List of micronations
Micronations, sometimes also referred to as model countries and new country projects, are small, self-proclaimed entities that claim to be independent sovereign states but which are not acknowledged as such by any recognised sovereign state, or by any supranational organization. They should not be confused with microstates, which are recognised independent states of a small size, nor should they be confused with unrecognised states, which may have legitimate claim to sovereign state status.:5
Motivations for the creation of micronations include theoretical experimentation, political protest, artistic expression, personal entertainment and the conduct of criminal activity.:4 Micronations can also exist in various forms, including in the physical world (on land, at sea and in outer space), online, in the minds of their creators, or some combination of these. Some micronations issue coins, flags, postage stamps, passports, medals, and other items.
|Official title||Flag (if available)||Founded||Description||Leader||Area||Population|
|Aerican Empire||1987||An eccentric tongue-in-cheek micronation founded by Canadian Eric Lis as a child, and maintained for the several decades since. It claims various terrestrial and interplanetary territories as Aerican land.:102||Eric Lis|
|Aeterna Lucina||1978||An Australian micronation founded by a self-proclaimed baron, who claimed properties he owned in New South Wales as its territory. Several associated businessmen were charged in 1990 with land and visa fraud.||Paul Baron Neuman|
|Akhzivland||declared independence 1970||A non-territorial micronation founded by Eli Avivi in response to the Israeli government's sending two bulldozers to demolish his illegally inhabited house. As a result of a lawsuit brought against Avivi by the State of Israel (which was subsequently rejected by the judge hearing the case), the micronation's legal status has remained ambiguous.||Eli Avivi|
|Aramoana||1980||A small New Zealand community that declared itself independent to protest the building of an aluminium smelter on nearby land.|
|Atlantium||1981||A global sovereignty group based in Australia that was founded in Sydney by George Francis Cruickshank.:102||George Cruickshank|
|Austenasia||2008||A constitutional monarchy comprising three privately owned properties that have declared themselves independent under the leadership of a house in south London.||Jonathan Austen|
|Avram||1980s||A non-territorial micronation founded by an eccentric self-proclaimed duke who was later elected to the Tasmanian state parliament.:144||John Charlton Rudge|
|British West Florida||2005||A micronation intending to revive the former British colony of the same name.:139||Bo Register|
|Bumbunga||1976||An Australian secessionist micronation located on a farm at Bumbunga near Snowtown and Lochiel, (northeast of Adelaide), South Australia during the 1970s and 1980s for approximately a decade.||Alex Brackstone|
|Celestia||1949||A defunct micronation claiming all of outer space.||James Thomas Mangan|
|Conch Republic||1982||A group claiming tongue-in-cheek independence from the United States of America in protest at a blockade established by the US Border Patrol at the upper end of the Florida Keys.:130||Dennis Wardlow|
|Copeman Empire||2003||The Copeman Empire is run from a caravan park in Norfolk, England, by its founder Nick Copeman, who changed his name by deed poll to HM King Nicholas I.:70–73||Nick Copeman|
|Coral Sea Islands||2004||Established as a symbolic political protest by a group of gay rights activists, the Coral Sea Islands is a micronation based in southeast Queensland, Australia.:38||Dale Anderson|
|Elleore||1944||A tongue-in-cheek micronation founded by a group of school teachers as a summer camp on the island of Elleore, Denmark.:42|
|EnenKio||1994||Claims Wake Atoll, a U.S. territory north of the Marshall Islands, and has been deemed a scam for selling passports and diplomatic papers.|
|Filettino||2011||Mayor Luca Sellari, from the small town with a population around 550, declared the independence from Italy in protest to austerity measures resulting from the European economic crisis. Filettino has printed its own currency, the fiorito.|
|Flandrensis||2008||A micronation with claims over some territories of Antarctica, which has been founded in 2008 by Niels Vermeersch, who declared himself as a Grand Duke Niels I.||Niels Vermeersch|
|Forvik||2008||An islet in Shetland, Scotland, declared an independent Crown dependency by Stuart Hill, who claims that the United Kingdom has breached the 1469 deal with Denmark, which transferred the Shetland Islands to the Scottish crown.||Stuart Hill|
|Freetown Christiania||1971||Christiania, also known as Freetown Christiania (Danish: Fristaden Christiania) is a self-proclaimed autonomous neighbourhood of about 850 residents, covering 34 hectares (84 acres) in the borough of Christianshavn in the Danish capital Copenhagen.|
|Frestonia||1977||Freston Road in west London staged a "secession" from the United Kingdom as Frestonia. In a legal dispute regarding the unauthorised performance of his play The Immortalist, Heathcote Williams won a ruling from the UK courts that Frestonia was for this purpose not part of the UK.|
|Glacier Republic||2014||Founded by Greenpeace activists in a disputed border region of the Andes between Chile and Argentina, for the purpose of drawing attention to Chile's lack of environmental protection for glaciers.|
|Global Country of World Peace||2000||"A country without borders for peace loving people everywhere" created by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, with capitals at MERU, Holland and Maharishi Vedic City, Iowa.||Maharaja Adhiraj Rajaraam|
|Hajdučka Republika Mijata Tomića||2002||A protest project (based on Vran mountain, in Blidinje Nature Park, Bosnia and Herzegovina) started by a local because of inefficiency of problems with the local electricity supply.||Vinko Vukoja Lastvić|
|Hay-on-Wye||1977||A town in Wales that was declared independent by bibliophile Richard Booth as a publicity stunt. Booth's success in promoting Hay as a "town of books" was recognised with the award of an MBE in the 2004 Queen's New Year Honours.||Richard Booth|
|Humanity||1878||A former micronation, occupying the Spratly Islands, which merged into the Republic of Morac-Songhrati-Meads in September 1963.|
|Hutt River||1970||A large farming area in Western Australia that unilaterally seceded from the Commonwealth and declared itself to be a sovereign nation. It was known as the Hutt River Province until 2007.:22||Leonard Casley||75 km2|
|Republic of Jamtland||1963||A Swedish province, formerly a part of Norway||Ewert Ljusberg|
|Kugelmugel||1984||A ball-shaped house built by artist Edwin Lipburger, located in the Vienna Prater.:82–83||Edwin Lipburger||7.68m in diameter||1 (in exile)|
|Ladonia||1980||A micronation created by Swedish artist Lars Vilks as the home to sculptures created by him in the Kullaberg nature reserve in north-west Skåne.:136|
|Lagoan Isles||2005||The creation of a self-styled Grand Duke Louis, who claims that three tiny islands in a Portsmouth pond are not owned by the local council, and so has declared them an independent state.:86||Louis Stephans|
|L'Anse-Saint-Jean||1997||A micronation started to promote tourism in a small Quebec town.||Denys Tremblay|
|Llanrwst||1276||A town in North Wales declared a "free borough" by a Welsh prince which unsuccessfully applied to the United Nations in 1947.||Llywelyn the Last|
|Kingdom of Lovely||2004||An Internet-based micronation founded by Danny Wallace as part of the BBC TV series How to Start Your Own Country, claiming the flat of its creator as sovereign territory.:28||Danny Wallace||?|| ?
(58,000 registered online)
|Lundy||1925||An island off the west coast of England, which historically (1100–1200s AD) had semi-independent status or claimed independence from England under various warlords. Between 1925 and 1931 its owner declared himself King and minted coins but did not declare formal independence.||Martin Coles Harman|
|Marlborough||1993||A short lived micronation in Australia whose creator declared his farm an independent country to try to avoid eviction after bankruptcy. He was evicted less than a week later by police, was later prosecuted and has since abandoned any claim of independence.||George Muirhead|
|Melchizedek||1986||The Dominion of Melchizedek (DoM) is a micronation known largely for facilitating large scale banking fraud in many parts of the world.||Richard James McDonald|
|Acting Witan of Mercia||2003||The Acting Witan of Mercia is an attempt at reviving the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy-era kingdom of Mercia as an "autonomous and sustainable bioregion within an English federation". They see Mercia as having been ruled over by an authoritarian state since the Norman conquest, and believe that the United Kingdom as an illegtimate state.||Jeff Kent|
|Minerva||1973||An attempt to build an artificial island and form a new libertarian country. The new land was located on Minerva Reef, south of Fiji, but the island was seized and annexed by Tonga shortly afterward.:14||Morris C. Davis|
|Molossia||1977||A micronation founded by Kevin Baugh, occupying his semi-rural residential acreage in Nevada. It is run humorously as a dictatorial banana-republic.:62||Kevin Baugh||3 (Kevin Baugh, First Lady, and son Carson)|
|Morac-Songhrati-Meads||1959||A micronation that claims to occupy the Spratly Islands. The territory is under de facto military control by China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam, since the discovery of oil in 1968.|
|Naminara Republic||2006||An island in the Han River in Chuncheon city of Gangwon-do, South Korea. Issues its own passport, currency, phone cards. Part of the movie Winter Sonata was filmed here. The island received 1.5 million visitors yearly.|
|Neue Slowenische Kunst||1984||A nation created by a number of Slovene artists.:128–129|
|New Utopia||1990s||A proposed micronation based on libertarian principles to be built on platforms in the Caribbean Sea. It was founded by American entrepreneur Lazarus Long. The project's status as of 2006 is in question.:15||Lazarus Long|
|North Dumpling Island||1986||An island in the Fishers Island Sound, declared independent after its owner David Kamen was denied permission to build a wind turbine on the island. It is carbon neutral, and holds a non-aggression pact with the United States signed by former President George H. W. Bush.||Dean Kamen||2 acres (8,000 m2)|
|Nova Roma||1998||An international organ of Roman revivalists who claim to be a modern Roman nation and have the administrative structure of the ancient Roman Republic. Nova Roma explicitly states that they aren't a micronation but a "civitas" or "res publica"; their organ, however, fits all the requirements for being classified as such.|
|Outer Baldonia||c. 1950||A micronation on Outer Bald Tusket Island, Nova Scotia, used for seasonal fishing. It had an eccentric constitution and women were banned from the island.||Russell Arundel||4 acres (16,000 m2)||c. 69|
|Other World Kingdom||1996||An absolute monarchy/matriarchy with strong BDSM themes, in which women rule over all men. It is located in the Czech Republic.||Queen Patrica I|
|Perloja||1918||Established in the aftermath of World War I, the Republic of Perloja had its own court, police, prison, currency (Perloja litas), and an army of 300 men.||Jonas Česnulevičius|
|Peščenica||1990s||Peščenica is a satirical-parodical project of a dictator-ruled republic by famous Croatian maverick traveller Željko Malnar. It is located in Zagreb, Croatia.||Željko Malnar|
|Republic of Ploiești||1870||It was a two days protest against the Romanian monarchy. The plotters ccupied the firehouse, the telegraph station and the post office in Ploiești in the evening of August 8, 1870. The chief of police and the prefect were arrested. On the evening of 9 August, soldiers from Bucharest arrived at the Ploieşti train station and arrested the new "administration", most of whom declared that they were not actually revolting, thinking it was just a party. Thirty-six of the leaders of the movement were accused of "revolt against the government". The trials of the civilians who took part in the revolt were eventually moved to Târgovişte and, on October 17, 1870, they were found not guilty.||Alexandru Candiano-Popescu|
|Rainbow Creek||1979||Founded by a farmer who "seceded" from Victoria State, Australia, over damage to farmlands caused by flooding he claimed was exacerbated due to incompetence of the state government water management agency.:145||Thomas Barnes|
|Redonda||1865||A small uninhabited island in the Caribbean sea, now legally part of Antigua and Barbuda. In 1865, a citizen of Montserrat was supposedly permitted by Queen Victoria to claim the title of King of Redonda, as long as he did not incite any revolt against colonial authority.:108|
|Rose Island||1968||An attempt to create a sovereign state on an offshore platform in international waters near the Italian city of Rimini. It was completed, but shortly afterward seized by the Italian government and destroyed with explosives.||Giorgio Rosa|
|Russian Empire||2011||Located on the coral atoll Suwarrow near the Cook Islands in the Pacific Ocean, it was founded by Russian businessman Anton Bakov. By the Constitution of the Russian Empire, it is a federal constitutional monarchy and the successor of the Empire founded by Peter I. This claim is denied by Cook Islands news.||Anton Bakov|
|Saugeais||1947||An officially sanctioned tongue-in-cheek micronation located in eastern France, in the département of Doubs.:122–124||Georgette Bertin-Pourchet|
|Repubblica di Sbarre Centrali||1970||A self-proclaimed Republic by people from Sbarre district in Reggio city (southern Italy) during the Reggio revolt. This micronation disappeared after the end of the revolt. |
|Sealand||1967||A World War II military facility consisting of a man-made structure located off the English coast that was occupied and declared to be an independent state by Paddy Roy Bates.:8–13||Paddy Roy Bates||550 m2||4
|Seborga||954||A town in the Italian region of Liguria that claims never to have been a part of the modern Italian state.:55||Marcello I||15 km2|
|Talossa||1979||A micronation founded as a bedroom kingdom by Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America resident Robert Ben Madison. Madison claims to have coined the term "micronation".[nb 1]:101||John Woolley|
|Užupis||1997||Užupis is a neighborhood in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, largely located in Vilnius' old town. In 1997, the residents of the area declared a Republic of Užupis, with its own flag, currency, president, and constitution.|
|Vikesland||2005||A micronation located in Manitoba, Canada that was founded for the purposes of a TV documentary about micronations. It claims two properties in and near the town of Brandon.:90–93|
|Wallachia||1997||A tongue-in-cheek micronation founded in 1997 as an "elaborate practical joke", located is in the northeast corner of the Czech Republic. It has since become one of the Czech Republic's biggest tourist attractions.||Vladimir II|
|Wanstonia||1994||Wanstonia was created by protesters against the M11 motorway link road through Wanstead in north-east London.|
|Waveland||1997||A micronation sited on a rocky islet in the North Atlantic, known as Rockall. Greenpeace occupied Rockall, declaring it an independent nation, to protest oil drilling in the area.|
|Wendland||1980||A German anti-nuclear protest in the Wendland, reoccupied by thousands of policemen after a few weeks.|
|Westarctica||1989||Micronation founded by Travis McHenry, subsequently dubbed the Grand Duchy of Westarctica, claiming a piece of Marie Byrd Land, the last slice in Antarctica unclaimed by any nation.||Travis McHenry||1,610,000 km2||0 ?
(proposed rebuilding of Byrd Station)
|Whangamomona Republic||1989||A tongue-in-cheek micronation created as a tourism booster, and based in the rural New Zealand town of the same name. Past elected presidents have included a goat.:34–37||Murt Kennard|
|Wirtland||2008||Wirtland is an experiment into legitimacy and self-sustainability of a country without its own soil, which transcends national borders without breaching or lessening the sovereignty of any involved.|
|Wy||2004||Established by Paul Delprat after a dispute with the local council of Mosman Municipality in Sydney over the construction of a driveway into his property.||Prince Paul of Wy|
- Prior to Madison's departure in 2005 the group split into a separate "Kingdom of Talossa" and "Republic of Talossa".
- Ryan, John; Dunford, George; Sellars, Simon (2006). Micronations. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74104-730-7.
- Dean, Anabel (20 June 1989). "Bleyer's Honours Outlined". The Sydney Morning Herald. p. 7.
- A World of His Own: Former Seafarer Eli Avivi Rules His Own Kingdom - Go World Travel
- Micronations: The Lonely Planet Guide to Home-Made Nations (Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd 2006)
- Your Local Guardian: Carshalton home declares itself independent state Retrieved on 22.01.2009
- Join the List of 5 Weirdest Micronations by Starting Your Own Country - Asylum.com Retrieved 25.12.2010
- Chosun Ilbo 16 March 2010 Retrieved 22.12.2010
- City - Summer 2009 (Page 97) Retrieved 22.12.2010
- Tom Cutler (3 May 2011). The Gentleman's Bedside Companion: A Compendium of Manly Information for the Last Fifteen Minutes of the Day. Penguin. pp. 137–138. ISBN 978-0-399-53669-4. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- "Kingdom of EnenKio". Flags of the World. Retrieved 2008-09-13.
- "Italian town Filettino declares independence". BBC News. 3 September 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Povoledo, Elisabetta (29 August 2011). "In an Italian Town, Dreams of Freedom On a Princely Scale". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- (Dutch) DAMIAANS, R., DILLEN, R., Uw krant op bezoek bij Europese micronaties Deel 1: Flandrensis, Het Belang van Limburg, 20 July 2012, page 20-21
- (Dutch)DAMIAANS, R., DILLEN, R., Dwergstaten Deel 1: Flandrensis, Gazet van Antwerpen, 23 July 2012, page 8-9
- (Dutch)DUBOIS, T,. Reportage plus: Niels Vermeersch staat als groothertog aan het hoofd van zijn eigen micronatie Flandrensis, 15 June 2012, page 10-11
- (Dutch)DEJONCKHEERE, A., Kleurrijk Roeselare: Roeselarenaar Groothertog, video, Roeselare TV, 2011
- (Dutch)COLUMBUS MAGAZINE, Het Groothertogdom Westarctica, 22 June 2010
- (Russian) CHASTNY KORRESPONDENT, Micronations on the Southern Continent, 28 August 2010
- (Dutch) VANSTEENKISTE, A.,Hoogledenaar is Groothertog van micronatie Flandrensis, Het Nieuwsblad, 13 September 2012, page 22-22
- (Dutch) VERHAEGHE, H., Middagpost West-Vlaanderen, Radio 2, 13 September 2012 (interview with Niels Vermeersch)
- (French) BELENFANT, M., Sa Majesté le Grand-Duc de Flandrensis brise la glace, Le Jeu de l'Oie: La Revue Internationale de Sciences – Po Lille, April 2014, page 30-31
- (French) PRUDENT, R., Envie d’être chef ? Toi aussi, crée ta micronation en dix leçons , ‘Rue 89', 12 June 2014
- Carrell, Severin (2008-06-19). "Captain Calamity leads breakaway of Shetland islet from UK". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Farewell to Freetown
- "The Eddie Woods Archive". American Literary Studies. Stanford University Library. 2007-08-06. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
- "Chile: Activists 'create nation' to protect glaciers". BBC News. 2014-03-11. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- "Greenpeace Chile plants flag in Andes to create new 'Glacier Republic'". Santiago Times. 2014-03-06. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- McGirk, Jan (June 8, 2001). "Yogi's disciples want to create new utopia". The Independent (London (UK)). p. 17.
- (Serbian) "Hajduci na Vranu ljude samo po očima pamte". Nezavisne. Retrieved 2008-06-30.
- "Richard Booth". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2007-05-11.
- Marwyn S. Samuels, Contest for the South China Sea (1982)
- "Defiant Graziers Under Arrest". Sydney Morning Herald. 14 June 1993.
- "Fantasy Island". CBS News (CBS Worldwide Inc.). 2000-04-10.
- Heath, Chris (2010-02-26). "'Mercians' claim Staffs Hoard". BBC News.
- "The acting witan of Mercia". Independentmercia.org. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "Is it time to get Anglo-Saxon about England's local government?". BBC News. 2012-04-26.
- "Interactive Corporative Services Information on Nova Roma". Maine Department of the Secretary of State, Bureau of Corporations, Elections, and Commissions. Retrieved 2007-11-27.
- McLachlan, Gordon (2008). Bradt Lithuania (5th ed.). Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 123–124. ISBN 978-1-84162-228-6.
- Semaška, Algimantas (2006). Kelionių vadovas po Lietuvą: 1000 lankytinų vietovių norintiems geriau pažinti gimtąjį kraštą (4th ed. ed.). Vilnius: Algimantas. p. 420. ISBN 9986-509-90-4. (Lithuanian)
- Malnar, Željko. Filozofija Republike Peščenice. Birotisak. ISBN 953-6156-31-8.
- (Russian) http://gazeta.babr.ru/?IDE=96948
- (Russian) http://www.izvestia.ru/news/499236
- it:File:Repubblica di sbarre centrali.jpg
- "Zappa lives in Lithuania". Rolling Stone.
- "Tenth anniversary of the siege of Wanstonia M11 link rd". UK Indymedia. Retrieved 2008-09-13.
- Royle, Stephen (2001). A Geography of Islands. Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 1-85728-865-3.
- "The Anti-Nuclear "Free Republic of Wendland". German History Docs. Retrieved 2008-07-20.
- The Grand Duchy of Westarctica (West-Antarctica) Columbus Magazine. By Mariska van Brederode, June 2010
- Fox 45 Morning News, Wirtland on FOX News, Fox 45 Morning News (USA), January 20, 2009.
- Sydney Morning Herald Retrieved 10-10-2010.
- History of Mosman Council - from the Mosman Council official website, which lists the year of secession as 2004.