|United States Senator
January 3, 2013
Serving with John McCain
|Preceded by||Jon Kyl|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Arizona's 6th district
January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2013
|Preceded by||J. D. Hayworth|
|Succeeded by||David Schweikert|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Arizona's 1st district
January 3, 2001 – January 3, 2003
|Preceded by||Matt Salmon|
|Succeeded by||Rick Renzi|
|Born||Jeffry Lane Flake
December 31, 1962
Snowflake, Arizona, U.S.
|Alma mater||Brigham Young University, Utah|
|Religion||The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon)|
Jeffry Lane "Jeff" Flake (born December 31, 1962) is an American politician and the junior United States Senator from Arizona. He served as a U.S. Representative for Arizona from 2001–2013, representing Arizona's 6th congressional district (initially Arizona's 1st congressional district). He is a member of the Republican Party.
In 2013, the National Taxpayers Union gave Flake the Taxpayers’ Friend Award. The Union keeps a scorecard on Members of Congress, rating Members on certain votes. Flake’s score was the highest of anyone in Congress for 2013. Upon receiving the award, Flake referred to himself as “the biggest cheapskate in the Senate.”
Flake grew up on an Arizona ranch and worked alongside migrant workers. Years later, when he entered public office, he made immigration reform a top priority. When he served in the House, he sponsored a bill that became the model for President George W. Bush's immigration reform proposal. When Flake became a U.S. senator in 2013, he became a member of the eight senators from both political parties working to change the immigration system. The group's bill passed the Senate by a veto-proof margin, but was not acted upon in the House. When President Obama announced he would use his executive authority in November 2014 to waive deportation for some children of illegal immigrants, Flake suggested that Congress should actually pass an immigration reform bill as a response, instead of responding with hostilities such as shutting down the government. Recently, Flake has warned his party of the consequences of opposition to rational immigration reform.
- 1 Early life, education, and early career
- 2 U.S. House of Representatives
- 3 U.S. Senate
- 4 Appearance in film
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Electoral history
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Early life, education, and early career
Flake was born in Snowflake, Arizona, the son of Nerita (née Hock) and Dean Maeser Flake. His birth town was named in part for his great-great-grandfather, Mormon pioneer William J. Flake. Flake obtained both an undergraduate and graduate degree from Brigham Young University and was a Mormon missionary for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to South Africa in the early 1980s. He speaks Afrikaans. He worked in the public affairs sector after college and served as Executive Director of the Foundation for Democracy in Namibia and Executive Director of the Goldwater Institute before entering the House of Representatives. He opposed economic sanctions on South Africa in the 1980s.
U.S. House of Representatives
Flake was first elected to what was then Arizona's 1st congressional district in 2000, after Republican incumbent Matt Salmon stepped down in honor of a self-imposed term limit. The district, which included most of the East Valley, was then renumbered to the 6th district as Arizona gained two Congressional seats due to the results of the 2000 census.
In his campaign in 2000, Flake had pledged to serve no more than three terms in Congress which would be to serve no later than January 2007. But, shortly after being elected for a third time, Flake announced in early 2005 that he had changed his mind on pledging term limits and was planning to run for re-election in 2006. "It was a mistake to limit my own terms," Flake said.
Flake easily defeated his primary challenger. In that same election, three out of five mayors in his home district opposed his re-election because, according to Flake, he did not "bring pork barrel spending" to the mayors' cities. In 2006, several Democrats had announced their intention to run for the seat; however, only one met the June filing deadline and that particular filing was rejected due to an insufficient amount of nominating signatures. "I did expect to have a primary opponent. I deserve one," Flake said, referring to the term-limit pledge which he had broken. "By all rights, I ought to have an opponent. I just got lucky, I guess."
Flake is a fiscal conservative. He is a critic of government waste and advocates reducing federal spending. He was described by columnist Robert Novak as an "insistent reformer". He is a signer of the Taxpayer Protection Pledge and one of eight House members to receive a 100% approval rating from the American Conservative Union. In 2008, Flake voted against the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP).
A "scourge of pork-barrel spending", Flake was ruled the least profligate spender in Congress by Citizens Against Government Waste in July 2007 and designated a "taxpayer superhero." In September 2010, Flake introduced a series of press releases under the title "So Just How Broke Are We?", whereby he explains the size of the national debt ($13 trillion) in terms of recent events, followed by a pun. As an example, noting that the cheapest 2010 World Series ticket on StubHub.com at AT&T Park was $425, it would take 30.6 billion tickets sold to pay down the debt, whereupon he remarked, "Looks like the voters are about to bring in some (debt) relievers."
Flake is "known for his ardent opposition to earmarks." He has been called an "anti-earmark crusader," and frequently challenges earmarks proposed by other members of Congress. Since May 2006, he has become prominent with the "Flake Hour," a tradition at the end of spending bill debates in which he asks earmark sponsors to come to the house floor and justify why taxpayers should pay for their "pet projects." He is credited with prompting House rule changes to require earmark sponsors to identify themselves.
Until September 2010, Flake issued a press release listing an "egregious earmark of the week" every Friday. Usually the earmark will be followed by Flake making a humorous comment; as an example, Rep. Flake once said of Congressman Jose Serrano's $150,000 earmark to fix plumbing in Italian restaurants, "I would argue this is one cannoli the taxpayer doesn’t want to take a bite of." The "earmark of the week" releases were ended and replaced with the "So Just How Broke Are We?" series of releases.
In March, 2010, the House Appropriations Committee implemented rules to ban earmarks to for-profit corporations, a change Flake supported. “This is the best day we’ve had in a while,” he said to the New York Times, which reported that approximately 1,000 such earmarks were authorized in the previous year, worth $1.7 billion.
In 2007, Flake introduced legislation that would have provided a path to legalization for illegal immigrants, granted temporary legal status to illegal immigrants who paid a fine and passed background checks, and created a guest worker program. The Cato Institute credited the immigration bill that Flake sponsored in the House as the source of President George W. Bush's immigration proposal.
In 2007, Flake was removed from the House Judiciary Committee by Speaker of the House John Boehner for "bad behavior", which Boehner said was criticism of party leaders, though Flake himself attributed it to his support of comprehensive immigration reform.
In 2009, Flake introduced Stopping Trained in America PhDs From Leaving the Economy (STAPLE) Act (H.R. 1791). The bill would have authorized students who earned a Ph.D. in a science, technology, engineering, or mathematics from U.S. universities to be admitted for permanent residence and to be exempted from the numerical limits on H-1B nonimmigrants. The bill was reintroduced in 2011 and was referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration Policy and Enforcement in February of that year.
Some of Flake's work toward immigration reform in the mid-2000s were documented in the series How Democracy Works Now: Twelve Stories.
In 2010, Flake voted against the Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors Act which failed in the Senate. In late October 2012, Flake reversed his stance on immigration again saying he may support it in the future.
- Foreign policy
Rep. Flake voted in favor of the authorization of force bill against the country of Iraq (Iraq War) in the House of Representatives in October, 2002. In a debate on the House floor on the authorization of force (October 8, 2002), Flake said "We ought to let history be our guide here. But the most recent history in this case that we ought to look at is the vote that took place in this Chamber 12 years ago. During that time, we faced a very similar decision. Should we thwart Saddam Hussein in his attempt to go beyond his boundaries or should we appease him? Fortunately, the majority of this body and the other body agreed we ought to thwart him; and I think we can all agree that, had we not done so, that the biological and chemical weapons that Saddam Hussein possesses would be added to nuclear weapons which he would certainly possess today had he not been thwarted at that time. We are in this position today, I would submit, because we have no other choice. This is our only reasonable option. War will no doubt come at great cost. When we visit the war memorials, we see that cost, but the cost of appeasement is far greater. I commend the House leadership for bringing this resolution forward and for shepherding it through process. I especially commend our President who so forcefully pushed for this resolution and who has so deliberately pushed for this resolution. I urge support for the resolution." 
After the 2006 election in which Republicans lost control of the House of Representatives largely due to the unpopularity of the war in Iraq, Flake changed his position on the Iraq War to one of cautious opposition, including voting against appropriations. At a 2008 congressional hearing featuring General David Petraeus, Flake said: "I still have a hard time seeing the big picture and what constitutes success [in Iraq]. That's not just one side of the aisle with those kind of concerns. Many on this side of the aisle have that as well."
- Social issues
In October 2008, Esquire named Congressman Flake one of the Ten Best Members of Congress saying in part, "A true conservative, Flake is as rare as the dodo. Republicans should learn from him, and liberals and libertarians will find in him a strong privacy-rights ally."
In 2007, Flake voted in favor of the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA) which would have banned discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. In December 2010, Flake was one of fifteen Republican House members to vote in favor of repealing the United States military's "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" ban on openly gay service members. Flake had voted to amend the U.S. Constitution to ban same-sex marriage with a Federal Marriage Amendment in 2004 and 2006.
- USA Patriot Act
During the 2005 debate on renewal of the expiring provisions of the Patriot Act, Jeff Flake successfully submitted several amendments to the bill in the House of Representatives. One required the FBI director to personally sign off on any request for library and bookstore records before applying to the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court but it was altered in the United States Senate version of the bill. Two of his amendments were signed into law and they subjected any National Security Letter and its gag order to a judicial challenge by the recipient, and narrowed the scope of "Sneak and Peek" warrants to have definite time limits on their duration and extensions before they need to notify the target of the investigation. Before that "Sneak and Peek" warrants could be extended by the vague standard of not "unduly delaying trial" without any defined time limitation. This amended bill was titled the USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 and it was signed into law on March 9, 2006. This bill also required three Inspector General investigations that lead to the discovery of exigent letters and National Security Letter abuses.
On February 8, 2011 Jeff Flake voted to renew key provisions of the USA PATRIOT ACT. The vote failed. On February 10, 2011 Jeff Flake again voted to renew key provisions of the USA PATRIOT ACT. This vote succeeded.
- Committee on Appropriations
In February 2011, Flake announced that he was running for the U.S. Senate seat being vacated by the retiring Senate Minority Whip Jon Kyl in 2012. Flake easily won the Republican nomination against real estate businessman Wil Cardon.
He faced former surgeon general Richard Carmona, who sought office for the first time in the general election. In May 2012, Flake led Carmona by 13 points in the polls. In an October 2012 poll by Public Policy Polling, Flake was trailing Carmona by two points. After the race tightened, the Wall Street Journal criticized a controversial Flake ad that accused Carmona of having "issues with anger, with ethics, and with women." 
He replaced retiring Republican U.S. Senator Jon Kyl on January 3, 2013.
In March 2013, he joined with Senators Lindsey Graham, Mark Begich and Mark Pryor in introducing a bill that would close a loophole by flagging individuals who attempt to buy guns who have used an insanity defense, were ruled dangerous by a court or had been committed by a court to mental health treatment. It did not address the gun show loophole.
On April 17, 2013, Flake joined 45 other Senators in voting against the Manchin-Toomey Amendment, which would have required background checks on all commercial gun sales. Following the vote, Flake was criticized for changing his position on background checks. Just days before the vote, he had sent the mother of one of the Colorado theater shooting victims a hand-written letter stating that "strengthening background checks is something we agree on." In response to a question asking whether he was worried about potential political consequences vowed by gun-control groups, Flake replied, "That's the beauty of a 6-year term. I truly want to do something on this, but what has been a little upsetting is to hear people try to maintain that we were just caving to pressure, discounting any issues that we had with the legislation, with the language. That’s just not right." Since his no vote, Flake has seen his approval rating fall from 45%–43% to 32%–51% according to one poll, making him the most unpopular Senator in America as of April 2013.
Although he voted in favor of the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA) in 2007, which would have banned discrimination based on sexual orientation, Flake said he had concerns with the 2013 version which includes both sexual orientation and gender identity. However, when the vote occurred on Nov. 7th, Flake cast his vote in favor of the 2013 version of ENDA.
In February 2014, Flake introduced along with Senator Pat Roberts the Stop Targeting of Political Beliefs by the IRS Act. The bill would prohibit the IRS from passing a new rule that would limit non-profit groups from participating in the political process.
On July 16, 2013, Flake introduced Stewardship Contracting Reauthorization and Improvement Act (S. 1300). The bill would give the federal government more authority to enter into agreements known as "forest stewardship contracts." The goal, according to Flake, is to reduce the risk of forest wildfires. In December 2013, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources by a voice vote recommended that the Senate pass the legislation.
When Flake is asked by reporters about his feelings on immigration, Flake responds by talking about his childhood. He grew up on a working farm. Migrant laborers were employees, and Flake also spent time working, too. "I've never been able to view those who come here to work as a criminal class," he told a Washington Post reporter during an interview.
Flake was a member of a group of eight senators, who were from both the Democratic and Republican parties, that sponsored an immigration overhaul bill. In 2013, the Senate passed the bill with 68 votes (a vote-proof margin). Flake described why he believed that it had been possible to create bipartisan group of senators to address immigration problems. He said that a big enough group of congressional members from both parties wanting to fix immigration system existed, even though there are many people on both sides of the political aisle who do not want to sincerely solve immigration issues. Flake said: "And that’s what made the Gang of Eight work. Pretty quickly we determined that everybody around that table wanted to do this. We weren’t looking to score political points."
When in November 2014 President Obama announced on TV that he would use his executive powers to allow some undocumented immigrants remain in the United States, Flake told some reporters outside of the Senate chamber that the best response would be not to shut down the government, but to actually pass a bill that addresses immigration problems. As for Obama's executive plan, Flake said that he opposed it. Flake opposed using a government funding bill to stop President Obama's executive action. but Flake also said that he believed that both party’s strategies (the executive action vs. the threat of shutting down the government) will make it more difficult to pass immigration reform legislation.
Flake has publicly said that he believes that the reason so many children in recent years have come across the U.S. border illegally without parents is because parents believe their children will be able to stay in the United States if they do so.
Flake has said that the Republican Party needs to take a rational approach to solving immigration problems, and if it does not, the party will have a difficult time winning national elections (like the presidency). Flake said that Jeb Bush's support of an immigration system reform makes Bush more electable in a general election. Flake supported Jeb Bush's remarks about immigration being an act of love, and said: "Growing up here in Arizona, I’ve seen what motivates those who come here illegally. Sure, some come with the intent to do harm or simply to take advantage of our generosity. But many come to find work to feed their families. To lump everyone who crosses the border illegally into the same class is unfair and unproductive."
In a speech before the Council on Foreign Relations in September 2014, Flake described his guiding principles in foreign policy and what he believes should be the three major goals for foreign policy: protect the U.S. national interest by reinforcing American leadership abroad; promote and support the principles of liberty and the democratic process; and serve as good stewards of taxpayer dollars by eliminating wasteful spending in foreign policy programs. Flake believes that any U.S. president should get the support of Congress when undertaking a major foreign policy action because, as Flake said, "Our position in the world has never been stronger when Congress and the President present a united front.” On the issue of foreign aid, Flake believes that it is a critical component of diplomacy, but it can undermine America's diplomatic efforts when the aid is wasteful.
Flake believes that President Obama should ask Congress to vote to support military action against the Islamic State, commonly known as ISIS or ISIL. He believes that a congressional vote of approval would send a message to ISIS and other American enemies that the U.S. is united in its fight against the groups.
In a Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearing on September 17, 2014, during testimony from Secretary of State John Kerry, Flake told Kerry that he “questioned whether it was a wise move” when President Obama asked Congress for authorization to use force against Syria after chemical weapons were used in Syria in 2013[a]. During the discussion, Flake and Kerry agreed that they wanted a strong effort with allies to combat ISIS. The different between the two centered around what Flake believed to be an inconsistency in the Administration’s approach to Congress between the Syrian chemical weapons situation and the more current situation against ISIS.
In 2013, Flake and Senator John McCain (R- AZ) sponsored a bill, S. 2863 – the Transparency in Education Act. According to Flake, the bill would affect the Department of Education’s gainful employment rule.
The gainful employment rule is a regulation proposed by the United States Department of Education. “Gainful employment programs” are a type of postsecondary education requirement to prepare students for employment in a “recognized occupation.” In return, schools that meet the criteria can be eligible to offer students federal financial aid programs.
The Flake-McCain bill would require the Department of Education to investigate how the rule would affect students at all colleges and universities. When the officials initially proposed the rule, they targeted the rule at for-profit institutions.
Bipartisan gridlock and the wilderness
Flake used his experience surviving in the wild for six days with a Democratic Senator to develop an idea to end partisan gridlock in Washington. Flake and U.S. Senator Martin Heinrich (D-NM) were featured on a Discovery Channel reality TV show, Rival Survival, where the two stayed on a small Micronesian island for six days. Flake later joked during a speech at the National Press Club that sending both Senate leaders (Majority Leader Senator Harry Reid [D-NV] and Republican Mitch McConnell [R-KY]) to a remote island together might reduce bipartisanship and allow more legislation to move forward.
Summary of sponsored legislation
The table highlights major bills that Flake introduced during the 113th Congress (2013 to 2014).
|Government subsidy reform||S. 446, Crop Insurance Subsidy Reduction Act of 2013||Lowers the crop insurance premium subsidy rates|
|IRS reform||S. 937, Protect Against Ideology-Based Targeting Act||Outlaws the IRS basing any action on the ideology of any group seeking a tax-exempt status|
|Wildfire safety and management reform||S. 1300, Stewardship Contracting Reauthorization and Improvement Act||Related to how the government enters into contracts for forest management, with the goal to keep alive a program that Flake and others say is an important tool to fight wildfires|
|Tax reform||S. 1342, Small Business Investment Promotion Act||Eliminates and changes special taxes on businesses|
|Health care reform||S. 1490, To delay the application of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act||Delays the start date of the Affordable Care Act from January 1, 2014 to January 1, 2015.|
|Lawsuit reform||S. 2319, FACT Act||Makes changes to specific pieces of federal bankruptcy law that pertain to asbestos claims|
|Payment reform||S. 2104, National Park Access Act||Reimburses states that paid money to maintain federal parks that were closed during the government shutdown|
- Committee on Energy and Natural Resources
- Committee on Foreign Relations
- Committee on the Judiciary
- Special Committee on Aging
Appearance in film
- Story 5: The Kids Across the Hill, which shows the complications from the entrance of a Democrat to the Kolbe-Flake immigration bill.
- Story 8: The Road to Miami, features the challenges of the Flake-Kolbe-McCain immigration bill.
- Story 9: Protecting Arizona.
- Story 10: Brothers and Rivals, features Flake's 2004 primary challenge and continued efforts towards immigration reform.
- Story 11: The Senate Speaks, shows the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act introduced by Ted Kennedy, McCain, Kolbe, Flake and Guttierez in the spring of 2005.
Flake and his wife Cheryl live in Mesa and have five children. They are members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He spent time in Zimbabwe and South Africa as a Mormon missionary. The Flakes have been married since ca. 1985.
While serving as a Representative, Flake spent a week alone on the island of Jabonwod, one of the Marshall Islands, as a survivalist venture. He survived off of eating crabs, coconuts, and fish. Having enjoyed the experience, he decided to repeat it when he was a Senator, this time bringing his two youngest sons with him to another island in the area, Biggarenn, for four days during a congressional recess.
|2000||David Mendoza||97,455||42.38%||Jeff Flake||123,289||53.61%||Jon Burroughs||Libertarian||9,227||4.01%|
|Year||Democratic||Votes||Pct||Republican||Votes||Pct||3rd Party||Party||Votes||Pct||3rd Party||Party||Votes||Pct|
|2002||Deborah Thomas||49,355||31.57%||Jeff Flake*||103,094||65.94%||Andy Wagner||Libertarian||3,888||2.49%|
|2004||(no candidate)||Jeff Flake||202,882||79.38%||Craig Stritar||Libertarian||52,695||20.62%|
|2006||(no candidate)||Jeff Flake*||152,201||74.80%||Jason M. Blair||Libertarian||51,285||25.20%|
|2008||Rebecca Schneider||115,457||34.55%||Jeff Flake*||208,582||62.42%||Rick Biondi||Libertarian||10,137||3.03%|
|2010||Rebecca Schneider||72,615||29.12%||Jeff Flake*||165,649||66.42%||Darell Tapp||Libertarian||7,712||3.09%||Richard Grayson||Green||3,407||1.37%|
|2012||Richard Carmona||1,036,542||46.20%||Jeff Flake||1,104,457||49.23%||Marc Victor||Libertarian||102,109||4.55%|
- The United Nations issued a report in December 2013 that found that chemical weapons were used in Syria earlier that year.
- "NTU Names Flake Biggest Cheapskate in Senate". United States Senator Jeff Flake. September 18, 2014. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- Jeff Flake ancestry. Freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved on 2012-11-05.
- Schorn, Daniel (2009-02-11). Rep. Flake On Cutting Congressional Pork. CBS News .
- "Rolly: My recollection of events 20 years ago turned out to be a little flaky" Salt Lake Tribune.
- Stone, Andrea (2006-04-12). "Term-limit pledges get left behind". USA Today.
- Arizona Secretary of State website: . Retrieved January 7, 2006.
- Paul Giblin, "Flake faces solo race after judge removes hopeful", East Valley Tribune, July 12, 2006
- U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES / ARIZONA 06. CNN. Retrieved on 2012-11-05.
- Copeland, Libby (2006-07-09) Congressman Paul's Legislative Strategy? He'd Rather Say Not., Washington Post
- "It's gotta be the hair". East Valley Tribune. 2007-07-12. Retrieved 2007-08-05.[dead link]
- Novak, Robert (2008-01-24). "The Pork-as-Usual GOP". The Washington Post. A4.
- Current Taxpayer Protection Pledge Signers. Atr.org. Retrieved on 2012-11-05.
- US House Standouts. conservative.org
- Larison, Daniel (2011-02-10) Kyl Will Not Be Missed, The American Conservative
- Caldwell, Christopher (2007-07-22) The Antiwar, Anti-Abortion, Anti-Drug-Enforcement-Administration, Anti-Medicare Candidacy of Dr. Ron Paul, New York Times
- Congressman Flake: So Just How Broke Are We? | Congressman Jeff Flake, Arizona's Sixth District. Flake.house.gov (2010-10-25). Retrieved on 2012-11-05.
- Wilson, Reid and Friedman, Dan (2011-02-10) Kyl Won't Run Again, National Journal
- "America's Newsroom". 'Fox News'. Youtube.com. Retrieved on 2012-11-05.
- Rogers, David (2006-06-29). "Tilting at Appropriations". The Wall Street Journal. A4.
- Kelly, Matt (2006-10-17). "Congressman says earmarks could cost GOP power". USA Today.
- Lichtblau, Eric (2010-03-11). "New Earmark Rules Have Lobbyists Scrambling", The New York Times.
- Bunis, Dena (21 March 2007). "Legalization path planned". Orange County Register. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- Cato Policy Report: Immigration: President Bush's Proposal (Report) (May/June 2004 ed.). The Cato Institute. http://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/policy-report/2004/5/cpr-26n3-4.pdf. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Articles – Inside Report: Democratic Discipline. RealClearPolitics (2007-01-13). Retrieved on 2012-11-05.
- H-1B bill seeks to 'staple' green cards to PhDs. Siliconindia.com (2009-04-07). Retrieved on 2012-11-05.
- STAPLE Act (2009; 111th Congress H.R. 1791). GovTrack.us. Retrieved on 2012-11-05.
- STAPLE Act (H.R. 399). GovTrack.us. Retrieved on 2012-11-05.
- Career politician Jeff Flake reversed his position on the DREAM Act; after he voted against the DREAM in December 2010 – Hispanic Politico. Tucsoncitizen.com (2012-10-29). Retrieved on 2012-11-05.
- "Senators Reach a Bipartisan Agreement for Comprehensive Immigration Reform". The National Law Review. Fowler White Boggs P.A. 2013-01-31. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
-  House roll call vote
- Congressional Record (2002-10-8)  House Session Oct 8, 2002
- Fickess, Jim (2007-02-22) Flake: Patience with Iraq waning, Arizona Republic
- Milbank, Dana (2008-04-10) From the GOP, the General Gets Unfriendly Fire, Washington Post
- Rep. Jeff Flake on US Cuba Policy: End the Embargo, Reason.tv
- Clemons, Steve (2007-04-15) Jeff Flake and Charlie Rangel Break Through Taboo of Exposing America's Failed Cuba Policy, Talking Points Memo
- "The 10 Best Members of Congress," Esquire Magazine. October 2008. Esquire.com. Retrieved on 2012-11-05.
- "Jeff Flake Opposes Discrimination Against LGB (But Not T) People". Huffington Post. November 4, 2013.
- Geidner, Chris (2010-12-15). House Passes DADT Repeal Bill, Metro Weekly.
- House Vote 638 – Repeals 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell', New York Times (December 15, 2010).
- Clerk of the House (September 30, 2004). "Final Vote Results For Roll Call 484". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
- Clerk of the House (July 18, 2006). "Final Vote Results For Roll Call 378". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
- H. R. 3199. One Hundred Ninth Congress of the United States of America. gpo.gov. Retrieved on 2012-11-05.
- USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 (2006; 109th Congress H.R. 3199). GovTrack.us. Retrieved on 2012-11-05.
- USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005: A Legal Analysis. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2012-11-05.
- USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 (2006; 109th Congress H.R. 3199). GovTrack.us. Retrieved on 2012-11-05.
- Sensenbrenner Feels ‘Betrayed’ by FBI’s Patriot Act Violations. Main Justice (2010-04-14). Retrieved on 2012-11-05.
- Charles Doyle (2010-12-27). National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: A Glimpse of the Legal Background and Recent Amendments. fas.org
- FINAL VOTE RESULTS FOR ROLL CALL 26. clerk.house.gov (2011)
- FINAL VOTE RESULTS FOR ROLL CALL 29. clerk.house.gov (2011)
- "The Liberty Committee". Retrieved 2007-06-24.
- Tang, Layla (2011-02-14) "U.S. Rep. Flake announces Senate bid", KGUN9-TV. Retrieved 2011-02-14.
- Zapler, Mike; Isenstadt, Alex (2012-08-29). "Arizona House primary results: Ben Quayle booted from Congress". Politico.
- Finley, Allysia (2012-10-05). "Arizona's Flake Out". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- Finley, Allysia (2012-10-15). "Flake's Flip-Out". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- "Editorials: Paton in 1st District". Casa Grande Dispatch. October 8, 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- "U.S., Arizona Chambers of Commerce Endorse Jeff Flake for U.S. Senate". Western Free Press. October 10, 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- "Club for Growth PAC Endorses Jeff Flake for Senate". Club For Growth. February 14, 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- Phillip, Abby (6 November 2012). "Jeff Flake Wins Arizona Senate Race". OTUS. ABC News. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- "Graham introduces background check bill with NRA backing". CNN. March 6, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2014.
- Moore, Tina (19 April 2013). "Arizona senator told mother of theater shooting victim that he supported gun background checks, then voted against them". New York Daily News. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- Memoli, Mike (18 April 2013). "Twitter". Retrieved 30 April 2013.
- "Senate sets aside gun bill, for now". Los Angeles Times. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- Abad-Santos, Alexander (29 April 2013). "How Jeff Flake Became the Most Unpopular Senator in America". The Atlantic Wire. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
- Martin, Aaron. "Bill would delay proposed IRS regulations of non-profit political activity". Ripon Advance. February 12, 2014. (Retrieved 02-13-2014).
- "Sens. Flake and McCain Introduce Legislation to Help Reduce Wildfire Risks" (Press release). Office of U.S. Senator Jeff Flake. 16 July 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- "Senate Report 113-179: Stewardship Contracting Reauthorization and Improvement". U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- O'Keefe, Ed (24 June 2014). "Q&A with Jeff Flake on immigration: ‘Citizenship ought to be earned and valued’". The Fix. The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- McLaughlin, Seth (10 July 2014). "Jeff Flake: House should have passed Senate immigration bill". Washington Times. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Benen, Steve (20 November 2014). "The easiest immigration solution is also the best". The Maddow Blog. MSNBC. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Kapur, Sahil. "Jeff Flake: Don't Shut Down Gov't Over Immigration, Pass Reform Instead". Talking Points Memo. 19 November 2014.
- Page, Susan (25 June 2014). "A year later, bright hopes quashed on immigration". USA Today. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Alman, Ashley (21 April 2014). "Jeff Flake Shows Support For Jeb Bush's 'Act Of Love' Immigration Comment". Politics. Huffington Post. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "A Conversation With Senator Jeff Flake". Council on Foreign Relations (Video). 17 September 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Flake Delivers Speech on Role of Congress in U.S. Foreign Policy" (Press release). U.S. Senator Jeff Flake. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- Abdelaziz, Salma; Gorani, Hala; Bickford, Ana (12 December 2013). "U.N. confirms use of chemical weapons in Syria". CNN. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- U.S. Senator Jeff Flake (17 September 2014). Watch Live: Select Committee on Benghazi Holds First Hearing (Video). Washington, D.C.: Roll Call.
- "Flake, McCain Introduce Bill to Increase Transparency in Gainful Employment Regs". U.S. Senator Jeff Flake. Washington, D.C. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Summary of 2014 Gainful Employment Regulation Proposed by The U.S. Department of Education". American Council on Education (PDF). Washington, D.C. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Ray, Jordan (18 September 2014). "Jeff Flake: Send Harry Reid, Mitch McConnell to island". Politico. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- "Bill Summary & Status Search Results [for legislation introduced by Senator Jeff Flake in the 113th Congress]". THOMAS. Washington, D.C.: The Library of Congress. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Lynch, Michael W. (February 2001). Reason Magazine, Soundbite: The Missionary's Positions Consulted on July 28, 2007.
- Reid, Betty (2008-06-08). "State Senator Jake Flake dies at Snowflake home". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved 2011-02-14.
- Flake, Jeff (2009-10-12). "1 Rep., 1 Week, 1 Deserted Island". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-06-04.
- O'Keefe, Ed (2013-06-02). "1 Senator, 2 Sons, 4 Days, 1 Deserted Island: Jeff Flake Escapes Again to the South Pacific". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-06-04.
- "Election Statistics". Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives. Retrieved 2008-01-10.
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Project Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at The Library of Congress
|United States House of Representatives|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Arizona's 1st congressional district
J. D. Hayworth
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Arizona's 6th congressional district
|Party political offices|
|Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Arizona
|United States Senate|
|U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Arizona
Served alongside: John McCain
|United States order of precedence (ceremonial)|
|United States Senators by seniority
|Congressional delegations to the 107th–114th United States Congresses from Arizona (ordered by seniority)|
|107th||Senate: J. McCain | J. Kyl||House: B. Stump | J. Kolbe | E. Pastor | J. D. Hayworth | J. Shadegg | J. Flake|
|108th||Senate: J. McCain | J. Kyl||House: J. Kolbe | E. Pastor | J. D. Hayworth | J. Shadegg | J. Flake | T. Franks | R. Grijalva | R. Renzi|
|109th||Senate: J. McCain | J. Kyl||House: J. Kolbe | E. Pastor | J. D. Hayworth | J. Shadegg | J. Flake | T. Franks | R. Grijalva | R. Renzi|
|110th||Senate: J. McCain | J. Kyl||House: E. Pastor | J. Shadegg | J. Flake | T. Franks | R. Grijalva | R. Renzi | G. Giffords | H. Mitchell|
|111th||Senate: J. McCain | J. Kyl||House: E. Pastor | J. Shadegg | J. Flake | T. Franks | R. Grijalva | G. Giffords | H. Mitchell | A. Kirkpatrick|
|112th||Senate: J. McCain | J. Kyl||House: E. Pastor | J. Flake | T. Franks | R. Grijalva | G. Giffords | P. Gosar | B. Quayle | D. Schweikert|
|113th||Senate: J. McCain | J. Flake||House: E. Pastor | T. Franks | R. Grijalva | P. Gosar | D. Schweikert | R. Barber | A. Kirkpatrick | M. Salmon | K. Sinema|
|114th||Senate: J. McCain | J. Flake||House: T. Franks | R. Grijalva | P. Gosar | D. Schweikert | A. Kirkpatrick | M. Salmon | K. Sinema | R. Gallego | M. McSally|