The SMAD proteins are homologs of both the drosophila protein, mothers against decapentaplegic (MAD) and the C. elegans protein SMA. The name is a combination of the two. During Drosophila research, it was found that a mutation in the gene MAD in the mother repressed the gene decapentaplegic in the embryo. The phrase "Mothers against" was added since mothers often form organizations opposing various issues, e.g., Mothers Against Drunk Driving, or MADD.
^Kimura N, Matsuo R, Shibuya H, Nakashima K, Taga T (June 2000). "BMP2-induced apoptosis is mediated by activation of the TAK1-p38 kinase pathway that is negatively regulated by Smad6". J. Biol. Chem.275 (23): 17647–52. doi:10.1074/jbc.M908622199. PMID10748100.
^Yanagisawa M, Nakashima K, Takeda K, Ochiai W, Takizawa T, Ueno M et al. (December 2001). "Inhibition of BMP2-induced, TAK1 kinase-mediated neurite outgrowth by Smad6 and Smad7". Genes Cells6 (12): 1091–9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.2001.00483.x. PMID11737269.
^Imoto S, Sugiyama K, Muromoto R, Sato N, Yamamoto T, Matsuda T (September 2003). "Regulation of transforming growth factor-beta signaling by protein inhibitor of activated STAT, PIASy through Smad3". J. Biol. Chem.278 (36): 34253–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M304961200. PMID12815042.
Afrakhte M, Morén A, Jossan S, Itoh S, Sampath K, Westermark B et al. (1998). "Induction of inhibitory Smad6 and Smad7 mRNA by TGF-beta family members". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.249 (2): 505–11. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.9170. PMID9712726.
Galvin KM, Donovan MJ, Lynch CA, Meyer RI, Paul RJ, Lorenz JN et al. (2000). "A role for smad6 in development and homeostasis of the cardiovascular system". Nat. Genet.24 (2): 171–4. doi:10.1038/72835. PMID10655064.
Kimura N, Matsuo R, Shibuya H, Nakashima K, Taga T (2000). "BMP2-induced apoptosis is mediated by activation of the TAK1-p38 kinase pathway that is negatively regulated by Smad6". J. Biol. Chem.275 (23): 17647–52. doi:10.1074/jbc.M908622199. PMID10748100.
Ebisawa T, Fukuchi M, Murakami G, Chiba T, Tanaka K, Imamura T et al. (2001). "Smurf1 interacts with transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor through Smad7 and induces receptor degradation". J. Biol. Chem.276 (16): 12477–80. doi:10.1074/jbc.C100008200. PMID11278251.