oblast 1,51 1,48 1,69
Saratov Oblast 1,51 1,39 1,91
Rostov Oblast 1,51 1,37 1,88
Moscow Oblast 1,49 1,53 1,34
St-Petersburg 1,48 1,48
Penza Oblast 1,48 1,38 1,77
Central Federal District 1,47
Voronezh Oblast 1,45 1,35 1,75
Smolensk Oblast 1,43 1,34 1,75
Tula Oblast 1,43 1,31 1,91
Tambov Oblast 1,42 1,34 1,53
City of Moscow 1,32 1,33 1,04
Mordovia 1,32 1,27 1,42
Leningrad Oblast 1,22 1,26 1,15

Health[edit]

Life expectancy[edit]

Russian male and female life expectancy since 1950.[60][61]

total population: 70.8 years[62]
male: 65.1 years[63]
female: 76.5 years (2013)[64]

The disparity in the average lifespan between genders in Russia is largest in the world. Women live 9–12 years longer than men, while the difference in lifespan is typically only five years in other parts of the world. While medical sources, like The Lancet,[24] name mass privatization, and the neo-liberalist shock therapy policies of Yeltsin administration as key reasons of falling life expectancy of Russian men, other sources, like Luke Harding from The Guardian claim alcoholism explains the large difference in gender mortality levels in Russia.[65] As of 2011, the average life expectancy in Russia was 64.3 years for males and 76.1 years for females.[66] According to the WHO 2011 report,[67] annual per capita alcohol consumption in Russia is about 15.76 litres, fourth highest volume in Europe (compare to 13.37 in the UK, 13.66 in France, 15.6 in Ukraine, 16.45 in the Czech Republic, etc.). In the late 1950s, the USSR claimed a higher life expectancy than the United States,[68] but the Soviet Union has lagged behind Western countries in terms of mortality and life expectancy since the late 1960s.

The life expectancy was about 70 in 1986,[69] prior to the transition-induced disruption of the healthcare system. The turmoil in the early 1990s caused life expectancy in Russia to steadily decrease while it was steadily increasing in the rest of the world. Recently however, Russian life expectancy has again begun to rise. Between 2006—2011 the male life expectancy in Russia rose by almost four years, increasing the overall life expectancy by nearly 4 years to 70.3.[66]

Mortality[edit]

In 2012, 1,043,292, or 55% of all deaths in Russia were caused by cardiovascular disease. The second leading cause of death was cancer which claimed 287,840 lives (15.2%). External causes of death such as suicide (1.5%), road accidents (1.5%), murders (0.8%), accidental alcohol poisoning (0.4%), and accidental drowning (0.5%), claimed 202,175 lives in total (10.6%). Other major causes of death were diseases of the digestive system (4.6%), respiratory disease (3.6%), infectious and parasitic diseases (1.6%), and tuberculosis (0.9%).[49] The infant mortality rate in 2012 was 7.6 deaths per 1,000 (down from 8.2 in 2009 and 16.9 in 1999).[49]

Under-five mortality rate[edit]

13 deaths/1,000 live births (2008)[70]

Abortions and Family Planning[edit]

In the 1980s only 8–10% of married Russian women of reproductive age used hormonal and intrauterine contraception methods, compared to 20–40% in developed countries. This led to much higher abortion rates in Russia compared to developed countries: in the 1980s Russia had a figure of 120 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age compared with only 20 per 1,000 in Western countries. However, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union many changes took place, such as the demonopolization of the market for contraceptive drugs and media liberalization, which led to a rapid conversion to more efficient pregnancy control practices. Abortion rates fell in the first half of the 1990s for the first time in Russia's history, even despite declining fertility rates. From the early 1990s to 2006, the number of expected abortions per women during her lifetime fell by nearly 2.5 times, from 3.4 to 1.2. As of 2004, the share of women of reproductive age using hormonal or intrauterine birth control methods was about 46% (29% intrauterine, 17% hormonal).[71]

Despite an increase in "family planning", the target of desired children at the desired time for a large portion of Russian families has not yet been achieved. According to a 2004 study, current pregnancies were termed "desired and timely" by 58% of respondents, while 23% described them as "desired, but untimely", and 19% said they were "undesired". The share of unexpected pregnancies remains much lower in countries with developed family planning culture, such as the Netherlands, whose percentage of unwanted pregnancies 20 years ago was half of that in Russia today.[71]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic Russians as a percentage of the population by region (2010).

The Russian Federation is home to as many as 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples. As of the 2010 census, 80.90% of the population that disclosed their ethnicity (111,016,896 people) is ethnically Russian, followed by (groups larger than one million):[14][15]

According to the 2010 Census in Russia lived 142,856,536 people. It is important to note that 5,629,429 people (3.94% of the overall population.) did not declare any ethnic origin, compared to about 1 million in the 2002 Census. This is due to the fact that those people were counted from administrative databases and not directly, and were therefore unable to state their ethnicity.[14][72] Therefore, the percentages mentioned above are taken from the total population that declared their ethnicity, given that the non-declared remainder is thought to have an ethnic composition similar to the declared segment.[73]

Most smaller groups live compactly in their respective regions and can be categorized by language group. The ethnic divisions used here are those of the official census, and may in some respects be controversial. The following lists all ethnicities resolved by the 2010 census, grouped by language:[14]

Historical perspective[75][edit]

International migration to and from Russia since 1990.
  Arrivals
  Departures
  Net migration growth

The ethno-demographic structure of Russia has gradually changed over time. During the past century the most striking change is the fast increase of the peoples from the Caucasus. In 1926, these people composed 2% of the Russian population, compared to 6.5% in 2010. Though low in absolute numbers, the Siberian people also increased during the past century, but their growth was mainly realized after WW II (from 0.7% in 1959 to 1.2% in 2010) and not applicable to most of the small peoples (less than 10,000 people).

Peoples of European Russia[edit]

The relative proportion of the peoples of European Russia gradually decreased during the past century, but still compose 91% of the total population of Russia in 2010. The absolute numbers of most of these peoples reached its highest level in the beginning of the 1990s. Since 1992, natural growth in Russia has been negative and the numbers of all peoples of European Russia were lower in 2010 than in 2002, the only exceptions being the Roma (due to high fertility rates) and the Gagauz (due to high levels of migration from Moldova to Russia).

Several peoples saw a much larger decrease than can be explained by the low fertility rates and high mortality rates in Russia during the past two decades. Emigration and assimilation contributed to the decrease in numbers of many peoples. Emigration was the most important factor for Germans, Jews and Baltic peoples (Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians). The number of Germans halved between 1959 and 2010. Their main country of destination is Germany.

The number of Jews decreased by more than 80% between 1959 and 2010. In 1970, the Soviet Union had the third largest population of Jews in the world, (2,183,000 of whom 808,000 with residence in Russia), following only that of the United States and Israel. By 2010, due to Jewish emigration, their number fell as low as 158,000. A sizeable emigration of other minorities has been enduring, too. The main destinations of emigrants from Russia are the USA (Jews, Belarussians, Chechens, Meskhetian Turks, Ukrainians and others), Israel (Jews), Germany (Germans and Jews), Poland (Poles), Canada (Finns and Ukrainians), Finland (Finns), France (Jews and Armenians) and the United Kingdom (mainly rich Russians).[citation needed]

Assimilation (i.e., marrying Russians and having children of such unions counted as Russians) explains the decrease in numbers of Ukrainians, Belarusians and most of the Uralic peoples. The assimilation is reflected in the high median age of these peoples (see the table below), as assimilation is stronger among young people than among old people. The process of assimilation of the Uralic peoples of Russia is probably going on for centuries and is most prominent among the Mordvins (1.4% of the Russian population in 1926 and 0.5% in 2010), the Karelians, Veps and Izhorians.

Assimilation on the other hand slowed down the decrease of the number of ethnic Russians. Besides, the decrease of the number of Russians was also slowed down by the immigration of ethnic Russians from the former Soviet republics, especially Central Asia. Similarly, the numbers of Ukrainians, Belarusians, Germans, Jews, and other non-autochthonous ethnic groups has also been decreased by emigration to Ukraine, Belarus, Germany, Israel, and so forth, respectively.

Peoples of European Russia in the Russian Federation, 1926–2010

Ethnic
group
Language
family
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Russians Indo-European 72,374,283 78.1% 89,747,795 82.9% 97,863,579 83.3% 107,747,630 82.8% 113,521,881 82.6% 119,865,469 81.5% 115,889,107 80.6% 111,016,896 80.9%
Tatars Turkic 2,926,053 3.2% 3,682,956 3.4% 4,074,253 3.5% 4,577,061 3.5% 5,055,757 3.6% 5,522,096 3.8% 5,554,601 3.9% 5,310,649 3.9%
Ukrainians Indo-European 6,870,976 7.4% 3,205,061 3.0% 3,359,083 2.9% 3,345,885 2.6% 3,657,647 2.7% 4,362,872 3.0% 2,942,961 2.0% 1,927,888 1.4%
Bashkirs Turkic 738,861 0.80% 824,537 0.76% 953,801 0.81% 1,180,913 0.91% 1,290,994 0.94% 1,345,273 0.92% 1,673,389 1.16% 1,584,554 1.15%
Chuvashs Turkic 1,112,478 1.20% 1,346,232 1.24% 1,436,218 1.22% 1,637,028 1.26% 1,689,847 1.23% 1,773,645 1.21% 1,637,094 1.14% 1,435,872 1.05%
Mordvins Uralic 1,306,798 1.41% 1,375,558 1.27% 1,211,105 1.03% 1,177,492 0.91% 1,111,075 0.81% 1,072,939 0.73% 843,350 0.59% 744,237 0.54%
Udmurts (incl. Besermyan 1939–1989) Uralic 503,970 0.54% 599,893 0.55% 615,640 0.52% 678,393 0.52% 685,718 0.50% 714,883 0.49% 636,906 0.45% 552,299 0.40%
Besermyan Uralic 10,035 0.01% 3,122 0.00% 2,201 0.00%
Mari Uralic 427,874 0.46% 476,314 0.44% 498,066 0.42% 581,082 0.45% 599,637 0.44% 643,698 0.44% 604,298 0.42% 547,605 0.40%
Belarusians Indo-European 607,845 0.66% 451,933 0.42% 843,985 0.72% 964,082 0.74% 1,051,900 0.77% 1,206,222 0.82% 807,970 0.56% 521,443 0.38%
Germans Indo-European 707,277 0.76% 811,205 0.75% 820,016 0.70% 761,888 0.59% 790,762 0.58% 842,295 0.57% 597,212 0.42% 394,138 0.29%
Komi (incl. Komi-Permyak 1939) Uralic 226,012 0.24% 415,009 0.38% 281,780 0.24% 315,347 0.24% 320,078 0.23% 336,309 0.23% 293,406 0.20% 228,235 0.17%
Komi-Permyak Uralic 149,275 0.16% 143,030 0.12% 150,244 0.12% 145,993 0.11% 147,269 0.10% 125,235 0.09% 94,456 0.07%
Roma Indo-European 39,089 0.04% 59,198 0.05% 72,488 0.06% 97,955 0.08% 120,672 0.09% 152,939 0.10% 183,252 0.13% 204,958 0.15%
Jews Semitic 539,086 0.58% 891,147 0.82% 875,058 0.74% 807,526 0.62% 699,286 0.51% 550,709 0.37% 233,439 0.16% 156,801 0.11%
Moldovans Indo-European 16,870 0.02% 21,974 0.02% 62,298 0.05% 87,538 0.07% 102,137 0.07% 172,671 0.12% 172,330 0.12% 156,400 0.11%
Karelians Uralic 248,017 0.27% 249,778 0.23% 164,050 0.14% 141,148 0.11% 133,182 0.10% 124,921 0.08% 93,344 0.06% 60,815 0.04%
Poles Indo-European 189,269 0.20% 142,461 0.13% 118,422 0.10% 107,084 0.08% 99,733 0.07% 94,594 0.06% 73,001 0.05% 47,125 0.03%
Lithuanians Indo-European 26,128 0.03% 20,795 0.02% 108,579 0.09% 76,718 0.06% 66,783 0.05% 70,427 0.05% 45,569 0.03% 31,377 0.02%
Bulgarians Indo-European 4,087 0.00% 8,338 0.01% 24,899 0.02% 27,321 0.02% 24,943 0.02% 32,785 0.02% 31,965 0.02% 24,038 0.02%
Finns Uralic 134,089 0.14% 138,962 0.13% 72,356 0.06% 62,307 0.05% 55,687 0.04% 47,102 0.03% 34,050 0.02% 20,267 0.01%
Latvians Indo-European 124,312 0.13% 104,877 0.10% 74,932 0.06% 59,695 0.05% 67,267 0.05% 46,829 0.03% 28,520 0.02% 18,979 0.01%
Estonians Uralic 146,051 0.16% 130,494 0.12% 78,556 0.07% 62,980 0.05% 55,539 0.04% 46,390 0.03% 28,113 0.02% 17,875 0.01%
Gagauz Turkic 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 3,012 0.00% 3,704 0.00% 4,176 0.00% 10,051 0.01% 12,210 0.01% 13,690 0.01%
Veps Uralic 32,783 0.04% 31,442 0.03% 16,170 0.01% 8,057 0.01% 7,550 0.01% 12,142 0.01% 8,240 0.01% 5,936 0.00%
Sami Uralic 1,715 0.00% 1,828 0.00% 1,760 0.00% 1,836 0.00% 1,775 0.00% 1,835 0.00% 1,991 0.00% 1,771 0.00%
Izhorians Uralic 16,136 0.02% 7,720 0.01% 564 0.00% 561 0.00% 449 0.00% 449 0.00% 327 0.00% 266 0.00%
Karaites Turkic 1,608 0.00% 1,608 0.00% 1,236 0.00% 939 0.00% 680 0.00% 366 0.00% 205 0.00%

Peoples of the Caucasus[edit]

Peoples of the Caucasus in the Russian Federation, 1926–2010

Ethnic
group
Language
family
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Chechens Northeast Caucasian 318,361 0.34% 400,325 0.37% 261,311 0.22% 572,220 0.44% 712,161 0.52% 898,999 0.61% 1,360,253 0.95% 1,431,360 1.04%
Armenians Indo-European 183,785 0.20% 205,233 0.19% 255,978 0.22% 298,718 0.23% 364,570 0.27% 532,390 0.36% 1,132,033 0.79% 1,182,388 0.86%
Avars Northeast Caucasian 178,263 0.19% 235,715 0.22% 249,529 0.21% 361,613 0.28% 438,306 0.32% 544,016 0.37% 814,473 0.57% 912,090 0.66%
Azerbaijanis Turkic 24,335 0.03% 43,014 0.04% 70,947 0.06% 95,689 0.07% 152,421 0.11% 335,889 0.23% 621,840 0.43% 603,070 0.44%
Dargins Northeast Caucasian 125,759 0.14% 152,007 0.14% 152,563 0.13% 224,172 0.17% 280,444 0.20% 353,348 0.24% 510,156 0.35% 589,386 0.43%
Ossetians Indo-European 157,280 0.17% 195,624 0.18% 247,834 0.21% 313,458 0.24% 352,080 0.26% 402,275 0.27% 514,875 0.36% 528,515 0.38%
Kabardins Northwest Caucasian 139,864 0.15% 161,216 0.15% 200,634 0.17% 277,435 0.21% 318,822 0.23% 386,055 0.26% 519,958 0.36% 516,826 0.38%
Kumyks Turkic 94,509 0.10% 110,299 0.10% 132,896 0.11% 186,690 0.14% 225,800 0.16% 277,163 0.19% 422,409 0.29% 503,060 0.37%
Lezgians Northeast Caucasian 92,937 0.10% 100,328 0.09% 114,210 0.10% 170,494 0.13% 202,854 0.15% 257,270 0.17% 411,535 0.29% 473,722 0.34%
Ingush Northeast Caucasian 72,137 0.08% 90,980 0.08% 55,799 0.05% 137,380 0.11% 165,997 0.12% 215,068 0.15% 413,016 0.29% 444,833 0.32%
Karachays Turkic 55,116 0.06% 74,488 0.07% 70,537 0.06% 106,831 0.08% 125,792 0.09% 150,332 0.10% 192,182 0.13% 218,403 0.16%
Kalmyks Mongolic 128,809 0.14% 129,786 0.12% 100,603 0.09% 131,318 0.10% 140,103 0.10% 165,103 0.11% 174,000 0.12% 183,372 0.13%
Laks Northeast Caucasian 40,243 0.04% 54,348 0.05% 58,397 0.05% 78,625 0.06% 91,412 0.07% 106,245 0.07% 156,545 0.11% 178,630 0.13%
Georgians South Caucasian 20,551 0.02% 43,585 0.04% 57,594 0.05% 68,971 0.05% 89,407 0.07% 130,688 0.09% 197,934 0.14% 157,803 0.11%
Tabasarans Northeast Caucasian 31,983 0.03% 33,471 0.03% 34,288 0.03% 54,047 0.04% 73,433 0.05% 93,587 0.06% 131,785 0.09% 146,360 0.11%
Adyghe (incl. Shapsugs 1926–1989 and Circassians 1926–1939) Northwest Caucasian 64,959 0.07% 85,588 0.08% 78,561 0.07% 98,461 0.08% 107,239 0.08% 122,908 0.08% 128,528 0.09% 124,835 0.09%
Shapsugs Northwest Caucasian 3,231 0.00% 3,882 0.00%
Circassians Northwest Caucasian 28,986 0.02% 38,356 0.03% 44,572 0.03% 50,572 0.03% 60,517 0.04% 73,184 0.05%
Balkars Turkic 33,298 0.04% 41,949 0.04% 35,249 0.03% 52,969 0.04% 61,828 0.04% 78,341 0.05% 108,426 0.08% 112,924 0.08%
Turks (incl. Meskhetian Turks 1926–1989) Turkic 1,846 0.00% 2,668 0.00% 1,377 0.00% 1,568 0.00% 3,561 0.00% 9,890 0.01% 92,415 0.06% 105,058 0.08%
Meskhetian Turks Turkic 3,527 0.00% 4,825 0.00%
Nogais Turkic 36,089 0.04% 36,088 0.03% 37,656 0.03% 51,159 0.04% 58,639 0.04% 73,703 0.05% 90,666 0.06% 103,660 0.08%
Greeks Indo-European 34,439 0.04% 65,705 0.06% 47,024 0.04% 57,847 0.04% 69,816 0.05% 91,699 0.06% 97,827 0.07% 85,640 0.06%
Kurds (incl. Yazidis 1939–1989) Indo-European 164 0.00% 387 0.00% 855 0.00% 1,015 0.00% 1,634 0.00% 4,724 0.00% 19,607 0.01% 23,232 0.01%
Yazidis Indo-European 1 0.00% 31,273 0.02% 40,586 0.03%
Abazas Northwest Caucasian 13,825 0.01% 14,739 0.01% 19,059 0.02% 24,892 0.02% 28,800 0.02% 32,983 0.02% 37,942 0.03% 43,341 0.03%
Small Dagestan Peoples (SDP) 20,962 0.02%
Rutuls Northeast Caucasian 10,333 0.01% SDP SDP 6,703 0.01% 11,904 0.01% 14,835 0.01% 19,503 0.01% 29,929 0.02% 35,240 0.03%
Aghuls Northeast Caucasian 7,653 0.01% SDP SDP 6,460 0.01% 8,751 0.01% 11,752 0.01% 17,728 0.01% 28,297 0.02% 34,160 0.02%
Tsakhurs Northeast Caucasian 3,533 0.00% SDP SDP 4,437 0.00% 4,730 0.00% 4,774 0.00% 6,492 0.00% 10,366 0.01% 12,769 0.01%
Udis Northeast Caucasian 2 0.00% SDP SDP 35 0.00% 94 0.00% 216 0.00% 1,102 0.00% 3,721 0.00% 4,267 0.00%
Abkhaz Northwest Caucasian 97 0.00% 647 0.00% 1,400 0.00% 2,427 0.00% 4,058 0.00% 7,239 0.00% 11,366 0.01% 11,249 0.01%
Assyrians Semitic 2,791 0.00% 7,446 0.01% 7,612 0.01% 8,098 0.01% 8,708 0.01% 9,622 0.01% 13,649 0.01% 11,084 0.01%
Persians Indo-European 8,626 0.01% 6,041 0.01% 2,490 0.00% 2,548 0.00% 1,747 0.00% 2,572 0.00% 3,821 0.00% 3,696 0.00%
Talysh Indo-European 0 0.00% 47 0.00% 33 0.00% 2 0.00% 202 0.00% 2,548 0.00% 2,529 0.00%
Tats Indo-European 223 0.00% 5,136 0.00% 8,753 0.01% 12,748 0.01% 19,420 0.01% 2,303 0.00% 1,585 0.00%

Peoples of Siberia[edit]

Peoples of Siberia in the Russian Federation, 1926–2010

Ethnic
group
Language
family
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Sakha (icl. Dolgans 1939–1959) Turkic 240,682 0.26% 241,870 0.22% 236,125 0.20% 295,223 0.23% 326,531 0.24% 380,242 0.26% 443,852 0.31% 478,085 0.35%
Dolgans Turkic 656 0.00% 4,718 0.00% 4,911 0.00% 6,584 0.00% 7,261 0.01% 7,885 0.01%
Buryats (incl. Soyots 1939–1989) Mongolic 237,490 0.26% 220,618 0.20% 251,504 0.21% 312,847 0.24% 349,760 0.25% 417,425 0.28% 445,175 0.31% 461,389 0.34%
Soyots Mongolic 229 0.00% 2,769 0.00% 3,608 0.00%
Tuvans Turkic 200 0.00% 794 0.00% 99,864 0.08% 139,013 0.11% 165,426 0.12% 206,160 0.14% 243,442 0.17% 263,934 0.19%
Altay Turkic 52,248 0.06% 46,489 0.04% 44,654 0.04% 54,614 0.04% 58,879 0.04% 69,409 0.05% 77,822 0.05% 89,773 0.06%
Khakas Turkic 45,607 0.05% 52,033 0.05% 56,032 0.05% 65,368 0.05% 69,247 0.05% 78,500 0.05% 76,278 0.05% 72,959 0.05%
Nenets (incl. Enets 1926–1979 and Nganasans 1926–1939) Uralic 17,560 0.02% 24,716 0.02% 22,845 0.02% 28,487 0.02% 29,487 0.02% 34,190 0.02% 41,302 0.03% 44,640 0.03%
Enets Uralic 198 0.00% 237 0.00% 227 0.00%
Nganasans Uralic 721 0.00% 823 0.00% 842 0.00% 1,262 0.00% 834 0.00% 862 0.00%
Evenks Tungusic 38,804 0.03% 29,599 0.02% 24,583 0.02% 25,051 0.02% 27,278 0.02% 29,901 0.02% 35,527 0.02% 37,843 0.03%
Khanty Uralic 22,301 0.02% 18,447 0.02% 19,246 0.02% 21,007 0.02% 20,743 0.02% 22,283 0.02% 28,678 0.02% 30,943 0.02%
Evens Tungusic 2,044 0.00% 9,674 0.01% 9,023 0.01% 11,819 0.01% 12,215 0.01% 17,055 0.01% 19,071 0.01% 22,383 0.02%
Chukchi (incl. Kereks 1926–1989 and Chuvans 1939–1979) Chukotko-Kamchatkan 12,331 0.01% 13,830 0.01% 11,680 0.01% 13,500 0.01% 13,937 0.01% 15,107 0.01% 15,767 0.01% 15,908 0.01%
Kereks Chukotko-Kamchatkan 8 0.00% 4 0.00%
Chuvans Chukotko-Kamchatkan 704 0.00% 1,384 0.00% 1,087 0.00% 1,002 0.00%
Shors Turkic 13,000 0.01% 16,042 0.01% 14,938 0.01% 15,950 0.01% 15,182 0.01% 15,745 0.01% 13,975 0.01% 12,888 0.01%
Mansi Uralic 5,754 0.01% 6,295 0.01% 6,318 0.01% 7,609 0.01% 7,434 0.01% 8,279 0.01% 11,432 0.01% 12,269 0.01%
Nanais Tungusic 5,860 0.01% 8,411 0.01% 7,919 0.01% 9,911 0.01% 10,357 0.01% 11,883 0.01% 12,160 0.01% 12,003 0.01%
Koryaks Chukotko-Kamchatkan 7,437 0.01% 7,337 0.01% 6,168 0.01% 7,367 0.01% 7,637 0.01% 8,942 0.01% 8,743 0.01% 7,953 0.01%
Nivkh Nivkh 4,076 0.00% 3,857 0.00% 3,690 0.00% 4,356 0.00% 4,366 0.00% 4,631 0.00% 5,162 0.00% 4,652 0.00%
Selkups Uralic 1,630 0.00% 2,604 0.00% 3,704 0.00% 4,249 0.00% 3,518 0.00% 3,564 0.00% 4,249 0.00% 3,649 0.00%
Udege (incl. Taz 1926–1989) Tungusic 1,357 0.00% 1,701 0.00% 1,395 0.00% 1,396 0.00% 1,431 0.00% 1,902 0.00% 1,657 0.00% 1,496 0.00%
Taz Sino-Tibetan 276 0.00% 274 0.00%
Small Siberian Peoples (SSP) 11,824 0.01%
Itelmeni Chukotko-Kamchatkan 803 0.00% SSP SSP 1,096 0.00% 1,255 0.00% 1,335 0.00% 2,429 0.00% 3,180 0.00% 3,193 0.00%
Ulchs Tungusic 723 0.00% SSP SSP 2,049 0.00% 2,410 0.00% 2,494 0.00% 3,173 0.00% 2,913 0.00% 2,765 0.00%
Eskimo Eskimo-Aleut 1,292 0.00% SSP SSP 1,111 0.00% 1,265 0.00% 1,460 0.00% 1,704 0.00% 1,750 0.00% 1,738 0.00%
Yukaghir Yukaghir 443 0.00% SSP SSP 440 0.00% 593 0.00% 801 0.00% 1,112 0.00% 1,509 0.00% 1,603 0.00%
Ket Yeniseian 1,428 0.00% SSP SSP 1,017 0.00% 1,161 0.00% 1,072 0.00% 1,084 0.00% 1,494 0.00% 1,219 0.00%
Tofalars Turkic 2,828 0.00% SSP SSP 476 0.00% 570 0.00% 576 0.00% 722 0.00% 837 0.00% 762 0.00%
Orochs (incl. Oroks 1970–1979) Tungusic 646 0.00% SSP SSP 779 0.00% 1,037 0.00% 1,040 0.00% 883 0.00% 686 0.00% 596 0.00%
Oroks Tungusic 162 0.00% SSP SSP 2 0.00% 179 0.00% 346 0.00% 295 0.00%
Negidals Tungusic 683 0.00% SSP SSP 495 0.00% 477 0.00% 587 0.00% 567 0.00% 513 0.00%
Aleut Eskimo-Aleut 353 0.00% SSP SSP 399 0.00% 410 0.00% 489 0.00% 644 0.00% 540 0.00% 482 0.00%

Foreign-born population[edit]

COB data Russia.PNG

Russia experiences a constant flow of immigration. On average, close to 300,000 legal immigrants enter the country every year; about half are ethnic Russians from the other republics of the former Soviet Union. There is a significant inflow of ethnic Armenians, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz and Tajiks into big Russian cities, something that is viewed unfavorably by some citizens.[76] In addition, there are an estimated 4 million illegal immigrants from the ex-Soviet states in Russia.[36]

The Kazakhs in Russia are mostly not recent immigrants. The majority inhabit regions bordering Kazakhstan such as the Astrakhan (16% of the population are Kazakhs), Orenburg (6% of the population are Kazakhs), Omsk (4% of the population are Kazakhs) and Saratov (3% of the population are Kazakhs) oblasts. Together these oblasts host 60% of the Kazakh population in Russia. The number of Kazakhs slightly decreased between 2002 and 2010 due to emigration to Kazakhstan, which has by far the strongest economy in Central Asia; other Central Asian populations, especially Uzbeks, Tajiks, and Kyrgyz, have continued to rise rapidly. (Turkmen are an exception; citizens of Turkmenistan do not have visa-free access to Russia.)

Russian statistical organizations classify the immigrants based on their ethnicity, although the information is published only up to 2007. In that year, the net immigration was 190,397 (plus another 49,546 for which ethnicity was unknown). Of this, 97,813 was Slavic / Germanic / Finnic (51.4%, of which Russian – 72,769, Ukrainian – 17,802), Turkic and other Muslim – 52,536 (27.6%, of which Azeri – 14,084, Tatar – 10,391, Uzbek – 10,517, Tajik – 9,032, Kyrgyz – 7,533 & Kazakh – (-) 1,424) and Others – 40,048 (21.0%, of which Armenian – 25,719).[77]

Peoples of Central Asia in the Russian Federation, 1926–2010

Ethnic
group
Language
family
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Kazakhs Turkic 136,501 0.15% 356,500 0.33% 382,431 0.33% 477,820 0.37% 518,060 0.38% 635,865 0.43% 653,962 0.46% 647,732 0.47%
Uzbeks Turkic 942 0.00% 16,166 0.01% 29,512 0.03% 61,588 0.05% 72,385 0.05% 126,899 0.09% 122,916 0.09% 289,862 0.21%
Tajiks Indo-European 52 0.00% 3,315 0.00% 7,027 0.01% 14,108 0.01% 17,863 0.01% 38,208 0.03% 120,136 0.08% 200,666 0.15%
Kyrgyz Turkic 285 0.00% 6,311 0.01% 4,701 0.00% 9,107 0.01% 15,011 0.01% 41,734 0.03% 31,808 0.02% 103,422 0.08%
Turkmens Turkic 7,849 0.01% 12,869 0.01% 11,631 0.01% 20,040 0.02% 22,979 0.02% 39,739 0.03% 33,053 0.02% 36,885 0.03%
Uygurs Turkic 26 0.00% 642 0.00% 720 0.00% 1,513 0.00% 1,707 0.00% 2,577 0.00% 2,867 0.00% 3,696 0.00%
Karakalpaks Turkic 14 0.00% 306 0.00% 988 0.00% 2,267 0.00% 1,743 0.00% 6,155 0.00% 1,609 0.00% 1,466 0.00%

The 2010 census[14] found the following figures for foreign citizens resident in Russia:
 Uzbekistan: 131,100  Ukraine: 93,400  Tajikistan: 87,100  Azerbaijan: 67,900  Armenia: 59,400  Kyrgyzstan: 44,600  Moldova: 33,900  China: 28,400  Kazakhstan: 28,100  Belarus: 27,700  Georgia: 12,100  Vietnam: 11,100  Turkmenistan: 5,600  Turkey: 5,400  Estonia,  Latvia,  Lithuania: 5,300  India: 4,500 All others: 41,400

Median age and fertility[edit]

Median ages of ethnic groups vary considerably between groups. Ethnic Russians and other Slavic and Finnic groups have higher median age compared to the Caucasian groups.

Median ages are strongly correlated with fertility rates, ethnic groups with higher fertility rates have lower median ages, and vice versa. For example, in 2002, in the ethnic group with the lowest median age – Ingush – women 35 or older had, on average, 4.05 children; in the ethnic group with the highest median age – Jews – women 35 or older averaged only 1.37 children.[78] Ethnic Jews have both the highest median age and the lowest fertility rate; this is a consequence of Jewish emigration.[citation needed]

Ethnic Russians represent a significant deviation from the pattern, with second lowest fertility rate of all major groups, but relatively low median age (37.6 years). This phenomenon is at least partly due to the fact that children from mixed marriages are often registered as ethnic Russians in the census.[citation needed] The most noticeable trend in the past couple of decades is the convergence of birth rates between minorities (including Muslim minorities) and the Russian majority.[citation needed]

The following table shows the variation in median age and fertility rates according to 2002 census.[79]

Ethnic
Group
Median
Age
Male
Female
Urban
Urban
M
Urban
F
Rural
Rural
M
Rural
F
Children
/ woman
(15+)
Children
/ woman
(35+)
Predominant
religion
Russian 37.6 34.0 40.5 37.1 33.5 40.1 39.0 35.7 41.7 1.446 1.828 Christianity
Tatar 37.7 35.3 39.6 37.2 34.7 39.1 38.8 36.5 41.1 1.711 2.204 Islam
Ukrainian 45.9 44.7 47.3 45.6 44.5 46.8 47.0 45.2 49.0 1.726 1.946 Christianity
Bashkir 34.2 32.1 36.2 32.9 30.6 34.7 35.4 33.3 37.6 1.969 2.658 Islam
Chuvash 38.6 36.4 40.4 37.9 36.3 39.1 39.4 36.5 42.5 1.884 2.379 Christianity
Chechen 22.8 22.1 23.5 22.9 22.5 23.4 22.7 21.9 23.5 2.163 3.456 Islam
Armenian 32.8 33.4 32.0 33.0 33.7 32.2 32.1 32.6 31.5 1.68 2.225 Christianity
Mordvin 44.4 42.1 46.9 44.2 42.3 45.9 44.7 41.7 48.5 1.986 2.303 Christianity
Avar 24.6 23.8 25.4 23.8 23.4 24.1 25.1 24.0 26.2 2.09 3.319 Islam
Belarusian 48.0 45.9 50.2 47.7 45.8 49.6 49.1 46.1 52.4 1.765 1.941 Christianity
Kazakh/Kyrgyz 30.2 29.4 31 29.5 29 30.1 30.6 29.7 31.4 2.015 2.964 Islam
Udmurt 40.0 37.4 42.0 41.2 39.0 42.6 38.9 36.1 41.3 1.93 2.378 Christianity
Azerbaijani 29.5 31.9 24.6 30.0 32.3 24.7 26.5 28.7 24.1 1.83 2.619 Islam
Mari 36.7 34.5 38.5 36.4 34.6 37.7 36.9 34.5 39.3 1.917 2.493 Christianity
German 39.7 38.2 41.2 39.6 38.0 41.0 40.0 38.4 41.4 1.864 2.443 Christianity
Kabardin 28.2 27.1 29.3 28.8 27.4 30.2 27.7 26.9 28.4 1.799 2.654 Islam
Ossetian 34.1 32.5 35.7 34.0 32.2 35.7 34.4 33.2 35.6 1.665 2.267 Christianity
Dargwa 24.6 23.9 25.3 24.3 23.8 24.8 24.8 24.0 25.6 2.162 3.476 Islam
Buryat 28.6 26.6 30.5 27.6 25.7 29.5 29.5 27.4 31.5 1.949 2.861 Buddhism
Yakut 26.9 25.1 28.7 26.9 25.2 28.5 27.0 25.1 28.8 1.972 2.843 Christianity
Kumyk 24.6 23.7 25.4 24.8 23.9 25.6 24.4 23.5 25.2 1.977 3.123 Islam
Ingush 22.7 22.4 23.0 22.9 22.5 23.4 22.5 22.3 22.7 2.325 4.05 Islam
Lezgian 25.4 25.2 25.7 25.0 25.2 24.8 25.9 25.2 26.6 2.045 3.275 Islam
Komi 38.8 35.8 41.0 39.4 35.5 41.6 38.3 36.0 40.4 1.869 2.363 Christianity
Tuvan 23.0 21.7 24.2 22.3 21.4 23.3 23.6 22.0 25.1 1.996 3.407 Buddhism
Jewish 57.5 55.7 61.1 57.6 55.7 61.2 53.5 52.0 55.3 1.264 1.371 Judaism
Karachay 29.5 28.3 30.5 27.6 26.4 28.9 30.5 29.5 31.5 1.86 2.836 Islam
Kalmyk 31.3 29.2 33.3 28.6 26.3 31.3 33.9 32.6 35.1 1.853 2.625 Buddhism
Adyghe 34.2 32.4 36.0 32.0 30.3 33.7 36.2 34.2 38.2 1.757 2.363 Islam
Permyak 40.8 38.6 42.7 41.3 39.5 42.5 40.5 38.1 42.8 2.145 2.604 Christianity
Balkar 30.1 29.5 30.7 29.3 28.8 29.8 30.9 30.1 31.9 1.689 2.624 Islam
Karelian 45.7 42.4 48.6 44.7 41.3 47.2 47.0 43.5 51.2 1.823 2.108 Christianity
Kazakh 30.7 28.4 32.9 30.1 27.9 32.4 31.2 28.8 33.5 1.872 2.609 Islam
Altay 27.5 25.5 29.4 22.7 21.5 24.2 28.9 26.9 30.8 2.021 2.933 Buddhism
Cherkess 31.2 30.1 32.3 29.7 28.3 30.9 32.1 31.1 33.3 1.807 2.607 Islam

Languages[edit]

Russian is the common official language throughout Russia understood by 99% of its current inhabitants and widespread in many adjacent areas of Asia and Eastern Europe. National subdivisions of Russia have additional official languages (see their respective articles). There are more than 100 languages spoken in Russia, many of which are in danger of extinction.

Religion[edit]

The most widespread religion in Russia is Eastern Orthodox Christianity, represented by the Russian Orthodox Church. A survey by ВЦИОМ in 2010 (with a 3.4% margin of error) found that 73% of the Russian population is Orthodox and 6% is Muslim. 1% believed in other faiths and the remainder were non-religious, or self-identified atheists or agnostics (self identified religious people and non-religious people can be atheists or agnostics). 16% of the population observed fasting during Lent.[80]

Over 80% of ethnic Russians identify themselves as Orthodox. Of these, approximately 2–4%[81] of the general population are integrated into church life (воцерковленные), while others attend on a less regular basis or not at all. Many non-religious ethnic Russians identify with the Orthodox faith for cultural reasons.[82] The majority of Muslims live in the Volga–Ural region and the North Caucasus, although Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and parts of Siberia also have sizable Muslim populations.[81][83]

Other branches of Christianity present in Russia include Roman Catholicism (approx. 1%), Baptists, Pentecostals, Lutherans and other Protestant churches (together totalling about 0.5% of the population) and Old Believers. There is some presence of Judaism, Buddhism, and Krishnaism, as well. Shamanism and other pagan beliefs are present to some extent in remote areas, sometimes syncretized with one of the mainstream religions.

According to the data of the 2010 Census, presented above, 88, 26% of the people who stated them ethnicity belong to traditional Christian ethnic groups, 10.90% belong to traditional Muslim ethnic groups and 0.84% belong to traditional Budhist, Jewish and other ethnic groups.

Education[edit]

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total literacy: 99.4% (2002)
male: 99.7%
female: 99.2%[83]

Russia's free, widespread and in-depth educational system, inherited with almost no changes from the Soviet Union, has produced nearly 100% literacy. 97% of children receive their compulsory 9-year basic or complete 11-year education in Russian. Other languages are also used in their respective republics, for instance Tatar (1%), Yakut (0.4%) etc.[citation needed]

About 3 million students attend Russia's 519 institutions of higher education and 48 universities. As a result of great emphasis on science and technology in education, Russian medical, mathematical, scientific, and space and aviation research is generally of a high order.[84]

Labour force[edit]

The Russian labour force is undergoing tremendous changes. Although well-educated and skilled, it is largely mismatched to the rapidly changing needs of the Russian economy. The unemployment rate in Russia was 5.3% as of 2013.[85] Unemployment is highest among women and young people. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union and the economic dislocation it engendered, the standard of living fell dramatically. However, since recovering from the 1998 economic crisis, the standard of living has been on the rise. As of 2010 about 13.1% of the population was living below the poverty line, compared to 40% in 1999.[86] The average yearly salary in Russia was $14,302 (about $23,501 PPP) as of October 2013, up from $455 per year in August 1999.[87][88][89]

According to the FMS, as of 2011, there were 7,000,000 immigrants working in Russia. Half of these were from Ukraine, while the remainder was mostly from Central Asia. Only 3 million or less than half of all the immigrants are legal. Illegal immigrants number 4 million, mostly from Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Moldova.[36] The Census usually covers only a part of this population and the last one (2002 Census) counted one million non-citizens.

Population of main cities[edit]

Rural life[edit]

Rural life in Russia is distinct from many other nations. Russia is one of few nations that have small towns hundreds of kilometres from major population centres. Relatively few Russian people live in villages—rural population accounted for 26% of the total population according to the 2010 Russian Census. Some people own or rent village houses and use them as dachas (summer houses).

See also[edit]

Soviet Union:

Census information:

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Further reading[edit]

  • Gavrilova N.S., Gavrilov L.A. Aging Populations: Russia/Eastern Europe. In: P. Uhlenberg (Editor), International Handbook of the Demography of Aging, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2009, pp. 113–131.
  • Gavrilova N.S., Semyonova V.G., Dubrovina E., Evdokushkina G.N., Ivanova A.E., Gavrilov L.A. Russian Mortality Crisis and the Quality of Vital Statistics. Population Research and Policy Review, 2008, 27: 551–574.
  • Gavrilova, N.S., Gavrilov, L.A., Semyonova, V.G., Evdokushkina, G.N., Ivanova, A.E. 2005. Patterns of violent crime in Russia. In: Pridemore, W.A. (ed.). Ruling Russia: Law, Crime, and Justice in a Changing Society. Boulder, CO: Rowman & Littlefield Publ., Inc, 117–145
  • Gavrilova, N.S., Semyonova, V.G., Evdokushkina G.N., Gavrilov, L.A. The response of violent mortality to economic crisis in Russia. Population Research and Policy Review, 2000, 19: 397–419.

External links[edit]