|— 'Metropolitan City' —|
|• Mayor, Municipal Corporation||Mr. Rameshwar lal Dadhich|
|• Collector||Mr. Gaurav Goyal, IAS|
|Elevation||231 m (758 ft)|
|Population (1 January 2013)|
|• Density||11,210/km2 (29,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||RJ 19|
Jodhpur (Rajasthani: जोधपुर), (Urdu: جودهپُور ),(// Jodhpur.ogg (help·info)) is the 2nd largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It is located 335 kilometres (208 mi) west of the state capital, Jaipur and 200 kilometres (124 mi) from the city of Ajmer. It was formerly the seat of a princely state of the same name, the capital of the kingdom known as Marwar. Jodhpur is a popular tourist destination, featuring many palaces, forts and temples, set in the stark landscape of the Thar desert.
The city is known as the "Sun City" for the bright, sunny weather it enjoys all year. It is also referred to as the "Blue City" due to the vivid blue-painted houses around the Mehrangarh Fort. The old city circles the fort and is bounded by a wall with several gates. However, the city has expanded greatly outside the wall over the past several decades. Jodhpur lies near the geographic centre of Rajasthan state, which makes it a convenient base for travel in a region much frequented by tourists.
According to Rajasthan district Gazetteers of Jodhpur and the Hindu epic Ramayana (composed up to 4th century AD), Abhiras (Ahirs) were the original inhabitants of Jodhpur and later Aryans spread to this region.
Jodhpur was also part of the Gurjara – Pratihara empire and until 1100 CE was ruled by a powerful Bargujar King. Jodhpur was founded in 1459 by Rao Jodha, a Rajput chief of the Rathore clan. Jodha succeeded in conquering the surrounding territory and thus founded a state which came to be known as Marwar. As Jodha hailed from the nearby town of Mandore, that town initially served as the capital of this state; however, Jodhpur soon took over that role, even during the lifetime of Jodha. The city was located on the strategic road linking Delhi to Gujarat. This enabled it to profit from a flourishing trade in opium, copper, silk, sandals, date palms and coffee.
In between 1540 to 1556, Afghans were in control of most of North India. Rajasthan born Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, popularly called Hemu, who started his career as a supplier of various types of merchandise to Sher Shah Suri empire, held various positions in capital Delhi as 'Incharge of Food Affairs', 'Minister of Internal Security', 'Prime Minister-cum-Chief of Army' with Islam Shah Suri and Adil Shah, who ruled north India from Punjab to Bengal at that point in time. Hemu, who took as the military commander of Afghan army in 1553, crushed the first rebellion, killing the Governor of Ajmer province Juneid Khan and appointed his own Governor in Rajasthan. Hem Chandra won several battles (22) throughout North India against Afghan rebels and twice against Akbar at Agra and Delhi, before his coronation at Purana Quila in Delhi on 7th Oct. 1556 as a 'Vikramaditya' king. Hemu lost his life in the Second Battle of Panipat on 5 November 1556, and the area came under Mughal king Akbar.
Early in its history, the state became a fief under the Mughal Empire, owing fealty to them while enjoying some internal autonomy. During this period, the state furnished the Mughals with several notable generals such as Maharaja Jaswant Singh. Jodhpur and its people benefited from this exposure to the wider world: new styles of art and architecture made their appearance and opportunities opened up for local tradesmen to make their mark across northern India.
Aurangzeb briefly sequestrated the state (c.1679) on the pretext of a minority, but the rightful ruler Maharaja Ajit Singh was restored to the throne by Veer Durgadas Rathore after Aurangzeb died in 1707 and a great struggle of 30 years. The Mughal empire declined gradually after 1707, but the Jodhpur court was beset by intrigue; rather than benefiting from circumstances, Marwar descended into strife and invited the intervention of the Marathas, who soon supplanted the Mughals as overlords of the region. This did not make for stability or peace, however; 50 years of wars and treaties dissipated the wealth of the state, which sought and gratefully entered into subsidiary alliance with the British in 1818.
During the British Raj, the state of Jodhpur had the largest land area of any in Rajputana. Jodhpur prospered under the peace and stability that were a hallmark of this era. The land area of the state was 23,543 sq mi (60,980 km2) its population in 1901 was 44,73,759. It enjoyed an estimated revenue of £35,29,000/. Its merchants, the Marwaris, flourished without let or limit and came to occupy a position of dominance in trade across India. In 1947, when India became independent, the state merged into the union of India and Jodhpur became the second city of Rajasthan.
At the time of partition, ruler of Jodhpur Hanwant Singh did not want to join India, but finally due to the effective persuasion of Sardar Vallab Patel, the then Home Minister at the centre, the princely state of Jodhpur was included in Indian Republic. Later after State Reorganization Act, 1956 it was made part of the state of Rajasthan.
As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Jodhpur is 1,033,918 in 2011; of which male and female nearly constitute 52.62 percent and 47.38 percent respectively. Average literacy rate of Jodhpur city is 81.56 percent of which male and female literacy was 88.42 and 73.93 percent respectively. Total children under 6 years of age constitute nearly 12.24 percent of city population. Jodhpur city is governed by Municipal Corporation which comes under Jodhpur Urban Agglomeration. The Jodhpur Urban/Metropolitan area include Jodhpur, Kuri Bhagtasani, Mandor Ind. Area, Nandri, Pal Village and Sangariya. Its Urban/Metropolitan population is 1,137,815 of which 599,332 are males and 538,483 are females.
The climate of Jodhpur is generally hot and semi-arid, but with a rainy season from late June to September (Köppen BShw). Although the average rainfall is around 450 millimetres (18 in), it is extraordinarily variable. In the famine year of 1899, Jodhpur received only 24 millimetres (0.94 in), but in the flood year 1917 it received as much as 1,178 millimetres (46.4 in).
Temperatures are extreme throughout the period from March to October, except when monsoonal rain produces thick clouds to lower it slightly. In the months of April, May and June, high temperatures routinely exceed 40 degrees Celsius. During the monsoon season, average temperatures decrease slightly. However, the city's generally low humidity rises and this adds to the normal discomfort from the heat.
|Climate data for Jodhpur|
|Average high °C (°F)||25
|Average low °C (°F)||9.6
|Precipitation mm (inches)||10.2
|Source: Jodhpur Climate|
The Handicrafts industry has in recent years eclipsed all other industries in the city. By some estimates, the furniture export segment is a $200 million industry, directly or indirectly employing as many as 200,000 people. Other items manufactured include textiles, metal utensils, bicycles, ink and sporting goods. A flourishing cottage industry exists for the manufacture of such items as glass bangles, cutlery, carpets and marble products.
After handicrafts, tourism is the second largest industry of Jodhpur. Crops grown in the district include wheat and the famous Mathania red chillies. Gypsum and salt are mined. The city serves as an important marketplace for wool and agricultural products. The Indian Air Force, Indian Army, Indo Tibetan Border Police and Border Security Force maintain training centers at Jodhpur.
The administration of Jodhpur is consisting of a District Collector, followed by 4 Additional District Magistrates (I,II, Land Conversion and City ADM). Presently, the Collector and District Magistrate is Mr. Gaurav Goyal (I.A.S).The city is also under Police Commissioner system, with "MR.Bhupinder Kumar Dak (I.P.S)" as Police commissioner of the city.
Elected representatives 
The present Member of Parliament from Jodhpur is Chandresh Kumari of Congress, who is the sister of Gaj Singh, the former Maharaja of Jodhpur. She has been recently inducted into [Dr. Manmohan Singh's cabinet of UPA II Government as the Cultural Minister. The current MLAs from the 3 constituencies of Jodhpur are from Jodhpur City: Shri Kailash Bhansali, Chartered Accountant; from Sardarpura: Shri Ashok Gehlot, Chief Minister of Rajasthan; from Soorsagar: Smt. Suryakanta Vyas. Shri Ashok Gehlot is also the Chief Minister of Rajasthan.
Rich in history, the center of Marwar is one of the most vibrant places to explore. Music, food, art and language blend in perfectly to gives one a lively experience that is very distinct to this region. The city is famous for its food specially with shops named 'Jodhpur Sweets' being a very common site in many of the cities spread throughout India. Being at the onshore of Thar desert, life has been influenced with ways of the desert folks( gypsies can be found in many parts of the city).
Jodhpur's attractions include Mehrangarh Fort, Umaid Bhawan Palace, Jaswant Thada,Ghanta Ghar (Clock Tower)and Flying Fox [Mehrangarh Fort]. Tourists can make excursions to Mandore, Kaylana Lake and Garden, Balsamand lake, Sardar Samand lake and palace, Masooria Hill, Veer Durgadas Smarak(monument, park and museum).
The beautiful historic buildings and scenic landscapes of the city were featured in some big movies(The Dark Knight Rises by Christopher Nolan, The Fall by Tarsem Singh).More recently, there have been many high profile celebrations organised in the city including many celebrity weddings. This has given an impetus to a nascent lavish wedding industry and also increased tourist footfalls.
Fairs and festivals 
A number of Indian delicacies have originated in Jodhpur. To name a few, the Makhaniya Lassi, Mawa Kachori, Pyaaj Kachori, Hot & Spicy Mirchibada (A preparation made with potato, onion, chilli and gramflour), Dal Bati Churma, Panchkuta, Lapsi (a special kind of dessert made with wheat, Jaggery, and ghee), Kachar mircha curry (made with chilli and kachar, a special type of vegetable grown in desert area) and Kadhi (made with gramflour, curd and chilli) with Baajre ka sogra (a sweet preparation of pearl millet and jaggery). Jodhpur is known for its sweets ranging from traditional "Makhanbada", "Mawa Kachori" to Bengali "Roshogollas","Ras madhuri".
Several research institutions are located in the city of Jodhpur: 1. Arid Forest Research Institute (under ICFRE, Dehradun)- The Objective of the Institute is to carry out scientific research in forestry in order to provide technologies to increase the vegetative cover and to conserve the biodiversity in the hot arid and semi arid region of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Dadara & Nagar Haveli union territory. The Institute Campus covers 66 ha. of area on the New Pali Road, Jodhpur. 2. Central Arid Zone Research Institute (under ICAR New Delhi) 3. Desert Medicine Research Center (Under ICMR, New Delhi)
Jodhpur is fast becoming a major education hub for higher studies in India. Almost every major discipline has a dedicated institution in the city, with disciplines varying from Engineering, Medicine, Law, Design among others. With many renowned academicians, Jodhpur is also India's largest hub for preparation of the CA(Chartered Accountant) entrance examination held throughout India by ICAI( The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India).
Major institutions are:
- Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Rajasthan Ayurved University - an excellence for Ayurveda discipline, only second university of India
- Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur - a premier technical institute, established in collaboration with France, one of the new IITs set up in 2008
- AIIMS Jodhpur (All India Institute of Medical Sciences) - started in 2012, one of the best to study Medicine in India with top notch medical facilities
- NLU (National Law University, Jodhpur) - established by the Government of India for excellence in Law
- FDDI (Footwear Design and Development Institute) - established by the Government of India, Ministry of Commerce & Industry
- NIFT National Institute of Fashion Technology
- MBM Engineering College, which falls under JNVU, is the world's only institute which has its own mines. (established in 1951)
- Dr. S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur, (established in 1965)
- Jodhpur National University
Some other institutions of significance are:
- LMCST(Lachoo Memorial College of Science & Technology)
- JNVU (Jai Narayan Vyas University) (NAAC accredited "A" Grade University)
- JIET (Jodhpur) (Jodhpur Institute of Engineering & Technology)
- S.L.B.S Engineering College
- Mayurakshi Institute of Engineering & Technology
- Raj Engineering College
- Vyas Institute Of Higher education
- Jodhpur Engineering College & Research Centre
Rajasthan High Court is the High Court of the state of Rajasthan. It was established on 21 June 1949 under the Rajasthan High Court Ordinance, 1949.
The seat of the court is at Jodhpur. The court has a sanctioned judge strength of 40. View of the Rajasthan High Court, Sardar museum in Umaid Park and upper right is Jodhpur fort in 1960.
The High Court of Rajasthan was founded in 1949 at Jodhpur, and was inaugurated by the Rajpramukh, Maharaja Sawai Man Singh on 29 August 1949. The first Chief Justice was Kamala Kant Verma. A bench was formed at Jaipur which was dissolved in 1958 and was again formed on 31 January 1977. Currently the sanctioned strength of the judges is 40 and actual
The major hospitals in city are:-
- Mathura Das Mathur Hospital
- Mahatma Gandhi Hospital
- Umaid Hospital
- Goyal Hospital
- Rajdadiji Hospital
- Manidhari Hospital
- Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital
- Rajasthan Cancer Cure Hospital
The city is very well connected with Road, Rail and Air.
It is mostly connected with railways to major Indian cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Trivandrum, Pune, Kota, Kanpur, Bareilly, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Indore, Bhopal, Dhanbad, Guwahati, Nagpur, Lucknow and Jaipur. The railway station is also the originating point for various trains like Jodhpur – Indore Express, Jodhpur – Chennai express, Jodhpur – Puri Express, Mandore Express, Suryanagri Superfast Express etc.
Jodhpur Airport is one of the prominent airports of Rajasthan. It was primarily constructed as an Air Force base because of its important strategic location (Jodhpur Airport played the crucial role during Indo-Pak wars in 1965, 1971). It is the most powerful air base in South Asia.
- Airlines and destinations
|Air India||Delhi, Mumbai|
|Jet Airways||Delhi, Mumbai|
It is connected by Road to all major cities in Rajasthan. Outer States are also well connected like Delhi, Ahmedabad, Surat, Ujjain, Agra. Rajasthan Roadways is providing Volvo bus service to major cities.
Further reading 
- Jodhpur, Published by [s.l.], 1933.
- Maharaja of Marwar 1973.
- Marwar under Jaswant Singh, (1658–1678): Jodhpur hukumat ri bahi, by Satish Chandra, Raghubir Sinh, Ghanshyam Dattan Singh of Jodhpur and His Times (1803–1843 A.D.), by padmaja Sharma. Published by Shiva Lal Agarwala, 1972.
- The Administration of Jodhpur State, 1800–1947 A.D., by Nirmala M. Upadhyaya. International Publishers, Sharma. Published by Meenakshi Prakashan, 1976.
- The History of Rajputana-Vol.IV, PartII. The History of the Jodhpur State, Part II,Veer Durgadas. 1941, Dr. Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha.
- Jodhpur, Bikaner, Jaisalmer: Desert Kingdoms, by Kishore Singh, Karoki Lewis. Lustre Press Ltd. 1992.
- The House of Marwar: The Story of Jodhpur, by Dhananajaya Singh. Lotus Collection, Roli Books, 1994. ISBN 81-7436-002-6.
- Modern Indian Kingship: Tradition, Legitimacy & Power in Jodhpur, by Marzia Balzani. Published by James Currey Limited, 2003. ISBN 0-85255-931-3.
- Rathod Durgadas by Pt. Bishweshharnath Reu, 1948, Archaeological Department, Jodhpur.
- Veer Durgadas Rathor by Dr.L.S.Rathore, Thar Bliss Publisher, Jodhpur, 1987.
- Jodhpur and the Later Mughals, AD 1707–1752, by R. S. Sangwan. Published by Pragati Publications, 2006.
See also 
Ranaram bishnoi Ranjeet ram Planted millions of trees in desert rajasthan on the dunes he started this work when he was on 17– 18 years old.. now he is 71 year old still he is doing this.
- "Census of India : Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011 : Rajasthan".
- Rajasthan [district Gazetteers].: Jodhpur-page-18
- Rajasthan [district Gazetteers].: Jodhpur – Rajasthan (India). Government Central Press. 1979.
- Government of India site for data on Census http://www.census2011.co.in/census/city/80-jodhpur.html
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Jodhpur|
- Jodhpur travel guide from Wikivoyage