Hampton, Virginia

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City of Hampton
Official seal of City of Hampton
Seal
Motto: From the Sea to the Stars
Location in the State of Virginia
Location in the State of Virginia
Coordinates: 37°2′5″N 76°21′36″W / 37.03472°N 76.36000°W / 37.03472; -76.36000
Country United States
State  Virginia
Settled 1610[1]
Incorporated (town) 1705[1]
Incorporated (city) 1849[1]
Government
 • Mayor George Wallace (D) [2]
 • Vice Mayor Linda Curtis (R)[2]
Area
 • City 136 sq mi (350 km2)
 • Land 51 sq mi (130 km2)
 • Water 85 sq mi (220 km2)  62.3%
Elevation 10 ft (3 m)
Population (2010)
 • City 137,436
 • Density 2,674/sq mi (1,032/km2)
 • Metro 1,674,498
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 757
FIPS code 51-35000[3]
GNIS feature ID 1495650[4]
Website http://www.hampton.gov
On September 17, 1861, Mrs. Mary Smith Peake taught the first classes to African American children on the grounds of what is now Hampton University at Hampton Roads in Virginia under the shade of the Emancipation Oak.

Hampton is an independent city in Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 137,436.[5]

As one of the seven major cities that compose the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, it is on the southeastern end of the Virginia Peninsula.

Hampton traces its history to the city's Old Point Comfort, the home of Fort Monroe for almost 400 years, which was named by the 1607 voyagers, led by Captain Christopher Newport, who first established Jamestown as an English colonial settlement. Since consolidation in 1952, Hampton has included the former Elizabeth City County and the incorporated town of Phoebus, consolidating by mutual agreement.

After the end of the American Civil War, historic Hampton University was established opposite from the town on the Hampton River, providing an education for many newly-freed former slaves and for area Native Americans. In the 20th century, the area became the location of Langley Air Force Base, NASA Langley Research Center, and the Virginia Air and Space Center. Hampton features many miles of waterfront and beaches.

For residents and visitors alike, the city features a wide array of business and industrial enterprises, retail and residential areas, and historical sites. Most recently, the new Peninsula Town Center development opened in May 2010 on the site of the former Coliseum Mall. Located in the area adjacent to the Hampton Coliseum and the Convention Center, the new urbanism-type project features a wide mix of retail stores, housing and other attractions.[6] Development of new residential development and additional public facilities (such as the new fishing pier recently opened) are underway at Buckroe Beach, long a noted resort area.[7]

Located on the Hampton Roads Beltway, it hosts the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel (HRBT) on Interstate 64. First opened in 1957, it was the world's first bridge-tunnel, crossing the mouth of the Hampton Roads harbor, which serves as the gateway to the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean from the eastern United States' largest ice-free harbor and its tributary rivers. Expanded in the 1970s, the HRBT remains Virginia's busiest and deepest such facility.

History[edit]

In December 1606, two ships carrying men and boys left England on a mission sponsored by a proprietary company. Headed by Captain Christopher Newport, they sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to North America. After a long voyage, they first landed at the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay on the south shore at a place they named Cape Henry (for Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, the elder son of their king).

During the first few days of exploration, they identified the site of Old Point Comfort (which they originally named "Point Comfort") as a strategic defensive location at the entrance to the body of water that became known as Hampton Roads. This is formed by the confluence of the Elizabeth, Nansemond, and James rivers. The latter is the longest river in Virginia.

Weeks later, on May 14, 1607, they established the first permanent English settlement in the present-day United States about 25 miles (40 km) further inland from the Bay became the site of fortifications during the following 200 years.

Slightly south, near the entrance to Hampton River, the colonists seized the Native American community of Kecoughtan under Virginia's Governor, Sir Thomas Gates. The colonists established their own small town, with a small Anglican church (known now as St. John's Episcopal Church), on July 9, 1610. This came to be known as part of Hampton. (Hampton claims to be the oldest continuously occupied English settlement in the United States).[8] Hampton was named for Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, an important leader of the Virginia Company of London, for whom the Hampton River, Hampton Roads and Southampton County were also named. The area became part of Elizabeth Cittie [sic] in 1619, Elizabeth River Shire in 1634, and was included in Elizabeth City County when it was formed in 1643. By 1680, the settlement was known as Hampton, and it was incorporated as a town in 1705 and became the seat of Elizabeth City County.

In the latter part of August 1619, a Dutch ship, the White Lion, appeared off the coast of Old Point Comfort. Its cargo included 20 plus Africans captured from the slave ship Sao Joao Bautista. These were the first Africans to come ashore on English-occupied land in what would become the United States. John Rolfe, the widower of Pocahontas, wrote in a letter that he was at Point Comfort and witnessed the arrival of the first Africans. Although these first Bantu men from Angola were considered indentured servants, their arrival marked the beginning of slavery in North America. Two of the first Africans to arrive at Old Point Comfort in 1619 were Antonio and Isabella. Their child, the first of African descent born in North America, was born in January 1624.

Shortly after the War of 1812, the US Army built a more substantial stone facility at Old Point Comfort. It was called Fort Monroe in honor of President James Monroe. The new installation and adjacent Fort Calhoun (on a man-made island across the channel) were completed in 1834.

Fort Monroe, Hampton and the surrounding area played several important roles during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Although most of Virginia became part of the Confederate States of America, Fort Monroe remained in Union hands. It became notable as a historic and symbolic site of early freedom for former slaves under the provisions of contraband policies and later the Emancipation Proclamation. After the War, former Confederate President, Jefferson Davis was imprisoned in the area now known as the Casemate Museum on the base.

To the south of Fort Monroe, the Town of Hampton had the misfortune to be burned during both the American Revolutionary War and the American Civil War. From the ruins of Hampton left by evacuating Confederates in 1861, "Contraband" slaves (formerly owned by Confederates and under a degree of Union protection) built the Grand Contraband Camp, the first self-contained African American community in the United States. A number of modern-day Hampton streets retain their names from that community. The large number of contrabands who sought the refuge of Fort Monroe and the Grand Contraband Camp led to educational efforts which eventually included establishment of Hampton University, site of the famous Emancipation Oak.

The original site of the Native American's Kecoughtan Settlement was near the present site of a Hampton Roads Transit facility.[9] To the south of present-day Hampton, a small unrelated incorporated town also named Kecoughtan many years later and also located in Elizabeth City County was annexed by the city of Newport News in 1927. It is now part of that city's East End.

Hampton was incorporated as a city in 1849.[1] On March 30, 1908, Hampton was separated from Elizabeth City County and became an independent city.[10] However, it remained the county seat and continued to share many services with the county. On July 1, 1952, following approval of voters of each locality by referendum, the city of Hampton, the incorporated town of Phoebus and Elizabeth City County merged into the independent city of Hampton.[10] It was the first of a series of political consolidations in the Hampton Roads region during the third quarter of the 20th century.

Modern military history[edit]

Hampton also has a rich and extensive 20th-century military history, home of Langley Air Force Base, the nation's first military installation dedicated solely to airpower and the home of the U.S. Air Force's 633d Air Base Wing and 1st and 192nd Fighter Wings. Hampton has been a center of military aviation training, research and development for nearly a hundred years, from early prop planes and Zeppelins to rocket parts and advanced fighters. Its proximity to Norfolk means that Hampton has also long been home to many Navy families. Together many Air Force and Navy families in the Hampton area experienced significant losses both in war and also peacetime due to husbands and fathers in combat and also peacetime military accidents.

Hamptons waiting families: The "waiting family" is one of the enduring stories of Hampton and the wider Hampton Roads area as thousands of military families stationed in the Hampton area have long waited for airmen and sailors on deployment both during wartime and peacetime. Consequently, many military families who were stationed in Hampton feel a strong connection to the area. Langley AFB During the Vietnam War: In particular, during the Vietnam War, Langley Air Force Base was a designated 'waiting base' and thousands of Air Force families were transferred to Hampton from all over the world in order to wait while their husbands and fathers served in Vietnam.[11] Thousands of Navy families associated with Naval bases in Norfolk next door also waited in Hampton during this era.[11] Vietnam was a very high casualty war for both Air Force and Navy pilots (some types of planes experienced a 50% casualty rate), and Naval "river rats" who fought on the rivers of the Mekong Delta experienced high casualties as well. There consequently accumulated over time, in the Hampton area, a high concentration of families of unnaccounted for wartime casualties.[11] In many cases Hampton-stationed military families of "Missing in Action" or "Prisoner of War" pilots and sailors spent many years in the Hampton area waiting to find out what had happened to their missing or captured airmen and sailors, and so the service and, in some cases sacrifice, of these pilots, airmen, sailors and their families, despite not having lifelong connections to the area, are also a poignant and inspiring part of Hampton's history.[11][12]

Geography[edit]

Hampton is located at 37°2′5″N 76°21′36″W / 37.03472°N 76.36000°W / 37.03472; -76.36000 (37.034946, -76.360126).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 136 square miles (350 km2), of which 51 square miles (130 km2) is land and 85 square miles (220 km2) (62.3%) is water.[13]

Adjacent counties and cities[edit]

Climate[edit]

Hampton's mild four season climate means outdoor activities can be enjoyed year round. The weather in Hampton is temperate and seasonal. Summers are hot and humid with cool evenings. The mean annual temperature is 70 °F (21 °C), with an average annual snowfall of 6 inches (150 mm) and an average annual rainfall of 47 inches (1,200 mm). No measurable snow fell in 1999. The wettest seasons are the spring and summer, although rainfall is fairly constant all year round. The highest recorded temperature was 105.0 °F (40.6 °C) in 1980. The lowest recorded temperature was −7.0 °F (−21.7 °C) on January 21, 1985.[14][15] Hampton is also the warmest place in Virginia during the winter months.

Additionally, the geographic location of the city, with respect to the principal storm tracks, is especially favorable, as it is south of the average path of storms originating in the higher latitudes, and north of the usual tracks of hurricanes and other major tropical storms, with the exception of Hurricane Isabel in 2003.[16]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 787
1860 1,848 134.8%
1870 2,300 24.5%
1880 2,684 16.7%
1890 2,513 −6.4%
1900 2,764 10.0%
1910 5,505 99.2%
1920 6,138 11.5%
1930 6,382 4.0%
1940 5,898 −7.6%
1950 5,966 1.2%
1960 89,258 1,396.1%
1970 120,779 35.3%
1980 122,617 1.5%
1990 133,811 9.1%
2000 146,437 9.4%
2010 137,436 −6.1%
Est. 2013 136,699 −0.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[20]
1790-1960[21] 1900-1990[22]
1990-2000[23] 2010-2013[5]
Age distribution in Hampton

As of the census[24] of 2010, there were 137,436 people, 53,887 households, and 35,888 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,828.0 people per square mile (1,091.9/km²). There were 57,311 housing units at an average density of 1,106.8 per square mile (427.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 49.6% Black or African American,2.2% Asian, 0.4% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 42.7% White,1.3% from other races, and 3.7% from two or more races. 4.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 53,887 households out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.2% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.4% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.02.

The age distribution is 24.2% under the age of 18, 12.6% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, and 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.6 males.

Population update: estimated population in July 2002: 145,921 (-0.4% change) Males: 72,579 (49.6%), Females: 73,858 (50.4%) Source

The Census estimate for 2005 shows that the city's population was down slightly to more, 145,579.[25]

The median income for a household in the city was $39,532, and the median income for a family was $46,110. Males had a median income of $31,666 versus $24,578 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,774. About 8.8% of families and 11.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.9% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over.

Media[edit]

Hampton's daily newspaper is the Newport News-based Daily Press. Other papers include Norfolk's The Virginian-Pilot, Port Folio Weekly, the New Journal and Guide, and the Hampton Roads Business Journal.[26] Hampton Roads Magazine serves as a bi-monthly regional magazine for Hampton and the Hampton Roads area.[27] Hampton Roads Times serves as an online magazine for all the Hampton Roads cities and counties. Hampton is served by a variety of radio stations on the AM and FM dials, with towers located around the Hampton Roads area.[28]

Hampton is also served by several television stations. The Hampton Roads designated market area (DMA) is the 42nd largest in the U.S. with 712,790 homes (0.64% of the total U.S.).[29] The major network television affiliates are WTKR-TV 3 (CBS), WAVY 10 (NBC), WVEC-TV 13 (ABC), WGNT 27 (CW), WTVZ 33 (MyNetworkTV), WVBT 43 (Fox), and WPXV 49 (ION Television). The Public Broadcasting Service station is WHRO-TV 15. Hampton residents also can receive independent stations, such as WSKY broadcasting on channel 4 from the Outer Banks of North Carolina and WGBS-LD broadcasting on channel 11. Hampton is served by Verizon FiOS and Cox Cable. DirecTV and Dish Network are also popular as an alternative to cable television in Hampton.

Culture[edit]

Sports[edit]

Hampton is home to the Peninsula Pilots of the Coastal Plain League, a collegiate summer baseball league. The Pilots play at War Memorial Stadium in Hampton. The team began playing in Hampton in the 1980s.

Education[edit]

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Hampton City Public Schools bus.

America's first free public school, the Syms-Eaton Academy, was established in Hampton in 1634. It was later renamed Hampton Academy and in 1852 became part of the public school system. Hampton High School traces its origin to the Syms-Eaton school and thus lays claim to being the oldest public school in the United States. The trust fund created from the Syms and Eaton donations has remained intact since the 17th century and was incorporated into support for the Hampton public school system. Hampton City Public Schools currently operates the following schools.

  • Moton Early Childhood Center
  • Andrews Pre K-8 school
  • Aberdeen Elementary School
  • Armstrong Fundamental Elementary School
  • Asbury Elementary School
  • Barron Elementary School
  • Bassette Elementary School
  • Booker Elementary School
  • Bryan Elementary School
  • Burbank Elementary School
  • Cary Elementary School
  • Cooper Magnet Elementary School
  • Forrest Elementary School
  • Kraft Elementary School
  • Langley Elementary School
  • Machen Elementary School
  • Mary Peake Elementary School
  • Merrimack Elementary School
  • Phillips Elementary School
  • Phenix Pre K-8 school
  • Smith Elementary School
  • Tarrant Elementary School
  • Tucker-Capps Fundamental Elementary School
  • Tyler Elementary School
  • Wythe Elementary School
  • Eaton Fundamental Middle School
  • Jefferson Davis Middle School
  • Jones Magnet Middle School
  • Lindsay Middle School
  • Spratley Gifted Center
  • Syms Middle School
  • Bethel High School
  • Bridgeport Academy
  • Hampton High School
  • Kecoughtan High School
  • Phoebus High School

Private schools include:

Colleges and universities[edit]

Hampton University provides a private collegiate education.

Thomas Nelson Community College serves as the community college. Located in the north side of Hampton and in nearby Williamsburg, Thomas Nelson offers college and career training programs.

Bryant and Stratton College has a branch campus at the Peninsula Town Center.

Public universities that are outside but near Hampton include Christopher Newport University, Old Dominion University, Norfolk State University, and The College of William and Mary.[31][32][33][34][35][36]

Defunct schools[edit]

  • The original Phenix High School on the campus of Hampton University became Phenix Hall. It was named for George Perly Phenix, a native of Maine who was the first president of the school which became Hampton University.[37]
  • A second Phenix High School was renamed Pembroke High School with the end of segregation, and was closed in 1980. The building now houses the Hampton Family YMCA and social services offices of the Hampton city government. (A third school bearing the name Phenix is the George P. Phenix School for Pk-8th grade in north Hampton, which opened Sept 2011).
  • Y.H. Thomas Middle School is now the Adult Education Center and a community center.
  • The first Sinclair Elementary School was later torn down and is now a site for hotels.
  • Syms-Eaton Elementary School was torn down in the 1970s or 80s and is now a pavilion and a site for town homes in Downtown Hampton.
  • The first Hampton High School became John M. Willis Elementary School, which closed in 1974.
  • The second Hampton High School became Thorpe Junior High School which was closed in 1976. Charles H. Taylor Memorial Library is on part of the former John M. Willis Elementary property; Thorpe was razed and the Darling Memorial Stadium remains on that site
  • Mallory Elementary School is closing in 2010 due to the two new pre K-8 schools and budget cuts. It may become a retirement center or an office building.
  • Robert Sugden (Closed? Was operating in the late 60's).
  • Robert E. Lee Elementary closed in 2010 due to new schools and budget cuts. As of 2012 the site has become The Campus at Lee. This is the new home of Adult education services as well as Bridgeport Academy.
  • Spratley Middle School was closed in 2010 and was renamed the Spratley Gifted Center, which serves students in grades 3-8 (gifted students were formerly housed at Jones Middle School and the Mary Peake Center).
  • George Wythe Elementary School closed in 2010 and all students were transferred to Hunter B. Andrews School. It is currently used as the Hampton City School's book depository.
  • Mary S. Peake Center is closing in 2010 due to the budget cuts and will used as an addition to the Y.H Thomas Center.
  • Buckroe Junior High School (Closed in the 1970s because of the opening of Jones Middle School)
  • Merrimack Elementary School closed in 2012 due to declining enrollment and budget cuts.
Private
  • Robert Sugden Elementary School is a defunct private schools that was operating in the late 1960s.

Major neighborhoods[edit]

The old "lighthouse" at Buckroe Beach was built as a part of the amusement park.

Points of interest[edit]

F-89J s/n 52-2129 on display at the Air Power Park and Museum in Hampton, Virginia.
The Virginia Air and Space Center, the official visitors center for both Langley Air Force Base and NASA Langley Research Center.
St. John's Church is the oldest English-speaking church in continuous existence in the United States and the only colonial structure in downtown Hampton.[8]

Transportation[edit]

Roads and Highways[edit]

In the Hampton Roads region, water crossings are a major issue for land-based transportation. The city is fortunate to have a good network of local streets and bridges to cross the various rivers and creeks. Many smaller bridges, especially those along Mercury Boulevard, were named to honor the original NASA astronauts, who had trained extensively at NASA's Langley facilities.

The city is located contiguously to the neighboring independent cities of both Newport News and Poquoson. Many roads and streets are available to travel between them. Likewise, Williamsburg, Yorktown and the counties of James City and York are also located nearby in the Peninsula subregion, and many roads lead to them.

To reach most of its other neighbors in the South Hampton Roads subregion, it is necessary to cross the harbor and/or the mouth of the James River. There are 3 major motor vehicle crossings. Among these are the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel (HRBT) and the Monitor-Merrimac Memorial Bridge-Tunnel (MMMBT), each forming part of the Hampton Roads Beltway. The HRBT is located on Interstate 64 near downtown Hampton and the MMMBT is a few miles away on Interstate 664 near downtown Newport News. (These two major interstates converge in Hampton near the Hampton Coliseum). The third crossing option is the James River Bridge, also in Newport News, which connects to Isle of Wight County and the town of Smithfield.

Hampton is also served by several major primary and secondary highways. These notably include U.S. Routes 17, 60 and 258, and Virginia State Routes 134 and 143.

Traffic congestion is challenging for drivers in the entire Hampton Roads region, particularly during peak commute periods and holiday weekends. Traffic cams and electronic signage help keep motorists aware of trouble spots. Virginia 511 offers telephone traffic information from VDOT as well.

Local and regional public transportation[edit]

The Hampton Transit Center, located 2 West Pembroke Boulevard, at the intersection of King Street, close to the downtown area, offers a hub for local and intercity public transportation. It hosts HRT buses, Greyhound/Trailways services and taxicabs.

Hampton Roads Transit (HRT) is the local provider of transit service within the city, as well offering a regional bus system with routes to and from seven other cities in Hampton Roads.[38]

Intercity bus service[edit]

Intercity bus service is provided by Greyhound Lines and its Carolina Trailways affiliate. The buses serve the Hampton Transit Center. Low cost curbside intercity bus service is also provided by Megabus, with service to Richmond, Washington, D.C., Baltimore, and Philadelphia.

Amtrak[edit]

Hampton is served by several Amtrak trains a day, with direct service from a station in nearby Newport News (on Warwick Boulevard just west of Mercury Boulevard) through Williamsburg and Richmond to points along the Northeast Corridor from Washington DC through Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York City all the way to Boston. At Richmond, connections can be made for other Amtrak destinations nationwide.

Virginia is actively working on plans to expand the frequency of the locally offered Amtrak services.

Air[edit]

Hampton is served by two commercial airports. Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport (IATA: PHF) is located in Newport News, and Norfolk International Airport (IATA: ORFICAO: KORFFAA LID: ORF), is located across the harbor in Norfolk. Both are located along portions of Interstate 64.

The primary airport for the Virginia Peninsula is the Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport located nearby in Newport News. Originally known as Patrick Henry Field (hence its airline code letters "PHF"), it was built on the site of Camp Patrick Henry, formerly a World War II facility. It is one of the fastest growing airports in the country, and it reported having served 1,058,839 passengers in 2005. The airport recently added a fourth airline carrier, Frontier Airlines, becoming the first new airline to come to the region in over eight years, despite the economic recession conditions. 2010 will likely be the busiest year by passenger count in the airport's history.[39]

The larger Norfolk International Airport (often known locally by its code letters "ORF") also serves the region. The ORF airport is located near the Chesapeake Bay, along the city limits between Norfolk and Virginia Beach.[40] Seven airlines provide nonstop services to twenty five destinations. During a recent year, ORF had 3,703,664 passengers take off or land at its facility and 68,778,934 pounds of cargo were processed through its facilities.[41]

The Chesapeake Regional Airport provides general aviation services. It is located in South Hampton Roads in the independent city of Chesapeake.[42]

Notable people[edit]

American history
Music
Science
  • Roy F. Brissenden, World War II pilot, physicist, aeronautical engineer, mechanical engineer, teacher, inventor, project leader at Hampton, Langley Research Center NACA / NASA; great genius of the Apollo Program
  • Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., aeronautical engineer; administrator at Hampton, Langley Research Center NACA / NASA; great flight director of the space program
Sports
Other

Sister cities[edit]

Hampton has four sister cities:[48][49]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Official records for Norfolk kept January 1874 to December 1945 at the Weather Bureau Office in downtown, and at Norfolk Int'l since January 1946. For more information, see Threadex

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Hampton History and Facts". City of Hampton, Virginia. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  2. ^ a b Brauchle, Robert (1 November 2013). "Hampton's Linda Curtis fit profile for vice mayor". Daily Press. Retrieved 23 December 2013. 
  3. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  6. ^ http://www.peninsulatowncenter.com/
  7. ^ http://www.hampton.gov/ed/plans/buckroe.html
  8. ^ a b Tormey, James (April 2009). How Firm a Foundation. Richmond, Virginia: Diets Press. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-87517-135-7. 
  9. ^ WMCAR - Historic Kecoughtan
  10. ^ a b http://historical-county.newberry.org/website/Virginia/documents/VA_Consolidated_Chronology.htm#Consolidated_Chronology
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jose, Carol; You Are Not Forgotten: A Family's Quest for Truth and the Founding of the National League of Families, New York Vandamere Press; First edition (September 1, 2008). (US), 2008. # ISBN 0-918339-71-5, # ISBN 978-0-918339-71-3.
  12. ^ a b c d Video of CSPAN special segment, Author Carol Jose speaks about book "You Are Not Forgotten" on the National League of Families, http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/282539-1
  13. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  14. ^ Climate information from NOAA.
  15. ^ Maximum and minimum temperatures from Yahoo! Weather
  16. ^ Information from NOAA.
  17. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-02-19. 
  18. ^ "Station Name: VA NORFOLK INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-13. 
  19. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for NORFOLK/INTL, VA 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-10. 
  20. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  21. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  22. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  23. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  24. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14. 
  25. ^ Hampton city QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau
  26. ^ "Hampton Roads Magazine". Hampton Roads Magazine. Retrieved 2007-08-06. 
  27. ^ Holmes, Gary. "Nielsen Reports 1.1% increase in U.S. Television Households for the 2006-2007 Season." Nielsen Media Research. September 23, 2006. Retrieved on September 28, 2007.
  28. ^ "Map and directions." Hampton Christian Schools. Retrieved on April 20, 2009.
  29. ^ Christopher Newport University
  30. ^ College of William and Mary
  31. ^ Old Dominion University
  32. ^ Norfolk State University
  33. ^ Hampton University
  34. ^ Thomas Nelson Community College
  35. ^ http://www.dailypress.com/news/columnists/dp-uban-phenix,0,6106547.column?page=2
  36. ^ Hampton Roads Transit
  37. ^ "Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport". Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  38. ^ "Norfolk International Airport Mission and History". Norfolk International Airport. Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  39. ^ "Norfolk International Airport Statistics" (PDF). Norfolk International Airport. Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  40. ^ "Chesapeake Regional Airport". Retrieved 2008-01-12. 
  41. ^ a b Stockdale, Jim and Sybil; In Love and War, (Naval Institute Press, 1984).
  42. ^ "Evelyn Grubb, 74; Advocated Humane Treatment for POWs of Vietnam Era"Los Angeles Times Obituary, January 04, 2006, http://articles.latimes.com/2006/jan/04/local/me-grubb4
  43. ^ a b c d "Evelyn Fowler Grubb, 74, Leader Of a Group Supporting P.O.W.'s". New York Times. January 4, 2006. Retrieved 2006-01-06. 
  44. ^ "Evelyn Grubb, 74; Advocated Humane Treatment for POWs of Vietnam Era" Los Angeles Times Obituary, January 04, 2006, http://articles.latimes.com/2006/jan/04/local/me-grubb4
  45. ^ Wainwright, Loudon; "When Johnny Comes Marching Home Again – or doesn't", Life Magazine; (November 10, 1972).
  46. ^ "SCI: Sister City Directory". Sister Cities International. Retrieved November 4, 2011. 
  47. ^ "Sister Cities of Hampton, Virginia". Retrieved November 4, 2011. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 37°02′06″N 76°21′36″W / 37.034946°N 76.360126°W / 37.034946; -76.360126