Growth differentiation factor-9

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Growth differentiation factor 9
Identifiers
Symbol GDF9
External IDs OMIM601918 MGI95692 HomoloGene3851 GeneCards: GDF9 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GDF9 221314 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 2661 14566
Ensembl ENSG00000164404 ENSMUSG00000018238
UniProt O60383 Q07105
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_005260 NM_008110
RefSeq (protein) NP_005251 NP_032136
Location (UCSC) Chr 5:
132.2 – 132.2 Mb
Chr 11:
53.43 – 53.44 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Growth/differentiation factor 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF9 gene.[1][2]

Growth factors synthesized by ovarian somatic cells directly affect oocyte growth and function. Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9) is expressed in oocytes and is thought to be required for ovarian folliculogenesis. GDF9 is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) superfamily.[2]

GDF9 plays an important role in the development of primary follicles in the ovary.[3] It has a critical role in granulosa cell and theca cell growth, as well as in differentiation and maturation of the oocyte.[4][5]

GDF9 has been connected to differences in ovulation rate[6][7] and in premature cessation of ovary function,[8] therefore has a significant role in fertility.

The cell surface receptor through which GDF9 generates a signal is the bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR2).[9][10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McGrath SA, Esquela AF, Lee SJ (Jun 1995). "Oocyte-specific expression of growth/differentiation factor-9". Mol Endocrinol 9 (1): 131–6. doi:10.1210/me.9.1.131. PMID 7760846. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: GDF9 growth differentiation factor 9". 
  3. ^ Juengel J, Bodensteiner K, Heath D, Hudson N, Moeller C, Smith P, Galloway S, Davis G, Sawyer H, McNatty K (2004). "Physiology of GDF9 and BMP15 signalling molecules". Anim Reprod Sci. 82-83: 447–60. doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2004.04.021. PMID 15271472. 
  4. ^ Hreinsson J, Scott J, Rasmussen C, Swahn M, Hsueh A, Hovatta O (2002). "Growth differentiation factor-9 promotes the growth, development, and survival of human ovarian follicles in organ culture". J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87 (1): 316–21. doi:10.1210/jc.87.1.316. PMID 11788667.  link
  5. ^ Su Y, Wu X, O'Brien M, Pendola F, Denegre J, Matzuk M, Eppig J (2004). "Synergistic roles of BMP15 and GDF9 in the development and function of the oocyte-cumulus cell complex in mice: genetic evidence for an oocyte-granulosa cell regulatory loop". Dev Biol 276 (1): 64–73. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2004.08.020. PMID 15531364. 
  6. ^ McNatty K, Hudson N, Whiting L, Reader K, Lun S, Western A, Heath D, Smith P, Moore L, Juengel J (2007). "The Effects of Immunizing Sheep with Different BMP15 or GDF9 Peptide Sequences on Ovarian Follicular Activity and Ovulation Rate". Biol Reprod 76 (4): 552–60. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.106.054361. PMID 17093201. 
  7. ^ Juengel J, Hudson N, Whiting L, McNatty K (2004). "Effects of immunization against bone morphogenetic protein 15 and growth differentiation factor 9 on ovulation rate, fertilization, and pregnancy in ewes". Biol Reprod 70 (3): 557–61. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.103.023333. PMID 14585806. 
  8. ^ Kovanci E, Rohozinski J, Simpson J, Heard M, Bishop C, Carson S (2007). "Growth differentiating factor-9 mutations may be associated with premature ovarian failure". Fertil Steril 87 (1): 143–6. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2006.05.079. PMID 17156781. 
  9. ^ Mazerbourg S, Hsueh A (2006). "Genomic analyses facilitate identification of receptors and signalling pathways for growth differentiation factor 9 and related orphan bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor ligands". Hum Reprod Update 12 (4): 373–83. doi:10.1093/humupd/dml014. PMID 16603567. 
  10. ^ Vitt U, Mazerbourg S, Klein C, Hsueh A (2002). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II is a receptor for growth differentiation factor-9". Biol Reprod 67 (2): 473–80. doi:10.1095/biolreprod67.2.473. PMID 12135884. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]