111th United States Congress

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111th United States Congress
110th ← → 112th
Capitol Building Full View.jpg
United States Capitol (2007)

Duration: January 3, 2009 – January 3, 2011

Senate President: Dick Cheney (R),
until Jan 20, 2009
Joe Biden (D),
from Jan 20, 2009
Senate Pres. pro tem: Robert Byrd (D),
until June 28, 2010
Daniel Inouye (D)
from June 28, 2010[1]
House Speaker: Nancy Pelosi (D)
Members: 100 Senators
435 Representatives
6 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Democratic Party
House Majority: Democratic Party

Sessions
1st: January 6, 2009 – December 24, 2009[2]
2nd: January 5, 2010[3] – December 22, 2010[4]
View of a large portion of a large ceremony with visible red, white and blue ornamentation and a crowd of attendees
Inauguration of Barack Obama at the U.S. Capitol, January 20, 2009.
President Obama signing the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 into law, January 29, 2009.
Sonia Sotomayor testifying before the Senate Judiciary Committee on her appointment to the U.S. Supreme Court, July 13, 2009.
President Obama addressing Congress regarding health care reform, September 9, 2009.
Tea Party protests in front of the U.S. Capitol, September 12, 2009.
President Obama delivering the 2010 State of the Union Address, January 25, 2010.
President Obama signing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act into law, March 23, 2010.
Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Patrick Leahy swearing in Elena Kagan during her first day of testimony on her appointment to the U.S. Supreme Court, June 28, 2010
Congressional leaders meeting with President Obama, November 30, 2010.
President Obama signing the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 into law, January 2, 2011.

The One Hundred Eleventh United States Congress was the meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government from January 3, 2009, until January 3, 2011. It began during the last two weeks of the George W. Bush administration, with the remainder spanning the first two years of Barack Obama's presidency. It was composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The apportionment of seats in the House was based on the 2000 U.S. Census. In the November 4, 2008 elections, the Democratic Party increased its majorities in both chambers, giving President Obama a Democratic majority in the legislature for the first two years of his presidency. A new delegate seat was created for the Northern Mariana Islands.[5] This Congress has been considered one of the most productive Congresses in history in terms of legislation passed since the 89th Congress, during Lyndon Johnson's Great Society.[6][7][8][9]

Contents

Major events[edit]

Major legislation[edit]

Enacted[edit]

Health care reform[edit]

At the encouragement of the Obama administration, Congress devoted significant time considering health care reform. In March 2010, Obama signed the Senate-crafted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act into law, the first comprehensive health care reform legislation in decades, and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 which further amended the Senate bill and also included the Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act. Other major reform proposals during the health care debate included:

Proposed[edit]

(in alphabetical order)
See also: Active Legislation, 111th Congress, via senate.gov

Vetoed[edit]

Treaties ratified[edit]

Major nomination hearings[edit]

Impeachments[edit]

Party summary[edit]

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below.

Senate[edit]

The United States Senate (in 2010)
Party standings in the Senate for most of this Congress
  57 Democrats
  2 Independents, caucusing with Democrats
(The Democrats controlled a 60-vote supermajority in the latter half of 2009)
Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic Independent
(caucusing with
Democrats)
Republican Vacant
End of previous Congress 48 2 49 99 1
Begin 55 2 41 98 2
January 15, 2009 56 99 1
January 20, 2009 55 98 2
January 26, 2009 56 99 1
April 30, 2009 57 40
July 7, 2009 58 100 0
August 25, 2009 57 99 1
September 9, 2009 39 98 2
September 10, 2009 40 99 1
September 25, 2009 58 100 0
February 4, 2010 57 41
June 28, 2010 56 99 1
July 16, 2010 57 100 0
November 29, 2010 56 42
Final voting share 58% 42%
Beginning of the next Congress 51 2 47 100 0

House of Representatives[edit]

Final party distribution in the House of Representatives
  Democratic Party: 255 members.
  Republican Party: 179 members.
Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic Republican Vacant
End of previous Congress 235 198 433 2
Begin 256 178 434 1
January 26, 2009 255 433 2
February 24, 2009 254 432 3
March 31, 2009 255 433 2
April 7, 2009 256 434 1
June 26, 2009 255 433 2
July 14, 2009 256 434 1
September 21, 2009 177 433 2
November 3, 2009 258 435 0
December 22, 2009 257 178
January 3, 2010 256 434 1
February 8, 2010 255 433 2
February 28, 2010 254 432 3
March 8, 2010 253 431 4
March 21, 2010 177 430 5
April 13, 2010 254 431 4
May 18, 2010 255 432 3
May 21, 2010 176 431 4
May 22, 2010 177 432 3
June 8, 2010 178 433 2
November 2, 2010 180 435 0
November 29, 2010 179 434 1
Final voting share 58.8% 41.2%
Non-voting members 6 0 6 0
Beginning of next Congress 193 242 435 0

Leadership[edit]

[ Section contents: Senate: Majority (D), Minority (R)House: Majority (D), Minority (R) ]

Senate[edit]

Senate President
Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney (R)
(until January 20, 2009)
Joe Biden
Joe Biden (D)
(from January 20, 2009)
Senate President pro Tempore
Robert Byrd
Robert Byrd (D)
(until June 28, 2010)
Daniel Inouye
Daniel Inouye (D)
(from June 28, 2010)

Majority (Democratic) leadership[edit]

Minority (Republican) leadership[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

Speaker of the House

Majority (Democratic) leadership[edit]

Minority (Republican) leadership[edit]

Members[edit]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

For maps of congressional districts, see List of United States congressional districts.

Changes in membership[edit]

Senate[edit]

Funeral service for Senator Robert Byrd, who died June 28, 2010. He was the longest-serving senator and the longest-serving member in the history of Congress.[35][36]

Four of the changes are associated with the 2008 presidential election and appointments to the Obama Administration, one senator changed parties, one election was disputed, two senators died, one senator resigned, and three appointed senators served only until special elections were held during this Congress.

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Minnesota
(2)
Disputed Incumbent Norm Coleman (R) challenged the election of Al Franken (D). The results were disputed, and the seat remained vacant at the beginning of the Congress. Following recounts and litigation, Coleman conceded, and Franken was seated. Al Franken
(D)
July 7, 2009[37]
Illinois
(3)
Vacant Barack Obama (D) resigned near the end of the previous Congress, after being elected President of the United States.[38] His successor was appointed December 31, 2008, during the last Congress, but due to a credentials challenge, his credentials were not deemed "in order" until January 12, and he was not sworn in to fill his seat until 12 days after the initiation of this Congress.[39] The appointed successor filled the seat until a special election was held November 2, 2010. Roland Burris[40]
(D)
January 12, 2009[39]
Delaware
(2)
Joe Biden
(D)
Resigned January 15, 2009, to assume the position of Vice President.[41]
The appointed successor held the seat until a special election was held November 2, 2010.
Ted Kaufman[42]
(D)
January 16, 2009[43]
Colorado
(3)
Ken Salazar
(D)
Resigned January 20, 2009, to become Secretary of the Interior.
The appointed successor held the seat for the remainder of the term that ends with this Congress.
Michael Bennet[44]
(D)
January 21, 2009[45]
New York
(1)
Hillary Clinton
(D)
Resigned January 21, 2009, to become Secretary of State.
The appointed successor held the seat until a special election was held November 2, 2010.
Kirsten Gillibrand[46]
(D)
January 26, 2009
Pennsylvania
(3)
Arlen Specter
(R)
Changed party affiliation April 30, 2009.[28] Arlen Specter
(D)
April 30, 2009
Massachusetts
(1)
Ted Kennedy
(D)
Died August 25, 2009.
The appointed successor held the seat until the elected successor took the seat.[47][48][49]
Paul G. Kirk
(D)
September 25, 2009
Florida
(3)
Mel Martinez
(R)
Resigned September 9, 2009, for personal reasons.[50]
The appointed successor held the seat for the remainder of the term that ends with this Congress.
George LeMieux
(R)
September 10, 2009[51][52]
Massachusetts
(1)
Paul G. Kirk
(D)
Appointment expired February 4, 2010, following a special election.[53]
The winner of the election held the seat for the remainder of the term that ends January 3, 2013.
Scott Brown
(R)[54]
February 4, 2010
West Virginia
(1)
Robert Byrd
(D)
Died June 28, 2010.[55]
The appointed successor held the seat until a special election was held November 2, 2010.[56]
Carte Goodwin
(D)[29]
July 16, 2010[57]
Delaware
(2)
Ted Kaufman
(D)
Appointed January 15, 2009. The appointment lasted only until the November 2, 2010 special election, in which he was not a candidate.[58]
The winner of the special election held the seat for the remainder of the term that ends January 3, 2015.
Chris Coons
(D)
November 15, 2010[59][60]
West Virginia
(1)
Carte Goodwin
(D)
Appointed November 15, 2010. The appointment lasted only until the November 2, 2010 special election, in which he was not a candidate.
The winner of the special election held the seat for the remainder of the term that ends January 3, 2013.
Joe Manchin
(D)
November 15, 2010[59][60]
Illinois
(3)
Roland Burris
(D)
Appointed January 12, 2009. The appointment lasted only until the November 2, 2010 special election, in which he was not a candidate.
The winner of the special election held the seat for the remainder of the term that ended with this Congress.
Mark Kirk
(R)
November 29, 2010[59][60]

House of Representatives[edit]

Five changes are associated with appointments to the Obama Administration, four directly and one indirectly. Two representatives changed parties, one died, and five resigned. House vacancies are only filled by elections. State laws regulate when (and if) there will be special elections.

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
Illinois 5th Vacant Rahm Emanuel (D) resigned near the end of the previous Congress after being named White House Chief of Staff.
A special election was held April 7, 2009
Michael Quigley
(D)
April 7, 2009
New York 20th Kirsten Gillibrand
(D)
Resigned January 26, 2009, when appointed to the Senate, replacing Hillary Clinton who became Secretary of State.
A special election was held March 31, 2009.
Scott Murphy
(D)
March 31, 2009
Northern Mariana Islands At-large Gregorio Sablan
(I)
Changed party affiliation February 23, 2009.[33]
Previously an Independent who caucused with Democrats in House
Gregorio Sablan
(D)
February 23, 2009
California 32nd Hilda Solis
(D)
Resigned February 24, 2009, to become Secretary of Labor.
A special election was held July 14, 2009.
Judy Chu
(D)
July 14, 2009
California 10th Ellen Tauscher
(D)
Resigned June 26, 2009, to become Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International Security.
A special election was held November 3, 2009.
John Garamendi
(D)[61]
November 3, 2009[62]
New York 23rd John M. McHugh
(R)
Resigned September 21, 2009, to become Secretary of the Army.[63]
A special election was held November 3, 2009.
Bill Owens
(D)[64]
November 3, 2009
Alabama 5th Parker Griffith
(D)
Changed party affiliation December 22, 2009.[65] Parker Griffith
(R)
December 22, 2009
Florida 19th Robert Wexler
(D)
Resigned January 3, 2010, to become president of the Center for Middle East Peace & Economic Cooperation.[66]
A special election was held April 13, 2010.
Ted Deutch (D) April 13, 2010
Pennsylvania 12th John Murtha
(D)
Died February 8, 2010.
A special election was held May 18, 2010.
Mark Critz (D) May 18, 2010
Hawaii 1st Neil Abercrombie
(D)
Resigned February 28, 2010,[67] to focus on run for Governor of Hawaii.
A special election was held May 22, 2010.
Charles Djou (R) May 22, 2010
New York 29th Eric Massa
(D)
Resigned March 8, 2010,[68] due to a recurrence of his cancer, as well as an ethics investigation.
A special election was held contemporaneously with the November 2, 2010 general election.
Tom Reed (R) November 2, 2010[60][69]
Georgia 9th Nathan Deal
(R)
Resigned March 21, 2010, to focus on run for Governor of Georgia.
A special election runoff was held June 8, 2010.
Tom Graves (R) June 8, 2010
Indiana 3rd Mark Souder
(R)
Resigned May 21, 2010, after an affair with a staff member was revealed.[70]
A special election was held contemporaneously with the November 2, 2010 general election.[71]
Marlin Stutzman (R) November 2, 2010[60]
Illinois 10th Mark Kirk
(R)
Resigned November 29, 2010, after being elected to the United States Senate in a special election Vacant until the next Congress

Committees[edit]

Lists of committees and their party leaders.

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

Joint appointments[edit]

Employees[edit]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

See also[edit]

Elections[edit]

Membership lists[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hulse, Carl (June 28, 2010). "Inouye Sworn In as President Pro Tem". New York Times. 
  2. ^ H.Con.Res. 223
  3. ^ Pub.L. 111–121
  4. ^ H.Con.Res. 336
  5. ^ Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008, Pub.L. 110–229
  6. ^ CARL HULSE and DAVID M. HERSZENHORN (December 20, 2010). "111th Congress - One for the History Books". New York Times. 
  7. ^ David A. Fahrenthold, Philip Rucker and Felicia Sonmez (December 23, 2010). "Stormy 111th Congress was still the most productive in decades". Washington Post. 
  8. ^ Lisa Lerer & Laura Litvan (December 22, 2010). "No Congress Since '60s Makes as Much Law as 111th Affecting Most Americans". Bloomberg News. 
  9. ^ Guy Raz (December 26, 2010). "This Congress Did A Lot, But What's Next?". NPR. 
  10. ^ "Certificate of Election". Office of the Minnesota Governor, via StarTribune.com. June 30, 2009. Archived from the original on July 20, 2009. Retrieved July 1, 2009. 
  11. ^ See Pub.L. 110–430. Section 1 sets the beginning of the first session of the 111th Congress. Section 2 sets the date for counting Electoral College votes.
  12. ^ Staff reporter (June 19, 2009). "House impeaches Texas judge". AP. Retrieved March 21, 2012.  (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/66L6jAfRk)
  13. ^ 2009 Congressional Record, Vol. 155, Page H7064 (June 19, 2009)
  14. ^ Gamboa, Suzanne (June 30, 2009). "White House accepts convicted judge's resignation". AP. Retrieved March 21, 2012.  (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5iTDSpUiA)
  15. ^ 2009 Congressional Record, Vol. 155, Page S7055 (June 25, 2009)
  16. ^ Gamboa, Suzanne (July 22, 2009). "Congress ends jailed judge's impeachment". AP. Retrieved March 21, 2012.  (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/66L7JzGQq)
  17. ^ 2009 Congressional Record, Vol. 155, Page S7833 (July 22, 2009)
  18. ^ Alpert, Bruce (March 10, 2010). "Judge Thomas Porteous impeached by U.S. House of Representatives". New Orleans Times-Picayune. Retrieved March 21, 2012. 
  19. ^ 2010 Congressional Record, Vol. 156, Page H1335 (March 11, 2010)
  20. ^ Alpert, Bruce; Jonathan Tilove (December 8, 2010). "Senate votes to remove Judge Thomas Porteous from office". New Orleans Times-Picayune. Retrieved March 21, 2012. 
  21. ^ 2010 Congressional Record, Vol. 156, Page S8609 (December 8, 2010)
  22. ^ The Democratic Senate Majority Leader also serves as the Chairman of the Democratic Conference.
  23. ^ a b "Thune Elected Republican Policy Committee Chairman". Office of U.S. Senator John Thune. June 25, 2009. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved July 1, 2009. 
  24. ^ Toeplitz, Shira (September 18, 2010). "Lisa Murkowski quits GOP leadership". 
  25. ^ "Murkowski Keeps Panel Job; Barrasso Elected Vice Chairman". Roll Call. September 22, 2010. Retrieved September 22, 2010. 
  26. ^ Burris was appointed on December 31, 2008, during the 110th United States Congress. However, he was not allowed to take the oath until January 15, 2009, due to the controversy surrounding Gov. Rod Blagojevich, who appointed him.
  27. ^ Al Franken was elected to the term beginning January 3, 2009, but did not take office until July 7, 2009, due to a recount and subsequent election challenge.
  28. ^ a b Arlen Specter announced his switch from the Republican to the Democratic party on April 28, and it officially took effect on April 30. "Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress". 
  29. ^ a b "Carte Goodwin to succeed Senator Byrd - for now". Christian Science Monitor. July 16, 2010. Retrieved July 16, 2010. 
  30. ^ "Officials: House Democrat will switch to GOP". December 22, 2009. 
  31. ^ "Wexler Begins New Job With Washington Think Tank". WBPF.com. January 4, 2010. 
  32. ^ "Congressman John Murtha Passes Away at Age 77". Honorable John Murtha Congressional Website. February 8, 2010. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. 
  33. ^ a b Gregorio Sablan announced his switch from the Republican to the Democratic party on February 23, 2009. "Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress". 
  34. ^ Access Denied. NationalJournal.com. Retrieved on August 12, 2013.
  35. ^ Jonathan Allen (May 31, 2006). "Byrd poised to break Thurmond's record". The Hill. Archived from the original on June 14, 2006. 
  36. ^ Tom Cohen (November 18, 2009). "West Virginia's Byrd becomes the longest-serving member of Congress". CNN. 
  37. ^ Hulse, Carl (July 7, 2009). "And Here’s Senator Franken". NYTimes.com (New York Times). Retrieved July 7, 2009. 
  38. ^ The seat remained vacant until a successor was appointed. Mason, Jeff. "Obama resigns Senate seat, thanks Illinois". Reuters.com (Reuters). Retrieved May 27, 2014. 
  39. ^ a b Hulse, Carl (January 27, 2009). "Burris Is Sworn In". NYTimes.com (New York Times). Retrieved January 15, 2009. 
  40. ^ "Burris v. White, Illinois Supreme Court, No. 107816". January 9, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2009. 
  41. ^ Mark Murray (January 9, 2009). "Biden to Resign from Senate Thursday". MSNBC. 
  42. ^ "Longtime Biden aide picked to fill his Senate seat". WJLA.com. November 24, 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2008. 
  43. ^ Kathleen Hunter and Catharine Richert, CQ Staff (January 14, 2009). "Illinois, Delaware Senators to Be Seated in First Round of Replacements". CQ Politics (Congressional Quarterly). 
  44. ^ "Official Press Release from Governor Bill Ritter, Jr., Jan. 3, 2009, appointing Michael Bennet". Colorado.gov. January 3, 2009. 
  45. ^ "Ken Salazar Sends Senate Resignation Notice". NBC11News.com. Associated Press. January 19, 2009. Retrieved May 27, 2014. 
  46. ^ Danny Hakim and Nicholas Confessore (January 23, 2009). "Paterson Picks Gillibrand for Senate Seat". NYTimes.com (New York Times). Retrieved September 29, 2009. 
  47. ^ Phillips, Frank (August 31, 2009). "Panel to weigh Kennedy request for interim senator". Boston.com (Boston Globe). 
  48. ^ Goddnough, Abby; Carl Hulse (September 23, 2009). "Kennedy Confidant Expected to Take Senate Seat". NYTimes.com (New York Times). Retrieved September 23, 2009. 
  49. ^ "House OKs Kennedy replacement, but not immediately". Boston.com (Boston Globe). Associated Press. September 23, 2009. Retrieved September 29, 2009. [dead link]
  50. ^ 2009 Congressional Record, Vol. 155, Page S (9147)
  51. ^ "Crist Officially Names Former Aide As New Senator". CNNPolitics.com (CNN). August 28, 2009. 
  52. ^ 2009 Congressional Record, Vol. 155, Page S (9230)
  53. ^ "Paul Kirk to fill Kennedy's Senate seat". CNNPolitics.com (CNN). September 24, 2009. 
  54. ^ "Scott Brown Wins Mass Special Election". CNN. January 19, 2010. 
  55. ^ Clymer, Adam (June 28, 2010). "Robert Byrd, Respected Voice of the Senate, Dies at 92". The New York Times. Retrieved June 28, 2010. 
  56. ^ Manchin to announce plans Tuesday - Shira Toeplitz - POLITICO.com
  57. ^ Goodwin was appointed July 16, 2010. He was sworn in on July 20, 2010, but his service began on July 16.
  58. ^ Montgomery, Jeff (November 24, 2008). "Minner taps Kaufman for Biden's seat". DelawareOnLine.com (Delaware News-Journal). Retrieved November 24, 2008. 
  59. ^ a b c "Coons, Manchin to be sworn in next week; Kirk after Thanksgiving". MSNBC. November 8, 2010. 
  60. ^ a b c d e "5 election winners to be sworn in early". The Wall Street Journal. Associated Press. November 15, 2010. Retrieved November 15, 2010. [dead link]
  61. ^ Blake, Aaron (November 4, 2009). "Garamendi wins House seat in California special election". The Hill. Retrieved November 5, 2009. 
  62. ^ "John Garamendi Wins in 10th Congressional District with Commanding Lead". California Chronicle. November 5, 2009. Retrieved November 5, 2009. 
  63. ^ Weiner, Mark (September 16, 2009). "Rep. John McHugh is confirmed as Secretary of the Army". Syracuse Post-Standard. syracuse.com. 
  64. ^ Rudin, Ken (November 6, 2009). "Democrat Bill Owens Wins In NY 23". Political Junkie. NPR. Retrieved November 5, 2009. 
  65. ^ Deirdre Walsh (December 22, 2009). "House Dem to switch to Republican Party". CNN. 
  66. ^ Man, Anthony (October 14, 2009). "Wexler makes it official: leaving Congress in January". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved November 5, 2009. 
  67. ^ Josh Kraushaar. Abercrombie sets Feb. 28 date for resignation. January 4, 2010.
  68. ^ Wilson, Reid; Sahd, Tim (March 5, 2010). "Massa To Resign". National Journal. 
  69. ^ "Reed Remains Hospitalized, Swearing-In Delayed". Roll Call. November 16, 2010. 
  70. ^ Cilizza, Chris; Burke, Aaron (May 18, 2010). "Mark Souder to resign after affair". Washington Post. 
  71. ^ Taylor, Jessica (May 28, 2010). "Daniels schedules Souder special". Politico 2010. 
  72. ^ 2009 Congressional Record, Vol. 155, Page S6961 (June 24, 2009)
  73. ^ 2010 Congressional Record, Vol. 156, Page S1647 (March 17, 2010)
  74. ^ The Indian Affairs Committee is not a standing committee, even though the name select was removed from its title in 1993 by S.Res. 71.[1]
  75. ^ Although called a "caucus", it has the rank of committee.
  76. ^ "The Gavel: Speaker of the House Blog". March 8, 2007. 
  77. ^ Resolution (H.Res. 5) adopting the rules for the 111th Congress.
  78. ^ "House official Dan Beard quits after tough IG report". The Washington Post. 
  79. ^ Pelosi Names Daniel J. Strodel as Interim Chief Administrative Officer - WASHINGTON, July 15 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/. Prnewswire.com. Retrieved on August 12, 2013.
  80. ^ "Dr. Matthew Wasniewski Appointed New House Historian". November 1, 2010. Retrieved January 25, 2012. 
  81. ^ 2009 Congressional Record, Vol. 155, Page H (24)
  82. ^ Committee on House Administration. Cha.house.gov. Retrieved on August 12, 2013.
  83. ^ Congressional Record 11th Congress. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?r111:1:./temp/~r111rvog2v::

External links[edit]