Gouthu Latchanna

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Gouthu Latchanna
Born Gouthu Latchanna (గౌతు లచ్చన్న)
(1909-08-16)16 August 1909
Barua, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh
Died 19 April 2006(2006-04-19)
Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh
Spouse(s) Gouthu Yashoda
Children Gouthu Sundar Sivaji, Jhansi Lakshmi Ravala, Susila Devi Kasimkota

Sardar Gouthu Latchanna (16 August 1909 – 19 April 2006) was a veteran freedom fighter from India.

"It is an inspiration for the younger generation to learn about Sardar Gouthu Latchanna's dedication and selfless service to the nation."

Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Former Prime Minister of India, New Delhi, 8 August 1998.

"Latchanna is essentially a humanist and spokesman of the suffering humanity of India. He is not only a champion of humanism in theory, on platform and in the press, but also a tireless and sincere practitioner of humanism".

– Prof. N. G. Ranga.

"Sardar Gouthu Latchanna is a revered freedom fighter. His life of self-abnegation and service for the down-trodden is a model for all of us, and in particular the youth to draw inspiration and to emulate".

P. V. Narasimha Rao, Former Prime Minister of India, New Delhi, 1992.

Personal life[edit]

Dr. Gouthu Latchanna was born in Baruva village of the Sompeta mandal, Srikakulam district in the state of Andhra Pradesh on 16 August 1909. He was the eighth child of Chittaiah, a toddy tapper and Rajamma. He married Yashodha Devi, who died in 1996.

He died at the age of 98 in Visakhapatnam on 19 April 2006 and is survived by son Shyama Sunder Sivaji, who is MLA from Sompeta, and two daughters Jhansi and Sushila.[1]

Freedom fighter and people's leader[edit]

He was a champion of kisans, backward classes, weaker sections and one of the most prominent leaders of his time. He was arrested at a very young age of 21 when he participated in the Salt Satyagraha at Palasa. Latchanna also participated in the Quit India Movement. He was conferred the tile of sardar for his fearless fight against the British Raj.

He was the born leader of masses, freedom fighter and social reformer. Till Independence, he fought against British. After the end of British Raj, it was on political and social fronts for the sake of farmers, labourers,and the working class. He founded Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) – a trade union to represent the industrial class as a founding president and was also the member of Madras Trade Union Board.[2] He was instrumental in bringing down the government of Prakasham Panthulu on the issues of prohibition.

Freedom fighter[edit]

He participated in swaraj movement right from age of 21 with Salt Satyagraha at Palasa, and subsequently was arrested in connection with salt-cotaurs[3] raid at Naupada in April 1930. As an undertrail, he was sent to Tekkali and Narasannapeta sub-jails in Srikakulam. After conviction, he was sent to Berhampur jail in Ganjam to undergo rigorous imprisonment for one month.[4] After the Gandhi–Irwin Pact in 1931, he organised Satyagraha camp at Baruva and conducted picketing of toddy, liquor, and foreign cloth shops in Ichchapuram, Sompeta and Tekkali as permitted by the British Government as part of the Gandhi–Irwin Pact.[5] In 1932, he participated in the civil disobedience movement by hoisting the Congress flag at Baruva, was lathi-charged for violating prohibitory orders and was imprisoned in Rajahmundry central jail for six months.[6]

In 1932, after getting released from Rajahmundry jail, having been inspired by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's "fast-unto-death" on the issue of untouchability, Latchanna organised "Harijan Seva Sangam" at Baruva. He started a night school in the harijan-cheri, agitated at the district level against untouchability, and took harijans to a drinking water well at Baruva. He and his colleagues were socially boycotted in response.[7][8]

As a secretary of Andhra Rashtra Congree Committee, he organised a reception at Eluru for the soldiers of Azad Hind Fauz, revived by Subhas Chandra Bose.[9] Latchanna participated in the Quit India Movement in 1942, which ultimately led to violent raids on the Kalingapatnam post office, armoury train derailment in his native village Baruva, no-tax campaign, and raids on srikakulam sub-collector offices. Then Madras government announced the prize of 10,000 rupees for whereabout information of Latchanna, failing to trace him, government issued orders for shoot-at-sight.[10][11] While underground he was invited for the South Indian Congress leaders meeting at Madras. Latchanna and Killi Appala Naidu started proceeding to Madras. A message about this was sent by Andhra Congress dictator Sampath Kumar through Jayanthi Dharma Teja, which led to the arrest of Latchanna at Rajahmundry in 1943 while he was on his way to Madras. Latchanna was sentenced for one year for possessing seditious literature and sent to Alipuram camp jail while Killi Appala Naidu was sent as a detenue to Tanjavur central jail.[12] Immediately after the release from Alipuram camp jail, he was re-arrested at the gate and sent to Cannanore central jail, Tanjavur central jail and then to Rayavellore jail. He was finally released from Rayavellore jail in October 1945.

Revolutionary influence[edit]

With imprisonment in Rajahmundry central jail aftermath the civil disobedience in 1932, he came in contact with revolutionists like Vijay Kumar Sinha (Bijoy Kumar Sinha) and Siva Verma who were life imprisoned in Lahore Conspiracy Case in connection with Bhagat Singh who were also imprisoned in the same block in which Latchanna was imprisoned.[13] Siva Verma and B.J. Sinha were transferred from Cellular Jail to Rajahmundry central prison aftermath the fast-unto-death in demand for separate treatment for political prisoners. Latchanna along with Andhra colleagues like Anne Anjayya and Alluri Satyanarayanaraju used to have long discussions in prison about "Indian Republic Revolutionary Party" organisation. They decided to start the similar revolutionary party in Andhra after their release. As Latchanna was released with 6 months conviction before his Andhra colleagues who were convicted for one year, he and his colleagues decided to meet again to start revolutionary party after release too.[14] In the meantime, Latchanna went to Cuttack, Kharagpur, Tatanagar, and Calcutta to meet the "Indian Republic Revolutionary Party" leaders for joining their movement as promised to Siva Verma and B.K. Sinha. By the time he went, all the revolutionary party members were either arrested or went underground. During this time, he fell ill in Tatanagar and was brought back home by his brother from Tatanagar.[15][16]

Leader for Kisans[edit]

Around 1932, after his return from Tatanagar to Baruva, Latchanna participated in the foot-march of Rythu-Rakshana call given by N. G. Ranga from Varanasi of parlakimide estate to Chatrapur. He organised estate wise "Zamindari Rythu" associations, organised indirect no-tax campaign, fought for the abolition of Zamindari system on the plea that Kisans were unable to pay the heavy land revenue levied.[17]

In 1940, he organised All India Kisan Sabha at Palasa which were attented by Pullela Syama Sundara Rao, N. G. Ranga, Sahajanand Saraswati, and Indulal Yagnik. The committee took the long reception of tens and thousands of hill tribals and kisans with an effigy of Zamindari system and got it burnt publicly. It was followed by public meeting of the All India Kisan Sabha violating the prohibitory orders of then Composite Madras government.[18] Immediately, after the All India Kisan Sabha at Palasa, the "Mandasa Ryots" under the leadership of lady "Veeragunnamma" of Gudari Rajamanipuram, took out a procession with their bullock carts into the forest of the Mandasa Zamindari, cut trees and took them to their villages openly by driving away the estate forest guards. This led to the arrest of kisans by police under subcollector of Srikakulam. Veeragunnamma died in aftermath police firing when she surrounded sub collector office for the release of kisans.[19] Latchanna along with Syama Sundara Rao visited Mandasa village to talk with sub collector, but were denied interview. Latchanna visited the village and opened a defence camp at Haripuram to prevent police harassment of kisans. When police were finding it difficult in preparing charge sheet against kisans, Latchanna was interned at his native village, Baruva. In spite of intensive vigilance, Latchanna toured the villages during nights and exhorted public. This secret assistance forced district collector in ordering the detention of Latchanna, which he escaped by going underground. While underground, he fought the case and got the case struck down from sessions court.[20]

Leader for weaker sections[edit]

In 1941 when Rangoon was bombarded during Second World War, Latchanna in spite of being underground, arranged “Burma refugee’s conference” at Narasannapeta, presided by N.G. Ranga to assist the Indian labourers in Burma who fled to their native land, India. As a result of this conference, the then Madras government was obliged to provide relief to the evacuees by constituting "Burma evacuees relief committee".[21]

He was the founder and president of the Andhra State Unit of the Indian National Trade Union Congress, which he continued till 1955. He was the president of Shipyard Labour Union at Visakhapatnam and was instrumental in organising strikes, getting pay scale hikes and introduction of service grades for the workers.[22]

On the third day after his marriage, he was obliged to proceed to Rangoon to get the Indian labourers released who were in the concentration camps aftermath the assassination of Aung San.[23]

Leader for backward castes[edit]

In 1948, he presided over first Andhra backward classes conference at Guntur and decided to achieve legitimate rights and privileges embodied in the Constitution of India covering reservations and directives for their social, economical, and education development. Consequently, he took statewide tours and organised district backward classes associations, which made him designated as champion of backward classes and was considered one of the prominent leaders of his time. In 1957 after the formation of united Andhra Pradesh, chief justice of Andhra Pradesh high court struck down the list of Other Backward Classes approved by government of Andhra Pradesh acting on a private complaint. Latchanna started a state wide agitation for the restoration of list of Other Backward Classes, a statutory obligation under the Articles 15(4) and 16(4) of the Constitution of India. List of Other Backward Classes were restored when Damodaram Sanjivayya became chief minister of Andhra Pradesh.[24] High Court again struck down the list of Other Backward Classes for including Kapu community in the Other Backward Classes. Latchanna again, started state wide agitation and demanded the government of Andhra Pradesh to renew the publication of backward classes list by omitting Kapu. The case finally went to Supreme Court of India to be represented by advocate P. Shiv Shankar on behalf of government along with an advocate appointed by Latchanna on behalf of Andhra Pradesh backward classes association. Supreme Court of India gave a favourable judgement asking the government of Andhra Pradesh to publish the list of backward classes caste wise establishing their social and economical backwardness. In consequence, the Government of Andhra Pradesh appointed the "Ananta Raman Commission" which recommended the list of Backward Classes by dividing them into 4 groups as A, B,C & D.[25]

After N. T. Rama Rao came to power in Andhra Pradesh, when he cancelled Backward Classes scholarship grants against his election manifesto including cancellations of licenses of the toddy tappers co-operative societies for public auctions, Latchanna took serious objection and did satyagraha on behalf of the backward classes students and toddy tappers co-operative societies for cancelling public auctions. During N. T. Rama Rao regime with statewide agitations, Latchanna was arrested more than 14 times forcing him to take fast-unto-death to accomplish the demands.[26] After Nadendla Bhaskara Rao overthrown N. T. Rama Rao regime through coupe, Nadendla Bhaskara Rao fulfilled the demands of Latchanna.[27]

From 1984, disgusted with opportunistic politics of different political parties, Latchanna mostly concentrated in raising awareness among oppressed classes using his monthly publication "Bahujana".[28][29] He tried to join Bahujan Samaj Party under the leadership of Kanshiram for the upliftment to Schedule Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Backward Classes. He announced his joining in Bahujan Samaj Party in 1994 at Hyderabad, but couldn't join the Bahujan Samaj Party due to certain ideological differences which were against backward classes of Andhra Pradesh, as he felt, Kanshiram was trying to exploit backward classes for only votes.[30]

Political life[edit]

He was member of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly for 35 years from Sompeta constituency between 1948–83 and once member of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Council. Latchanna had won both the Lok Sabha and Assembly elections from Srikakulam district in 1967. But he resigned his Lok Sabha membership to facilitate the election of his political mentor late N.G. Ranga.[31] He was first elected to Assembly in 1948 from Visakhapatnam on labour ticket and served as Minister for Agriculture and Labour. He left Congress party in 1951 and was arrested during emergency in 1975 imposed by then prime minister Smt. Indira Gandhi. He later joined Lok Dal party and then to Janata Dal party under the leadership of former prime ministers Charan Singh and Vishwanath Pratap Singh respectively.

He initially got elected as president of then Ganjam district Congress Committee. He became member of Andhra Rashtra Congress Committee and All India Congress Committee from 1934 to 1951. From 1946 to 1951, he was elected as joint secretary of Andhra Rashtra Congress Committee. As secretary of Andhra Congress Sevadal, he conducted Congress Sevadal Officer's Training Camp for both men and women at Palasa in Srikakulam.

During 1946 Madras assembly elections, he was denied congress ticket against the wishes of congress workers on the pretext of being violent when underground. Instead, Latchanna made Rokkam Rammurthy Naidu get the nomination and played a decisive role in getting him elected.[32] When Latchanna was in Rangoon, Babu Rajendra Prasad sent a telegram to Latchanna to file nomination for Visakhapatnam by-election from Indian National Congress in 1948. He was elected to Madras assembly defeating both communist and socialist candidates.

In 1951, he along with Tanguturi Prakasam and N.G. Ranga resigned Congress and organised Hyderabad State Praja Party which was further split into Krishikar Lok Party for peasants with N.G. Ranga as the president and Latchanna as the secretary.[33] In 1952 first General elections of independent India, Latchanna got elected to Madras assembly along with 11 more members in the composite Visakhapatnam district on Krishikar Lok Party ticket by defeating congress candidate. He then became, the leader of Krishikar Lok Party in Madras assembly.[34]

Agitation for Andhra statehood[edit]

Gouthu Latchanna was actively involved in the separate statehood for Andhra through separation from composite Madras from 1953. When government of India constituted a partition committee under C.M. Trivedi, he represented from Krishikar Lok Party, T. Viswanadham from Praja Party and Sanjeeva Reddy from Congress ultimately reached its climax with fast-unto-death sacrifice of Potti Sriramulu. On 1 October 1953 Andhra state was formed with Tanguturi Prakasam as chief minister who rejoined Congress from Praja Party. Latchanna from Krishikar Lok Party joined the cabinet of Tanguturi Prakasam in 11 November 1953 to get the working majority in assembly with Kurnool as capital.[35][36] Latchanna resigned from Tanguturi Prakasam on issue of state capital in 1954.[37]

Agitation for Toddy Tapper Cooperative Societies[edit]

In 1954, with the enactment of Prohibition Act, the excise department harassed lakhs of toddy tappers who were thrown out of employment. Latchanna organised and led the tappers satyagraha to secure rehabilitation for the unemployed tappers. More than 6000 toddy tappers court arrested and sent to jail.[38] Yashodadevi, wife of Latchanna did satyagraha in Guntur with 25,000 tappers. Finally, when Latchanna passed no-confidence motion against Tanguturi Prakasam government, the government fell leading to mid-term elections. Tanguturi Prakasam, however had offered a ministerial berth with full power, was categorically rejected by Latchanna.[39] With mid-term elections on hand, prime minister and president of Congress, Jawaharlal Nehru convinced N. G. Ranga, president of Krishikar Lok Party to merge with Congress to fight Combined Communist party. That merger was categorically rejected by Latchanna. Finally when Jawaharlal Nehru agreed to rehabilitate toddy tappers with their conventional tapping on co-operative basis and written agreement offer to oppose Congress in Visakhapatnam district, merger of Krishikar Lok Party in Congress to create "United Congress Front" had materialised.[40]

After mid-term elections, "United Congress Front" defeated communists successfully. Latchanna joined the cabinet of Bezawada Gopala Reddy.[41]

Formation of Andhra Pradesh state[edit]

After Hyderabad State was annexed into the Indian union of states, Telugu speaking districts of Telangana were merged into Andhra state to be called Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956. Latchanna as the minister of former Andhra state, was the signatory of Gentlemen's agreement to safeguard the interests and prevent discrimination against Telangana in 1956. Owing to the personal differences with Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, he was not taken into cabinet in the newly formed Andhra Pradesh state.[citation needed]

Agitation for Telangana statehood[edit]

Latchanna took an active part in the agitation for the separate statehood of Telangana for which intensive Criminal Investigation Department team monitoring was initiated on him by the state along with Marri Chenna Reddy and Mallikarjun Goud. When the agitaiton took serious and violent turn, prime minister of India, Indira Gandhi visited Hyderabad and succeeded in making Marri Chenna Reddy call off the agitation.[42]

Later, Latchanna took active part in the creation of "Andhra Pradesh Democratic Front" along with Congress dissident Marri Chenna Reddy and socialist leader P.V.G.Raju. In 1958, when C. Rajagopalachari, president of Swatantra Party visited Hyderabad, Latchanna joined Swatantra Party by dissolving "Andhra Pradesh Democratic Front". Latchanna was taken into executive committee and parliamentary board of the Swatantra Party as vice-president in 1959.[43] In 1962, Latchanna started state wise agitation against enactment of 100% enhancement of land revenue and filed a writ petition in high court of Andhra Pradesh leading to the declaration as null and void by the high court.[44]

Swatantra Party and Democratic Front[edit]

In 1967 general elections, Swatantra Party won 27 MLAs and 3 Lok Sabha seats. 3 MLAs defected and 1 joined in as an associate member. Swatantra Party forged an alliance with "Jana Congress Party" to form "Democratic Front". This "Democratic Front" was recognised as official opposition party in state assembly led by, Latchanna. Latchanna got elected from both Sompeta assembly and Srikakulam parliamentary constituency on Swatantra Party ticket. As N.G. Ranga lost his election from Chittoor, Latchanna resigned Srikakulam parliamentary seat to make N.G. Ranga elected to Lok Sabha while Latchanna became the opposition leader in assembly of Andhra Pradesh, as well as state president of Swatantra Party.[45][46] Latchanna, as opposition leader in assembly, launched state-wide agitation for the withdrawal of "Land Revenue Enhancement Act 1967" and for abolition of "Land Revenue" altogether. Swatantra party led by G. Latchanna along with P. Rajagopal Naidu and Bharati Devi in Andhra Pradesh state assembly opposed[47]

  1. Land Ceiling Bill.
  2. Additional Land Revenue Assessment Bill.
  3. Agricultural Marketing Bill which makes selling of agriculture commodities by peasants as crime.
  4. Imposition of compulsory levy of foodgrains
  5. Controls on foodgrains
  6. Banning of movement of foodgrains to and from Belt areas on the borders of neighbouring states
  7. Compulsory Levies on peasants for repairing water sources.
  8. Collection of contributions and loans from poor peasants for the so-called plan schemes like defence funds and national savings schemes.
  9. Inclusion of dry lands receiving water since 10 years under irrigation sources in their ayacut permanently and succeeded in making the government accept the proposal.
  10. In regard to demand for the splitting up of Joint Pattas as and when peasants set up separate family units. They made the Government to come with a bill for the purpose and got it passed.
  11. They fought for the distribution of banjar lands to the landless poor.
  12. They forced the government to agree to let Sugar crop factories elect their directors instead of nominating them.
  13. They achieved the abolition of "Tol Gates" in Telangana.
  14. They made the government agree to the payment of arrears to the Pattadars in Telangana for tapping toddy trees.
  15. They pleaded for continuation of educational concessions to all the backward classes and also for their classification as per their caste.

Agitation for Jai Andhra Movement[edit]

In 1972, Latchanna took a leading role in the Jai Andhra movement started by students of Andhra University demanding the division of Andhra Pradesh into old Andhra state and Telangana state on the issue of "Mulkhi" rules. He was imprisoned in Mushirabad central jail and released in 1973.[48]

Emergency in India[edit]

In 1975, following the State Emergency declared by Indira Gandhi, Latchanna was arrested on the same night in Srikalahasti where he was attending a relatives marriage and sent to Visakhapatnam central jail and was released in 1977 after the withdrawal of Emergency.[49] Upon release, he went to New Delhi to attend all opposition parties conference convened and presided by Jaya Prakash Narayan, the founder of Janata Party.

In 1977 general elections, Latchanna was elected to the Andhra Pradesh assembly from Janata Party ticket and was recognised officially, as the opposition leader, as Janata Legislature Party was the main opposition party in the Andhra Pradesh assembly.[50] After the demise of C. Rajagopalachari, Swatantra Party was merged into Lok Dal headed by Charan Singh. Latchanna was elected as the president of Andhra Pradesh state Lok Dal.[51] Lok Dal candidates including Latchanna suffered with film actor N. T. Rama Rao wave of Telugu Desam Party in 1983 general elections. Latchanna lost the elections for the first time strangely not to Telugu Desam Party candidate, but instead to Congress candidate[52]

Latchanna was elected to assembly continuously from 1952 till 1983 by losing once in 1983. During this time, he was elected to Legislative Council of Andhra Pradesh. During mid-term elections for Sompeta, Telugu Desam Party gave the ticket to Latchanna son, Gouthu Shyam Sunder Shivaji.[53] Latchanna too filed the nomination as independent candidate, but withdrew in last with major differences between son and Latchanna. When Telugu Desam Party denied ticket to Gouthu Shivaji in 1989 elections, Latchanna supported his son as independent and got him elected successfully.[54]

Honour[edit]

  • Thotapalli barriage has been named after him by the Andhra Pradesh Government.
  • Gouthu Latchanna Cultural Complex will be constructed by the Andhra Pradesh Government.
  • Sardar Gouthu Latchanna Pratibha Puraskaramulu, an award on his name to be given every year to bright and intelligent students by Sree Koundinya Seva Samiti
  • Sardar Gowthu Latchanna Kala Peetham, an award on his name to honour and recognise the arts.
  • In 1997, Andhra University of Visakhapatnam honoured him Doctorate.[55]
  • In 1999, Nagarjuna University of Guntur honoured him with a Doctorate.[56]
  • Statues for Sardar Gouthu Latchana.[57]

Autobiography[edit]

  • Naa Jeevitam (Autobiography) in Telugu written by Gouthu Latchanna, 2001.

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Hindu
  2. ^ Post-independence India: Indian National Congress, Volumes 33–50 By Om Prakash Ralhan – G. Latchanna
  3. ^ The word "Cotaur" is the Anglicised version of the Telugu word "Cotauru" meaning "godown".
  4. ^ At the age of 21, Sri. Latchanna was arrested in connection with the salt-cotaurs raid
  5. ^ Consequent on the 1931 Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Sri Latchanna organized the Congress Satyagraha camp
  6. ^ lathi-charged during the 1932 civil disobedience movement for hoisting the Congress flag at Baruva
  7. ^ Latchanna was inspired by Mahatma Gandhi’s fast-unto-death at Yeravada Central jail on the issue of untouchability
  8. ^ Gandhi began a fast-unto-death while imprisoned in the Yeravada Central Jail of Pune in 1932 to eliminate discrimination and untouchability
  9. ^ Latchanna organised reception at Eluru to the soldiers of the Azad Hind Fauz founded by Netaji Subash Chandra Bose
  10. ^ The Quit India Movement of 1942
  11. ^ Gandhi refused to condemn the violence of the people because he saw it as a reaction to the much bigger violence being perpetrated on the state. It is held[by whom?] that Gandhi's major objection to violence was that its use prevented mass participation in a movement. For in 1942, Gandhi had come round to the view that mass participation would not be restricted as a result of isolated violence. Gandhi had come to realise that the kind of non-violence he had wanted his country men to inculcate and practise could not be achieved and so towards the end of his career he had kept some amount of space for the participants to follow their own line of action. His patience had been dragged to such extremes that he felt that even at the cost of some risks, he should ask his people to resist slavery. Although Gandhi was now in an unusually militant mood, at no stage was he prepared to forsake his faith in non-violence. He would have liked the movement to be non-violent but was prepared to run the risk of unrestricted mass action even if that meant civil war. He thus said, 'Let them entrust India to God or, in modem parlance, to anarchy'.
  12. ^ Latchanna and his colleague Killi Appala Naidu were arrested and imprisoned
  13. ^ HSRA leaders and revolutionary also became Communist, such as Batukeshwar Dutt ,Bhagat Singh, Dr Gaya Prasad, Vijay Kumar Sinha, Shiv Verma
  14. ^ Latchanna was lodged in the same block where Sri. Vijaya Kumar Sinha and Sri. Siva Varma, life prisoners in the Bhagat Singh Case
  15. ^ Latchanna went to Cuttack (Orissa), Kharagpur and Calcutta (Bengal) and Tatanagar (Bihar) to contact the then Indian Republic Revolutionary Party leaders for joining their movement
  16. ^ Bhagat Singh and the Revolutionary Movement Siva Verma, B.K. Sinha
  17. ^ Latchanna started agitations for the abolition of the Zamindari system
  18. ^ All India Kissan Sabha at Palasa in 1940
  19. ^ Police firing killing Smt. Veeragunnamma, four kisans and one police constable in Mandasa Ryots
  20. ^ Yerran Naidu said, Sardar Latchanna was credited with leading the Mandasa peasants' struggle and maintaining a regular rapport with all the villagers of Srikakulam district
  21. ^ In 1941, Sri Latchanna organised “Burma refugee’s conference” at Narasannapeta
  22. ^ Latchanna, founder-president of the Andhra State Unit of the Indian National Trade Union Congress
  23. ^ Latchanna to Rangoon get the release of thousands of Indian labourers who were then in concentration camps
  24. ^ Sri Latchanna started a State Level agitation for the restoration of the list of other Backward Classes, a statutory obligation under the Articles 15(4) and 16(4) of the Indian Constitution
  25. ^ P.Siva Sankar, then a senior advocate of the High-court, argued the case successfully in the Supreme Court and got a favourable judgement stating that the government of Andhra Pradesh could publish the list of Backward classes caste wise establishing their social and educational backwardness. On behalf of the A.P.B.C. Association. Sri Latchanna also appointed an advocate to argue the case. In consequence, the Government of Andhra Pradesh appointed the Ananta Raman Commission which recommended the list of Backward Classes by dividing them into 4 groups as A, B,C & D.
  26. ^ During his statewide agitation Sri Latchanna was arrested 14 times during Sri. N.T. Rama Rao's regime
  27. ^ N. Bhaskara Rao, who suddenly became the Chief Minister of the Telugu Desam Government by overthrowing Sri. N.T.Rama Rao, when the later had been abroad,accepted the demands of Sri. Latchanna
  28. ^ Newspape Bahujana
  29. ^ Post-independence India:Indian National Congress, Volumes 33–50 By Om Prakash Ralhan – G. Latchanna – Bahujana, a monthly devoted to the upliftment of backward classes, published in English and Telugu
  30. ^ Sri Latchanna declared that the joined BSP at a public meeting at Hyderabad in 1994
  31. ^ Yerran Naidu said, “Sardar Latchanna, who hailed from Sompeta in Srikakulam had become undisputed leader of the backward classes. He had such a devotion towards his guru N.G. Ranga that he gave up his Srikakulam Lok Sabha seat without taking oath just to enable his guru to enter the Lower House after his failure to win from the Chittoor constituency.
  32. ^ Kala Venkata Rao who was then the secretary of All India Congress Committee against ticket for Latchanna for violent during underground
  33. ^ In 1951, Sri Latchanna resigned from the Congress Party along with Andhra Kesari Prakasam and Prof. N.G. Ranga
  34. ^ In 1952 the first General elections of independent India took place, Sri Latchanna got elected to the Madras Assembly with 11 more members in the composite Visakhapatnam district
  35. ^ In 1953, Sri Latchanna took active part in the agitation demanding separate Andhra State
  36. ^ Latchanna subsequently into the cabinet on 07.11.1953 to get a working majority in the Andhra Assembly at Kurnool
  37. ^ Prakasm Coalition – Violent controversy between the coastal districts(circars) and arid southern districts(rayalseema) over the location of state capital – Resignation of G. Latchanna, member of the cabinet representing the Krishkar Lok Party (KLP) – The Andhra Election by Marshall Windmiller
  38. ^ Latchanna organised and led the Tappers Satyagraha to secure rehabilitation for the unemployed Tappers
  39. ^ Smt. Yasodadevi, wife of Sri. Latchanna offered Satyagraha at Guntur and courted arrest,when more than 25,000 tappers attended the Public meeting addressed by Sri. Latchanna
  40. ^ Pandit Nehru alternatively agreed to form a United Congress front with the KLP and the Praja Party.The demand of Sri Latchanna to rehabilitate tapers with their conventional profession of tapping on co-operative basis was acceded to. He was also permitted to oppose the Congress in Visakhapatnam district alone as per the prior written agreement with Sri. P.V.G. Raju, leader of Andhra Socialist Party
  41. ^ The United Congress front fought the election successfully, defeating the Communist Front
  42. ^ Sri Latchanna took an active part for a separate Telangana State for which intensive vigilance of the CID was kept on him
  43. ^ Post-independence India:Indian National Congress, Volumes 33–50 By Om Prakash Ralhan – Page 161 – G. Latchanna(Vice-President)
  44. ^ In 1962, Sri Latchanna started state wise agitation against the high-handed enactment of 100 percent enhancement of land revenue
  45. ^ Sri Latchanna resigned his Lok-sabha seat and got N.G. Ranga, his political guru, elected to the Lok-Sabha from the Srikakulam Parliamentary Constituency.
  46. ^ Post-independence India:Indian National Congress, Volumes 33–50 By Om Prakash Ralhan – Page 293 – STATES UNITS-BRIEF SURVEY – Andhra Pradesh
  47. ^ Post-independence India:Indian National Congress, Volumes 33–50 By Om Prakash Ralhan – Page 138 – Appendix – Andhra Swatantra group of legislatures led by Latchanna to protect and promote the cause of agriculturists
  48. ^ In 1972, Sri Latchanna took a leading role in the Jai-Andhra movement launched by the students of the Andhra University
  49. ^ In 1975, consequent on the declaration of “State Emergency” by the then Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi, Sri Latchanna was arrested
  50. ^ In the General elections held in 1977, Sri Latchanna was elected to the Andhra Pradesh Assembly on the Janata Party Ticket
  51. ^ Sri Latchanna was elected as the President of Andhra Pradesh Branch of the Lok-Dal.
  52. ^ [In the A.P. Assembly-Elections of 1983, Sri Latchanna withdrew the Lok-Dal candidates wherever they were weak. But Sri. N.T.Rama Rao silently managed to set up a lady candidate from a landlord’s family from Sri Latchanna’s village Baruva against Sri.Latchanna knowing full well that the TDP would certainly be defeated and thus paved the way for the success of congress candidate defeating Sri. Latchanna. The Telugu Desam lady candidate could, however, manage to get her deposit.]
  53. ^ SYAM SUNDER SIVAJI, SRI GOUTHU – Father's Name Sardar Dr. Gouthu Latchanna
  54. ^ When N.T.Rama Rao refused Telugu Desam Ticket to Sivaji for the 1989 Assembly Elections. Sri Latchanna then got his son to contest independently from the Sompeta Assembly
  55. ^ In 1997, The Andhra University, Visakhapatnam honoured him with a Doctorate Degree of law
  56. ^ In 5 Feb 1999, the Nagarjuna University, Guntur honoured him with a Doctorate Degree of letters
  57. ^ Bronze statue of the legendary leader Latchanna fought for upholding high values in society in Visakhapatnam