Demographics of Kazakhstan

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Demographics of Kazakhstan
Population of Kazakhstan.PNG
Population of Kazakhstan (in millions) from 1950-2009.
Population 17,165,239 (Jan, 2013)
Density 5.94/km2
Growth rate 13.5/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Birth rate 22.4 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Death rate 8.9 deaths/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Life expectancy 67.87 years
 • male 62.58 years
 • female 73.47 years (2009 est.)
Fertility rate 2.65 children born/woman (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate 18.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Age structure
0–14 years 21.8% (male 1,717,469/female 1,643,920)
15–64 years 70.2% (male 5,279,292/female 5,534,607)
65 and over 7.9% (male 426,494/female 797,655) (2009 est.)
Sex ratio
At birth 0.94 male(s)/female
Under 15 1.04 male(s)/female
15–64 years 0.95 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.54 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality Kazakh(s), Kazakhstani
Major ethnic Kazakh
Minor ethnic Russian, Uzbek, Ukrainian, Uyghur, Tatar, German
Language
Official Kazakh
Spoken Kazakh, Russian

The Demographics of Kazakhstan enumerate the demographic features of the population of Kazakhstan, including population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population. The adjective to describe people or things from Kazakhstan is Kazakh[1][2][3] (though the US State Department uses Kazakhstani).[4] The name of the indigenous ethnic group that comprises majority is kazakhs.

Demographic trends[edit]

Official estimates put the population of Kazakhstan at 16,500,000 as of April 2011, of which 46% is rural and 54% urban population.[5] The 2009 population estimate is 6.8% higher than the population reported in the last census from January 1999 (slightly less than 15 million). These estimates have been confirmed by the 2009 population census, and this means that the decline in population that began after 1989 has been arrested and reversed.

The proportion of men makes up 48.3%, the proportion of women 51.7%. The proportion of Kazakhs makes up 63.6%, Russians 23.7%, Uzbeks 2.9%, Ukrainians 2.1%, Uygur 1.4%, Tatars 1.3%, Germans 1.1%, others 3.9%.

The population of Kazakhstan increased steadily from 6.1 million in the 1939 census to 16.5 million in the 1989 census. Official estimates indicate that the population continued to increase after 1989, peaking out at 17 million in 1993 and then declining to 15 million in the 1999 census. The downward trend continued through 2002, when the estimated population bottomed out at 14.9 million, and then resumed its growth.[6] Significant amounts of Russians returned to Russia. Kazakhstan underwent significant urbanization during the first 50 years of the Soviet era, as the share of rural population declined from more than 90% in the 1920s to less than 50% since the 1970s.[7]

Population of Kazakhstan 1939-2014[edit]

Year (January) Population ('000) Rural, % Urban, % Source
1939 6,081 72 28 census
1959 9,295 56 44 census
1970 13,001 50 50 census
1979 14,685 46 54 census
1989 16,537 43 57 census
1999 14,953 43 57 census
2002 14,851 43 57 estimate
2005 15,075 43 57 estimate
2008 15,572 47 53 estimate
2009 15,982 46 54 census
2010 16,203 46 54 estimate
2011 16,440 45 55 estimate
2012 16,673 45 55 estimate
2013 16,909 45 55 estimate
2014 17,160 45 55 estimate
Data sources: Population 1939-1999 from demoscope.ru,[6] 2002-2008 from Kazakhstan Statistical Agency web site.[8] Rural/urban shares 1939-1993 from statistical yearbooks, print editions,[7] 2002-2008 from Kazakhstan Statistical Agency web site.[8] 2009-2014 from Kazakhstan Statistical Agency web site.[9]

As of 2003, there were discrepancies between Western sources regarding the population of Kazakhstan. United States government sources, including the CIA World Fact Book and the US Census Bureau International Data Base, listed the population as 15,340,533,[10] while the World Bank gave a 2002 estimate of 14,794,830.[citation needed] This discrepancy was presumably due to difficulties in measurement caused by the large migratory population in Kazakhstan, emigration, and low population density - only about 5.5 persons per km² in an area the size of Western Europe.

Vital statistics[edit]

Births and deaths[11][12][13][edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births1 Deaths1 Natural change1 Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1950 6 703 254 169 79 005 175 164 37.9 11.8 26.1
1951 6 946 272 354 80 553 191 801 39.2 11.6 27.6
1952 7 133 265 235 85 241 179 994 37.2 12.0 25.2
1953 7 271 262 758 73 930 188 828 36.1 10.2 26.0
1954 7 528 278 420 76 092 202 328 37.0 10.1 26.9
1955 7 992 299 854 73 283 226 571 37.5 9.2 28.3
1956 8 426 305 430 64 807 240 623 36.3 7.7 28.6
1957 8 722 326 766 68 050 258 716 37.5 7.8 29.7
1958 9 077 336 020 62 680 273 340 37.0 6.9 30.1
1959 9 516 349 794 69 602 280 192 36.8 7.3 29.4
1960 9 996 372 595 65 667 306 928 37.2 6.6 30.7
1961 10 480 377 789 68 610 309 179 36.1 6.5 29.5
1962 10 958 369 002 70 952 298 050 33.7 6.5 27.2
1963 11 321 346 084 67 218 278 866 30.6 5.9 24.6
1964 11 610 324 412 66 197 258 215 27.9 5.7 22.2
1965 11 909 314 533 69 803 244 730 26.4 5.9 20.6
1966 12 185 307 905 69 402 238 503 25.3 5.7 19.6
1967 12 456 301 715 71 824 229 891 24.2 5.8 18.5
1968 12 694 296 882 73 496 223 386 23.4 5.8 17.6
1969 12 901 297 129 78 660 218 469 23.0 6.1 16.9
1970 13 106 301 451 77 619 223 832 23.0 5.9 17.1
1971 13 321 317 423 79 881 1237 542 23.8 6.0 17.8
1972 13 534 318 551 85 122 233 429 23.5 6.3 17.2
1973 13 742 321 075 90 282 230 793 23.4 6.6 16.8
1974 13 955 338 291 93 582 244 709 24.2 6.7 17.5
1975 14 136 343 668 101 865 241 803 24.3 7.2 17.1
1976 14 279 350 362 103 892 246 470 24.5 7.3 17.3
1977 14 425 349 379 105 376 244 003 24.2 7.3 16.9
1978 14 589 355 337 107 293 248 044 24.4 7.4 17.0
1979 14 743 354 320 113 687 240 633 24.0 7.7 16.3
1980 14 884 356 013 119 078 236 935 23.9 8.0 15.9
1981 15 033 367 950 120 974 246 976 24.5 8.0 16.4
1982 15 185 373 416 120 165 253 251 24.6 7.9 16.7
1983 15 334 378 577 123 807 254 770 24.7 8.1 16.6
1984 15 481 399 403 129 796 269 607 25.8 8.4 17.4
1985 15 623 396 929 126 786 270 143 25.4 8.1 17.3
1986 15 776 410 846 119 149 291 697 26.0 7.6 18.5
1987 15 948 417 139 122 835 294 304 26.2 7.7 18.5
1988 16 188 407 116 126 898 280 218 25.3 7.9 17.4
1989 16 243 382 269 126 378 255 891 23.5 7.8 15.8
1990 16 328 362 081 128 576 233 505 22.2 7.9 14.3
1991 16 405 353 174 134 324 218 850 21.5 8.2 13.3 2.67
1992 16 439 337 612 137 518 200 094 20.5 8.4 12.2 2.62
1993 16 381 315 482 156 070 159 412 19.3 9.5 9.7 2.54
1994 16 146 305 624 160 339 145 285 18.9 9.9 9.0 2.43
1995 15 816 276 125 168 656 107 469 17.5 10.7 6.8 2.21
1996 15 578 253 175 166 028 87 147 16.3 10.7 5.6 2.02
1997 15 334 232 356 160 138 72 218 15.2 10.4 4.7 1.93
1998 15 072 222 380 154 314 68 066 14.8 10.2 4.5 1.81
1999 14 939 217 578 147 416 70 162 14.6 9.9 4.7 1.79
2000 14 915 222 054 149 778 72 276 14.9 10.0 4.8 1.88
2001 14 910 221 487 147 876 73 611 14.9 9.9 4.9 1.84
2002 14 931 227 171 149 381 77 790 15.2 10.0 5.2 1.88
2003 15 002 247 946 155 277 92 669 16.5 10.4 6.2 2.03
2004 15 126 273 028 152 250 120 778 18.0 10.1 8.0 2.21
2005 15 281 278 977 157 121 121 856 18.3 10.3 8.0 2.22
2006 15 463 301 756 157 210 144 546 19.5 10.2 9.3 2.36
2007 15 659 321 963 158 297 163 666 20.6 10.1 10.5 2.47
2008 15 870 356 575 152 706 203 869 22.5 9.6 12.8 2.68
2009 16 093 356 378 143 238 213 140 22.1 8.9 13.2 2.55
2010 16 322 367 942 146 370 221 572 22.5 9.0 13.6 2.60
2011 16 557 372 801 144 944 227 857 22.5 8.8 13.8 2.59
2012 16 791 381 005 142 880 238 125 22.7 8.5 14.2 2.62
2013 17 035 393 421 137 630 255 791 23.1 8.1 15.0 2.64
2014 17 289 401 066 132 236 268 830 23.2 7.6 15.5

1 Births and deaths until 1979 are estimates.

Total fertility rate[edit]

Total fertility rate by regions of Kazakhstan: Mangystau - 3,80, South Kazakhstan - 3,71, Kyzylorda - 3,42, Atyrau - 3,29, Jambyl - 3,20, Aqtobe - 2,70, Almaty (province) - 2,65, Almaty (city) - 2,65, City of Astana - 2,44, West Kazakhstan - 2,29, Aqmola - 2,19, East Kazakhstan - 2,07, Qaragandy - 2,04, Pavlodar - 1,98, North Kazakhstan - 1,72, Qostanay - 1,70, Republic of Kazakhstan - 2,65. Thus it can be seen that fertility rate is higher in more traditionalist and religious south and west, and lower in the north and east, where the percentage of Slavic and German population is still relatively high.[14]

According to the Kazakhstan Demographic and Health Survey in 1999, the TFR for Kazakhs was 2.5 and that for Russians was 1.38. TFR in 1989 for Kazakhs & Russians were 3.58 and 2.24 respectively.[15]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Kazakhstan demographics 1897-1970. Major ethnic groups. Famines of 1920s and 1930s are marked with shades.
Kazakhstan ethic composition by age in 2013.

History of Ethnic Composition[edit]

Russian infiltration into the territory of Kazakhstan began in the late 18th century, when the Kazakhs nominally accepted Russian vassalship in exchange for protection against repeated attacks by the western Mongolian Kalmyks. In the 1890s, Russian peasants began to settle the fertile lands of northern Kazakhstan, causing many Kazakhs to move eastwards into Chinese territory in search of new grazing grounds. The 1906 completion of the Trans-Aral Railway between Orenburg and Tashkent further facilitated Russian colonization.[16][17] The first collectivized farms opened in Kazakhstan in 1921, populated primarily by Russians and Soviet deportees. In 1930, as part of the first Five Year Plan, the Kazakh Central Committee decreed the sedentarization of nomads and their incorporation into collectivized farms. This movement resulted in devastating famine, claiming the lives of an estimated 40% of ethnic Kazakhs (1.5 million), between 1930-33.[18] Hundreds of thousands also fled to China, Iran and Afghanistan. The famine rendered Kazakhs a minority within Kazakhstan, and only after the republic gained independence in 1991 did Kazakhs recover a slim demographic majority within their own country.[16]

Demographics would continue to shift in the 1950-1960s, wherein as part of Nikita Kruschev's Virgin Lands Campaign, hundreds of thousands of Soviet deportees were relocated to the Kazakh steppes in order to farm. As recognized in the 1959 census, the Kazaks became a minority in their own land for the first time in history, composing just Kazakhs 30% of total population. Russians numbered 42.7%.[19]

According to the 2009 census, the ethnic composition of Kazakhstan is approximately: 63.1% Kazakh, 23.7% Russian, 2.9% Uzbek, 2.1% Ukrainian, 1.4% Uyghur, 1.3% Tatar, 1.1% German, 1% Kyrgyz, and <1% Korean, Turkish, Azerbaijani, Belarusian, Dungan, Kurd, Tajik, Pole, Chechen.[20]

Population of Kazakhstan according to ethnic group 1926–2009
Ethnic
group
census 18971 census 19262 census 19393 census 19594 census 19705 census 19796 census 19897 census 19998 census 20098
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Kazakhs 3,392,751 73.9 3,627,612 58.5 2,327,625 37.8 2,794,966 30.0 4,161,164 32.4 5,289,349 36.0 6,534,616 39.7 8,011,452 53.5 10,096,763 63.1
Russians 454,402 12.8 1,275,055 20.6 2,458,687 40.0 3,974,229 42.7 5,499,826 42.8 5,991,205 40.8 6,227,549 37.8 4,480,675 29.9 3,793,764 23.7
Uzbeks 295,64 1.3 129,407 2.1 120,655 2.0 136,570 1.5 207,514 1.6 263,295 1.8 332,017 2.0 370,765 2.5 456,997 2.9
Ukrainians 860,201 13.9 860,201 13.9 658,319 10.7 762,131 8.2 930,158 7.2 897,964 6.1 896,240 5.4 547,065 3.7 333,031 2.1
Uygurs 11,631 0.2 35,409 0.6 59,840 0.6 120,784 0.9 147,943 1.0 185,301 1.1 210,377 1.4 224,713 1.4
Tatars 55,984 1.1 79,758 1.3 108,127 1.8 191,802 2.1 281,849 2.2 312,626 2.1 327,982 2.0 249,052 1.7 204,229 1.3
Germans 51,094 0.8 92,571 1.5 659,800 7.1 839,649 6.5 900,207 6.1 957,518 5.8 353,462 2.4 178,409 1.1
Koreans 42 0.0 96,453 1.6 74,019 0.8 78,078 0.6 91,984 0.6 103,315 0.6 99,944 0.7 100,385 0.6
Turks 46 0.0 523 0.0 9,916 0.1 18,397 0.1 25,820 0.2 49,567 0.3 75,950 0.5 97,015 0.6
Azerbaijanis 20 0.0 12,996 0.2 38,362 0.4 56,166 0.4 73,345 0.5 90,083 0.5 78,325 0.5 85,292 0.5
Belarusians 25,584 0.4 31,614 0.5 107,463 1.2 197,592 1.5 181,491 1.2 182,601 1.1 111,924 0.7 66,476 0.4
Dungans 8,455 0.1 7,415 0.1 9,980 0.1 17,283 0.1 22,491 0.2 30,165 0.2 36,945 0.2 51,944 0.3
Kurds 2,387 0.0 6,109 0.1 12,299 0.1 17,692 0.1 25,425 0.2 32,764 0.2 38,325 0.2
Tajiks 7,599 0.1 11,229 0.2 8,075 0.1 7,166 0.1 19,293 0.1 25,514 0.2 25,673 0.2 36,277 0.2
Poles 3,742 0.1 54,809 0.9 53,102 0.6 61,355 0.5 61,136 0.4 59,956 0.4 47,302 0.3 34,057 0.2
Chechens 3 0.0 2,639 0.0 130,232 1.4 34,492 0.3 38,256 0.3 49,507 0.3 31,802 0.2 31,431 0.2
Kyrgyz 10,200 0.2 5,033 0.1 6,810 0.1 9,474 0.1 9,352 0.1 14,112 0.1 10,925 0.1 23,274 0.1
Others 108,016 1.7 124,611 2.0 286,441 3.1 315,347 2.5 340,834 2.3 372,996 2.3 206,879 1.4 157,215 1.0
Total 6,198,465 6,151,102 9,309,847 12,848,573 14,684,283 16,464,464 14,981,281 16,009,597
1 Excluding the Kara-Kalpak AO; source:.[21] 2 Source:.[22] 3 Source:.[23] 4 Source:.[24] 5 Source:.[25] 6 Source:.[26] 7 Source:[27]

Religions[edit]

Religions of Kazakhstan
(National census 2009 preliminary results[28])
Respondents' declarations Number
in thousands
Share
%
Islam 11,237.9 70.19
Christianity 4,190.1 26.17
Judaism 5.3 0.03
Buddhism 14.6 0.09
Other religions 30.1 0.19
No religious affiliation 450.5 2.81
No answer 81 0.51
Kazakhstan 16,009.6 100

References[edit]

  1. ^ UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Kazakhstan, 2 Feb 2011.
  2. ^ "News & featured articles". Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  3. ^ Ambassador Erlan A Idissov, Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the USA.
  4. ^ "Kazakhstan". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  5. ^ [1], Statistical Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Russian)
  6. ^ a b Population dynamics and ethnic composition of Kazakhstan in the second half of the 20th century, Demoscope Weekly, No. 103-104, 3–16 March 2003 (Russian)
  7. ^ a b Statistical Yearbook of Kazakhstan, Almaty, various years since 1980 (Russian)
  8. ^ a b Population and social policy, Statistical Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Russian)
  9. ^ [2] Statistical Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Russian)
  10. ^ CIA Factbook (Kazakhstan) Retrieved on May 2, 2008
  11. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2.htm#2001 United nations. Demographic Yearbooks
  12. ^ "Халық". Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  13. ^ Естественное движение населения республик СССР, 1935 [Natural population growth of the Republics of the USSR, 1935] (in Russian). Demoscope.ru. Retrieved 31 March 2015. 
  14. ^ [3]
  15. ^ Kazakhstan: Demographic and Health Survey, 1999 - Final Report, Chapter 4: Fertility
  16. ^ a b Olcott, M. B. (1995). The Kazakhs. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
  17. ^ Pierce, A. R. (1960) Russian Central Asia, 1867-1917: A study in colonial rule. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  18. ^ Pianciola, N. (2001). The collectivization famine in Kazakhstan, 1931–1933. Harvard Ukrainian Studies, 25(3/4), 237–251. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41036834
  19. ^ Zardykhan, Z. (2004). Russians in Kazakhstan and demographic change: Imperial legacy and the Kazakh way of nation building. Asian Ethnicity, 5(1), 61–79.
  20. ^ Central Intelligence Agency. (2014). Kazakhstan. In The World Factbook 2013-14. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kz.html
  21. ^ "Äåìîñêîï Weekly - Ïðèëîæåíèå. Ñïðàâî÷íèê ñòàòèñòè÷åñêèõ ïîêàçàòåëåé.". Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  22. ^ "Äåìîñêîï Weekly - Ïðèëîæåíèå. Ñïðàâî÷íèê ñòàòèñòè÷åñêèõ ïîêàçàòåëåé.". Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  23. ^ "Äåìîñêîï Weekly - Ïðèëîæåíèå. Ñïðàâî÷íèê ñòàòèñòè÷åñêèõ ïîêàçàòåëåé.". Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  24. ^ "Äåìîñêîï Weekly - Ïðèëîæåíèå. Ñïðàâî÷íèê ñòàòèñòè÷åñêèõ ïîêàçàòåëåé.". Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  25. ^ "Äåìîñêîï Weekly - Ïðèëîæåíèå. Ñïðàâî÷íèê ñòàòèñòè÷åñêèõ ïîêàçàòåëåé.". Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  26. ^ "Äåìîñêîï Weekly - Ïðèëîæåíèå. Ñïðàâî÷íèê ñòàòèñòè÷åñêèõ ïîêàçàòåëåé.". Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  27. ^ http://www.stat.kz/p_perepis/Documents/Перепись%20рус.pdf
  28. ^ National census 2009 preliminary results

Bibliography[edit]

  • Rasuly-Paleczek, Gabriele; Katschnig, Julia (2005), Central Asia on Display: Proceedings of the VIIth Conference of the European Society for Central Asian Studies, LIT Verlag Münster, ISBN 3-8258-8309-4 .

External links[edit]

For current data, use these sites.