Elizabeth Warren

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Elizabeth Warren
Elizabeth Warren--Official 113th Congressional Portrait--.jpg
United States Senator
from Massachusetts
Incumbent
Assumed office
January 3, 2013
Serving with Ed Markey
Preceded by Scott Brown
Special Advisor for the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
In office
September 17, 2010 – August 1, 2011
President Barack Obama
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Raj Date
Chairperson of the Congressional Oversight Panel
In office
November 25, 2008 – November 15, 2010
Deputy Damon Silvers
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Ted Kaufman
Personal details
Born Elizabeth Ann Herring
(1949-06-22) June 22, 1949 (age 65)
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, US.
Political party Democratic (1996–present)
Republican (Until 1996)[1]
Spouse(s) Jim Warren (1968–1978)
Bruce Mann (1980–present)
Children Amelia
Alexander
Residence Cambridge, Massachusetts
Alma mater George Washington University
University of Houston (B.S.)
Rutgers University, Newark (J.D.)
Profession Lawyer
Professor of bankruptcy law
Author
Politician
Religion United Methodist Church
Website Congressional website Campaign website

Elizabeth Ann Warren[2] (née Herring; born June 22, 1949[3]) is an American academic and politician, who is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic Party. She was previously a Harvard Law School professor specializing in bankruptcy law. Warren is an active consumer protection advocate whose work led to the conception and establishment of the U.S. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. She has written a number of academic and popular works, and is a frequent subject of media interviews regarding the American economy and personal finance.

In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, Warren served as chair of the Congressional Oversight Panel created to oversee the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP). She later served as Assistant to the President and Special Advisor to the Secretary of the Treasury for the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau under President Barack Obama. In the late 2000s, she was recognized by publications such as the National Law Journal and the Time 100 as an increasingly influential public policy figure.

In September 2011, Warren announced her candidacy for the U.S. Senate, challenging Republican incumbent Scott Brown. She won the general election on November 6, 2012, to become the first female Senator from Massachusetts. She was assigned to the Senate Special Committee on Aging; the Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee; and the Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee.

Warren has been described as a leading figure among American progressives,[4][5] and has frequently been mentioned by some pundits as a potential 2016 presidential candidate despite repeated statements that she has no plans to run.[6][7]

Early life, education, and family

Warren was born on June 22, 1949,[3][8] in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, to working class parents Pauline (née Reed) and Donald Jones Herring.[9][10][11] She was their fourth child, with three older brothers.[12] When she was twelve, her father, a janitor, had a heart attack—which led to many medical bills, as well as a pay cut because he could not do his previous work.[13] Eventually, this led to the loss of their car from failure to make loan payments. To help the family finances, her mother found work in the catalog-order department at Sears[14] and Elizabeth began working as a waitress at her aunt's restaurant.[12][15]

She became a star member of the debate team at Northwest Classen High School and won the title of "Oklahoma's top high-school debater" while competing with debate teams from high schools throughout the state. She also won a debate scholarship to George Washington University at the age of 16.[13] Initially aspiring to be a teacher, she left GWU after two years to marry her high-school boyfriend, Jim Warren.[12][16][17]

She moved to Houston with her husband, who was a NASA engineer.[16] There she enrolled in the University of Houston, graduating in 1970 with a degree in speech pathology and audiology.[18] For a year, she taught children with disabilities in a public school, based on an "emergency certificate," as she had not taken the education courses required for a regular teaching certificate.[19][20][21]

Warren and her husband moved to New Jersey for his work where, after becoming pregnant with their first child, she decided to become a stay-at-home mom.[22][23] After her daughter turned two, Warren enrolled at the Rutgers School of Law–Newark.[22] She worked as a summer associate at Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft. Shortly before her graduation in 1976, Warren became pregnant with her second child, and began to work as a lawyer from home, writing wills and doing real estate closings.[17][22]

After having two children, Amelia and Alexander, she and Jim Warren divorced in 1978.[13][24] In 1980, Warren married Bruce Mann, a Harvard law professor, but retained the surname, Warren.[24]

Political affiliation

Warren voted as a Republican for many years saying, "I was a Republican because I thought that those were the people who best supported markets".[16] She states that in 1995 she began to vote Democratic because she no longer believed that to be true, but she says that she has voted for both parties because she believed that neither party should dominate.[25]

Career

Warren discussing the work of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau at the ICBA conference in 2011

During the late 1970s, the 1980s, and the 1990s, Warren taught law at several universities throughout the country, while researching issues related to bankruptcy and middle-class personal finance.[22] Warren taught at the Rutgers School of Law–Newark during 1977–1978, the University of Houston Law Center from 1978 to 1983, and the University of Texas School of Law from 1981 to 1987, in addition to teaching at the University of Michigan as a visiting professor in 1985 and as a research associate at the University of Texas at Austin from 1983 to 1987.[26]

She joined the University of Pennsylvania Law School in 1987 and became a tenured professor. She began teaching at Harvard Law School in 1992, as a visiting professor, and began a permanent position as Leo Gottlieb Professor of Law in 1995.[26]

In 1995 Warren was asked to advise the National Bankruptcy Review Commission.[27] She helped to draft the commission's report and worked for several years to oppose legislation intended to severely restrict the right of consumers to file for bankruptcy. Warren and others opposing the legislation were not successful; in 2005 Congress passed the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005.[28]

From November 2006 to November 2010, Warren was a member of the FDIC Advisory Committee on Economic Inclusion.[29] She is a member of the National Bankruptcy Conference, an independent organization that advises the U.S. Congress on bankruptcy law.[30] She is a former Vice-President of the American Law Institute and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[31]

Public life

Warren has had a high public profile; she has appeared in the documentary films, Maxed Out and Michael Moore's Capitalism: A Love Story.[32] She has appeared numerous times on television programs including Dr. Phil and The Daily Show,[33] and has been interviewed frequently on cable news networks and radio programs.

Warren stands next to President Barack Obama as he announces the nomination of Richard Cordray as the first director of the CFPB, July 2011

TARP oversight

On November 14, 2008, Warren was appointed by United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid to chair the five-member Congressional Oversight Panel created to oversee the implementation of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act.[34] The Panel released monthly oversight reports that evaluate the government bailout and related programs.[35] During Warren's tenure, these reports covered foreclosure mitigation, consumer and small business lending, commercial real estate, AIG, bank stress tests, the impact of the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) on the financial markets, government guarantees, the automotive industry, and other topics.[a]

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

Warren was an early advocate for the creation of a new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB). The bureau was established by the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act signed into law by President Obama in July 2010. In anticipation of the agency's formal opening, for the first year after the bill's signing, Warren worked on implementation of the bureau as a special assistant to the president. While liberal groups and consumer advocacy groups pushed for Obama to nominate Warren as the agency's permanent director, Warren was strongly opposed by financial institutions and by Republican members of Congress who believed Warren would be an overly zealous regulator.[36][37][38] Reportedly convinced that Warren could not win Senate confirmation as the bureau's first director,[39] Obama turned to former Ohio Attorney General Richard Cordray and in January 2012, over the objections of Republican Senators, appointed Cordray to the post in a recess appointment.[40][41]

U.S. Senate

2012 election

Brown ran as a moderate, stressing his ability to cross party lines and highlighting his votes for the Dodd-Frank financial reform law and to repeal "don't ask, don't tell".[42] Warren campaigned on a platform championing the middle class, and supporting Wall Street regulation. Warren criticized Brown for continually voting with Republican leadership, and argued that he was not the bipartisan moderate he claimed to be.[43][44]

The election was one of the most-followed races in 2012 and cost approximately $82 million, which made it the most expensive election in Massachusetts history and the 2nd most expensive in the entire 2012 election cycle, next to that year's presidential election. Opinion polling indicated a close race for much of the campaign, though Warren opened up a small but consistent lead in the final few weeks. She went on to defeat Brown by over 236,000 votes, 54% to 46%.

Tenure

On November 6, 2012, Warren defeated incumbent Scott Brown with a total of 53.7% of the votes. She is the first woman ever elected to the U.S. Senate from Massachusetts,[45] as part of a sitting U.S. Senate that has 20 female senators currently in office, the largest female U.S. Senate delegation in history, following the November 2012 elections. In December 2012, Warren was assigned a seat on the Senate Banking Committee, the committee that oversees the implementation of Dodd-Frank and other regulation of the banking industry.[46] Warren was sworn in by Vice President Joe Biden on January 3, 2013.[47] Upon John Kerry's resignation to become United States Secretary of State, Warren became the state's senior senator after having served for less than a month, making her the most junior senior senator.

At Warren's first Banking Committee hearing on February 14, 2013, she pressed several banking regulators to answer when they had last taken a Wall Street bank to trial and stated, "I'm really concerned that 'too big to fail' has become 'too big for trial.'" Videos of Warren's questioning became popular on the internet, amassing more than 1 million views in a matter of days.[48] At a Banking Committee hearing in March, Warren questioned Treasury Department officials why criminal charges were not brought against HSBC for its money laundering practices. With her questions being continually dodged and her visibly upset, Warren then compared money laundering to drug possession, saying "if you’re caught with an ounce of cocaine, the chances are good you’re going to go to jail... But evidently, if you launder nearly a billion dollars for drug cartels and violate our international sanctions, your company pays a fine and you go home and sleep in your own bed at night."[49]

Warren is in favor of increasing the minimum wage and has argued that if the minimum wage had followed increases in worker productivity in the United States, it would now be at least $22 an hour.[50][51]

In May, Warren sent letters to Justice Department, Securities and Exchange Commission, and the Federal Reserve, questioning their decisions that settling rather than going to court would be more fruitful.[52] Later that month, Warren introduced her first bill, the Bank on Student Loans Fairness Act, which would allow students to take out government education loans at the same rate that banks such as Goldman Sachs and J.P. Morgan Chase pay to borrow from the federal government. Suggesting that students should get "the same great deal that banks get," Warren proposed that new student borrowers be able to take out a federally subsidized loan at 0.75%, the rate paid by banks, compared with the current 3.4% student loan rate.[53] Endorsing her bill days after its introduction, Independent Senator from Vermont Bernie Sanders stated: "the only thing wrong with this bill is that [she] thought of it and I didn’t" on The Thom Hartmann Program.[54]

During the 2014 election cycle, Warren was a top Democratic fundraiser, supporting candidates in Ohio, Minnesota, Oregon, Washington, West Virginia, Michigan, and Kentucky. In the aftermath of the election, Warren was appointed by Majority Leader Harry Reid (the same man who made her Chair of the Congressional Oversight Panel) to become the first ever Strategic Advisor of the Democratic Policy and Communications Committee, a position that was created just for her. The move is widely seen as an effort by Reid to lean his party more to the left following major Democratic losses in the recent election. It would also end up boosting further speculation about a possible presidential run on part of Warren in 2016.[55][56][57][58][59]

Committee assignments

Recognition

Warren at the 2009 Time 100 Gala

In 2009, the Boston Globe named her the Bostonian of the Year,[18] and the Women's Bar Association of Massachusetts honored her with the Lelia J. Robinson Award.[60] She was named one of Time Magazine's 100 Most Influential People in the World in 2009 and 2010.[61] The National Law Journal repeatedly has named Warren as one of the Fifty Most Influential Women Attorneys in America,[62] and in 2010 it honored her as one of the 40 most influential attorneys of the decade.[63] In 2011, Elizabeth Warren was inducted into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame.[64] In January 2012, Warren was named a "Top-20 U.S. Progressive" by the New Statesman, a magazine based in the United Kingdom.[65]

In 2009, Warren became the first professor in Harvard's history to win the law school's The Sacks–Freund Teaching Award for a second time.[66] She delivered the commencement address at the Rutgers School of Law–Newark in May 2011, where she was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Laws degree and was conferred membership into the Order of the Coif.[67]

Books and other works

Warren and her daughter Amelia Tyagi wrote The Two-Income Trap: Why Middle-Class Mothers and Fathers Are Going Broke. Warren and Tyagi point out that a fully employed worker today earns less inflation-adjusted income than a fully employed worker did 30 years ago. Although families spend less today on clothing, appliances, and other consumption, the costs of core expenses such as mortgages, health care, transportation, and child care have increased dramatically. The result is, that even with two income-earners, families are no longer able to save and they have incurred greater and greater debt.[68]

In an article in The New York Times, Jeff Madrick said of Warren's book:

The authors find that it is not the free-spending young or the incapacitated elderly who are declaring bankruptcy so much as families with children ... their main thesis is undeniable. Typical families often cannot afford the high-quality education, health care, and neighborhoods required to be middle class today. More clearly than anyone else, I think, Ms. Warren and Ms. Tyagi have shown how little attention the nation and our government have paid to the way Americans really live.[69]

In 2005, Warren and David Himmelstein published a study on bankruptcy and medical bills,[70] which found that half of all families filing for bankruptcy did so in the aftermath of a serious medical problem. They say that three quarters of such families had medical insurance.[71] This study was widely cited in policy debates, although some have challenged the study's methods and offered alternative interpretations of the data, suggesting that only seventeen percent of bankruptcies are directly attributable to medical expenses.[72]

Warren's book A Fighting Chance was published by Metropolitan Books in April 2014.[73] According to a review published in The Boston Globe, "The book’s title refers to a time she says is now gone, when even families of modest means who worked hard and played by the rules had at a fair shot at the American dream."[74]

Publications

Selected articles
Books

See also

Notes

  1. ^ All reports and videos are available online at cop.senate.gov.

References

  1. ^ Ebbert/Levenson, Stephanie/Michael (August 18, 2012). "For Professor Warren, a steep climb". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 27, 2014. 
  2. ^ Dennis, Brady (August 13, 2010). "Elizabeth Warren, likely to head new consumer agency, provokes strong feelings". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 18, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b "Law School Faculty Member Profile: Elizabeth Warren". LexisNexis Martindale-Hubbell. Retrieved September 16, 2010. 
  4. ^ "Group boosting Elizabeth Warren widening rifts in Democratic Party - Politics". The Boston Globe. 2013-12-16. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  5. ^ "It's Elizabeth Warren's Party. Barack Obama Is Just Living in It.". NationalJournal.com. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  6. ^ Scheiber, Noam (2013-11-10). "Elizabeth Warren is Hillary Clinton's Nightmare". New Republic. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  7. ^ Blake, Aaron. "Why Elizabeth Warren is perfectly positioned for 2016 (if she wanted to run)". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  8. ^ Packer, George (2013). The Unwinding, an inner history of the New America. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. p. 345. ISBN 978-0-374-10241-8. 
  9. ^ "10 Things You Didn't Know About Elizabeth Warren". US News and World Report. usnews.com. October 4, 2010. Retrieved July 26, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Ancestors of: Herring, Elizabeth" (PDF). North Shore Journal. May 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-10. 
  11. ^ Noah Bierman (2012-02-12). "A girl who soared, but longed to belong - Page 2 - Boston.com". Articles.boston.com. Retrieved 2012-06-09. 
  12. ^ a b c Andrews, Suzanna (November 2011). "The Woman Who Knew Too Much". Vanity Fair. 
  13. ^ a b c Packer, George (2013). The Unwinding, an inner history of the New America. New York: Farrar, Straus, and giroux. p. 346. ISBN 978-0-374-10241-8. 
  14. ^ Packer, George (2013). The Unwinding, an inner history of the New America. New York: Farrar, Straus, and giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-10241-8. 
  15. ^ "Elizabeth Warren". The Huffington Post. 
  16. ^ a b c Packer, George (2013). The Unwinding, an inner history of the New America. New York: Farrar, Straus, and giroux. p. 345. ISBN 978-0-374-10241-8. 
  17. ^ a b "Warren Winning Means No Sale If You Can't Explain It". Bloomberg. November 19, 2009. 
  18. ^ a b Pierce, Charles (December 20, 2009). "Bostonian of the Year". Boston Globe. Retrieved December 23, 2009. 
  19. ^ "Elizabeth Warren biography". The Biography Channel. Retrieved September 19, 2012. 
  20. ^ "Educators endorse Elizabeth Warren for the U.S. Senate". massteacher.org. Massachusetts Teachers Association. Retrieved September 19, 2012. 
  21. ^ TCTA. "Educator Certification Overview". Texas Classroom Teachers Association. Retrieved 27 September 2014. 
  22. ^ a b c d Kreisler, Harry (March 8, 2007). "Conversation with Elizabeth Warren". Conversations with History. Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley. 
  23. ^ "Elizabeth Warren". NNDB. 
  24. ^ a b Kim, Mallie Jane (October 4, 2010). "10 Things You Didn't Know About Elizabeth Warren". U.S. News and World Report. 
  25. ^ Elizabeth Warren: 'I Created Occupy Wall Street' - The Daily Beast
  26. ^ a b Warren, Elizabeth (2008). "Curriculum Vitae". Harvard Law School. 
  27. ^ National Bankruptcy Review Commission Review fact sheet, revised August 12, 1997
  28. ^ Andrews, Suzanna (November 2011). "The Woman Who Knew Too Much". Vanity Fair. Retrieved February 13, 2012. 
  29. ^ "Advisory Committee on Economic Inclusion (ComE-IN)". FDIC. .
  30. ^ "Committees". National Bankruptcy Conference. 
    • "Mission". National Bankruptcy Conference. 
  31. ^ "President Obama Names Elizabeth Warren Assistant to the President and Special Advisor to the Secretary of the Treasury on the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau". Retrieved 12 October 2014. 
  32. ^ "Elizabeth Warren on Charlie Rose". May 11, 2009. "Elizabeth Warren on Charlie Rose". March 4, 2010. 
  33. ^ "Elizabeth Warren on the Daily Show". April 15, 2009.  "Elizabeth Warren on the Daily Show". January 28, 2010. 
  34. ^ Host: Terry Gross (December 11, 2008). "What Does $700 Billion Buy Taxpayers?". Fresh Air from WHYY. National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=98123372. Retrieved December 12, 2008.
  35. ^ Kantor, Jodi (March 25, 2010). "Behind Consumer Agency Idea, a Tireless Advocate". The New York Times. 
  36. ^ Andrew, Suzanna (November 2011). "The Woman Who Knew Too Much". Vanity Fair. Retrieved September 22, 2012. 
  37. ^ Wyatt, Edward (July 4, 2011). "An Agency Builder, but Not Yet Its Leader". The New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2012. 
  38. ^ Rosenthal, Andres (December 8, 2011). "Lousy Filibusters: Richard Cordray Edition". The New York Times. 
  39. ^ Katharine K. Seelye, A New Senator, Known Nationally and Sometimes Feared The New York Times November 10, 2012
  40. ^ Cooper, Helene (2012-01-04). "Defying Republicans, Obama to Name Cordray as Consumer Agency Chief". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-06-09. 
  41. ^ Goodnough, Abby. "Times Topics: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection". The New York Times. 
  42. ^ Abby Goodnough (January 18, 2012). "Republican Senator Runs Away From the Party Line". New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  43. ^ Levenson, Michael (October 2, 2012). "Brown, Warren fire away over voting, work records". Boston Globe. Retrieved June 8, 2013. "Warren criticized Brown's votes against Obama's jobs bills, against closing tax subsidies for oil companies, and against the so-called Buffett Rule to raise taxes on the wealthy. The votes, she said, show Brown is not the bipartisan moderate he claims to be." 
  44. ^ Arsenault, Mark (October 12, 2012). "In new ad, Elizabeth Warren slams Scott Brown's votes on women's issues, Brown says Warren trying to scare women". Boston Globe. Retrieved June 8, 2013. 
  45. ^ Bierman, Noah, and Phillips, Frank (November 7, 2012). "Elizabeth Warren defeats Scott Brown". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 27, 2014. 
  46. ^ Montopoli, Brian (December 12, 2012). "Elizabeth Warren assigned to Senate banking committee". CBS News. 
  47. ^ Thys, F. (4 January 2013). "Elizabeth Warren Sworn In As First Female Senator From Mass.". 90.9 wubr. Retrieved 18 May 2013. 
  48. ^ Lynch, S. N. (19 February 2013). "Senator Warren's rebuke of regulators goes viral". Reuters. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  49. ^ Stephen Webster (March 7, 2013). "Warren: Drug possession warrants jail time but laundering cartel money doesn’t?". The Raw Story. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  50. ^ Chumley, Cheryl K. (March 18, 2013). "Take it to the bank: Sen. Elizabeth Warren wants to raise minimum wage to $22 per hour". Washington Times. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  51. ^ Wing, Nick (March 18, 2013). "Elizabeth Warren: Minimum Wage Would Be $22 An Hour If It Had Kept Up With Productivity". Huffington Post. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  52. ^ Erika Eichelberger (May 14, 2013). "Elizabeth Warren to Obama Administration: Take the Banks to Court, Already!". Mother Jones (magazine). Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  53. ^ Webley, K. (10 May 2013). "Elizabeth Warren: Students Should Get the Same Rate as the Bankers". TIME Magazine. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  54. ^ Bernie Sanders (May 17, 2013). "Student Loans". United States Senate. Retrieved 18 May 2013. 
  55. ^ http://www.motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2014/11/elizabeth-warren-gets-promotion-or-does-she
  56. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/11/13/elizabeth-warren-senate_n_6149454.html
  57. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/11/13/elizabeth-warren-senate_n_6149454.html
  58. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/nov/13/elizabeth-warren-joins-senate-democrats-leadership/
  59. ^ http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/11/elevating-elizabeth-warren/382739/
  60. ^ "Women's Bar Association Announces Opening of Nominations for Lelia J. Robinson Awards". Women's Bar Association of Massachusetts. March 14, 2011. 
  61. ^ Marshall, Josh (April 30, 2009). "Elizabeth Warren". TIME. Retrieved June 3, 2009.  Bair, Sheila (April 29, 2010). "Elizabeth Warren". TIME. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  62. ^ "Featured Profile: Elizabeth Warren". Connecticut Public Broadcasting Network. 2010. Retrieved October 26, 2011. 
  63. ^ Brown, David (March 29, 2010). "The Decade's Most Influential Lawyers: Forty attorneys who have defined the decade in a dozen key legal areas". The Recorder.  Originally published in The National Law Journal.
  64. ^ "Elizabeth Warren Bio". Oklahoma Hall of Fame. 2011. Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
  65. ^ "New Statesman "Who's left? The top 20 US progressives," January 11, 2012". Retrieved 12 October 2014. 
  66. ^ "Elizabeth Warren Wins Sacks–Freund Award for Teaching". 2009. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2012. 
  67. ^ Capizzi, Carla (May 10, 2011). "Legal Scholar Elizabeth Warren, Historian Annette Gordon-Reed, Entrepreneur Marc Berson to Address Graduates of Rutgers University, Newark". Rutgers–Newark Newscenter. 
  68. ^ Warren, Elizabeth; Amelia Warren Tyagi (2005). All Your Worth: The Ultimate Lifetime Money Plan. Free Press. pp. 1–12. ISBN 978-0-7432-6987-2. 
  69. ^ Madrick, Jeff (September 4, 2003). "Necessities, not luxuries, are driving Americans into debt, a new book says". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2009. 
  70. ^ Himmelstein, David U.; Warren, Elizabeth; Deborah, Deborah; Woolhandler, Steffie J. (2005-02-08). "Illness and Injury as Contributors to Bankruptcy". SSRN Electronic Journal (Social Science Research Network). doi:10.2139/ssrn.664565. SSRN 664565. 
  71. ^ Warren, Elizabeth (2005-02-09). "Sick and Broke". The Washington Post. p. A23. 
  72. ^ Langer, Gary (March 5, 2009). "Medical Bankruptcies: A Data-Check". The Numbers blog. ABC News. Retrieved June 5, 2009. 
  73. ^ A Fighting Chance By Elizabeth Warren
  74. ^ Book review: ‘A Fighting Chance’ by Elizabeth Warren - Books - The Boston Globe

Further reading

External links

Academic offices
New creation Leo Gottlieb Professor of Law of Harvard Law School
1995–2012
Succeeded by
James Salzman
Preceded by
Conrad Harper
Second Vice President of the American Law Institute
2000–2004
Succeeded by
Allen Black
Government offices
New office Chairperson of the Congressional Oversight Panel
2008–2010
Succeeded by
Ted Kaufman
Special Advisor for the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
2010–2011
Succeeded by
Raj Date
Party political offices
Preceded by
Martha Coakley
Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
(Class 1)

2012
Most recent
United States Senate
Preceded by
Scott Brown
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Massachusetts
2013–present
Served alongside: John Kerry, Mo Cowan, Ed Markey
Incumbent
United States order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by
Ted Cruz
R-Texas
United States Senators by seniority
96th
Succeeded by
Deb Fischer
R-Nebraska