Bhubaneswar

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Bhubaneswar
ଭୁବନେଶ୍ୱର
भुवनेश्वर
City
Bhubaneswar Montage
Clockwise from Top: Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves , Rajarani Temple, Dhauli Shanti Stupa, Biju Patnaik International Airport, Nandankanan Zoological Park, Lingaraja Temple
Nickname(s): Temple City of India
Bhubaneswar is located in Odisha
Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
Coordinates: 20°16′N 85°50′E / 20.27°N 85.84°E / 20.27; 85.84Coordinates: 20°16′N 85°50′E / 20.27°N 85.84°E / 20.27; 85.84
Country India
State Odisha
District Khurdha
Named for Tribhubaneswar
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation (BMC)
 • Mayor Anant Narayan Jena (BJD)
 • Municipal Commissioner Krishan Kumar (IAS)
 • Commissioner of Police Rajendra Prasad Sharma (IPS)
Area
 • City 135 km2 (52 sq mi)
 • Metro 393.57 km2 (151.96 sq mi)
Elevation 45 m (148 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • City 837,737
 • Rank 56
 • Density 4,800/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[2] 881,988
Demonym Bhubaneswarites
Languages
 • Official Oriya
English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 751 0xx
Telephone code 0674
Vehicle registration OR-02/OD-02/OD-33
UN/LOCODE IN BBI
Website www.bmc.gov.in

Bhubaneswar /ˌbʊvəˈnʃwər/, also spelt Bhubaneshwar (Oriya: ଭୁବନେଶ୍ୱର Bhubanēswara; About this sound pronunciation ), is the capital of the Indian state of Odisha, formerly known as Orissa. The city has a history of over 3,000 years starting with the Mahamegha-bahana Chedi dynasty (around the 2nd century BCE) which had its capital at Sisupalgarh, nearby. Bhubaneswar, derived its name from Tribhubaneswar, which literally means the Lord (Eeswar) of the Three World (Tribhuban), which refers to Shiva.[3] Bhubaneswar has been known by names such as Toshali, Kalinga Nagari, Nagar Kalinga, Ekamra Kanan, Ekamra Kshetra and Mandira Malini Nagari (English: "City of Temples"). It is the largest city in Odisha and is a centre of economic and religious importance in Eastern India.

With many Hindu temples, which span the entire spectrum of Kalinga architecture, Bhubaneswar is often referred to as a Temple City of India and together with Puri and Konark it forms the Swarna Tribhuja ("Golden Triangle"), one of eastern India's most visited destinations.[4]

Bhubaneswar replaced Cuttack as the capital in 1948, the year after India gained its independence from Britain. The modern city was designed by the German architect Otto Königsberger in 1946. Along with Jamshedpur and Chandigarh, it was one of modern India's first planned cities. Bhubaneswar and Cuttack are often referred to as the twin-cities of Odisha. The metropolitan area formed by the two cities had a population of 1.4 million in 2011.[5] Bhubaneswar is categorized as a Tier-2 city. An emerging Information Technology (IT) and education hub, Bhubaneswar is one of the country's fastest developing cities.

History[edit]

Inscription on rock in Brahmi language
Hathigumpha Inscriptions at the Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves

The history of Bhubaneswar may be viewed in terms of ancient and modern eras. The ancient city has a history of more than 2,000 years, while the modern city emerged in 1948.[6]

Bhubaneswar's first mention was during the Kalinga War, which took place near Dhauli (now in the south of the city) in the 3rd century BCE. Later Emperor Kharavela established his capital at Sisupalgarh, on the outskirts of the modern city. The Hathigumpha inscriptions at the Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves by Kharavela give a good account of that period, which is estimated as 1st–2nd century BCE. Temples built throughout the ancient and medieval periods chronicle the city's history.

Jain and Buddhist shrines portray the settlements around Bhubaneswar in the first two centuries BCE. One of the most complete edicts of the Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, dating from between 272-236 BCE, remains carved in rock 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) to the southwest of the modern city.[7]

 Ancient remains of stone walls with a grassy path in the middle
Remains of the ancient city of Sisupalgarh, on the outskirts of Bhubaneswar, are claimed to be at least 2,500 years old

The city was the ancient capital of the Kalinga Empire and the architectural legacy of the period is manifest. Historical sites in the city testify to the importance of the region during the 7th to 11th centuries CE, when the Kalinga kings ruled Odisha and beyond. The Ananta Vasudeva Temple and Bindusagar Tank is the only temple of Vishnu in the city. The temples in Bhubaneswar are regarded as having been built from the 8th to 12th centuries under Shaiva influence.[8]

On 1 April 1936, Odisha, then known as Orissa, became a separate province in British India with Cuttack as its capital. This date is celebrated as Utkal Divas. Cuttack had been Odisha's capital since the 12th century. With independence in 1947, Odisha became a state. Because of Cuttack's vulnerability to floods and space constraints, the capital was moved to Bhubaneswar, which was formally inaugurated on 13 April 1948. The new capital was built as a modern city, designed by German architect Otto Königsberger with wide roads, gardens and parks.[9] Though part of the city followed the plan, it has grown rapidly over the last few decades, outstripping the planning process.[10]

Geography[edit]

A river passing along green fields
Daya River at the foothills of Dhauli

Bhubaneswar is located in Khordha district of Odisha. It is situated in the eastern coastal plains, along the axis of the Eastern Ghats mountains.[11] The city has an average altitude of 45 m (148 ft) above sea level.[11] It lies southwest of the Mahanadi River that forms the northern boundary of Bhubaneswar metropolitan area, within its delta. The city is bounded by the Daya River to the south and the Kuakhai River to the east;[11] the Chandaka Wildlife Sanctuary and Nandankanan Zoo lie in the western and northern parts of Bhubaneswar, respectively.[9] Bhubaneswar is topographically divided into western uplands and eastern lowlands, with hillocks in the western and northern parts.[11] Kanjia lake on the northern outskirts, affords rich biodiversity and is a wetland of national importance.[12] Bhubaneswar's soils are 65 per cent laterite, 25 per cent alluvial and 10 per cent sandstone.[13] The Bureau of Indian Standards places the city inside seismic zone III on a scale ranging from I to V in order of increasing susceptibility to earthquakes.[14] The United Nations Development Programme reports that there is "very high damage risk" from winds and cyclones.[14] The 1999 Odisha cyclone caused major damage to buildings, the city's infrastructure and cost many human lives.[15][16] Floods and waterlogging in the low-lying areas have become common due to unplanned growth.[13][17]

Urban structure[edit]

Bhubaneswar City at Night
A one storied building with decorative plants and landscaping around it
Meteorological Centre Bhubaneswar

The Bhubaneswar urban development area consists of the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation area, 173 revenue villages and two other municipalities spread over 393.57 square kilometres (151.96 sq mi).[18] The area under the jurisdiction of the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation covers 135 square kilometres (52 sq mi).[19] The city is somewhat dumbbell-shaped with most of the growth taking place to the north, northeast and southwest.[20] The north–south axis of the city is widest, at roughly 22.5 kilometres (14.0 mi). Growth in the east is restricted due to the presence of Kuakhai River and by the wildlife sanctuary in the northwestern part.[20] The city can be broadly divided into the old town, planned city (or state capital), added areas and outer peripheral areas. The city is subdivided into Units and Colonies.

The old town or "Temple Town", the oldest part of the city, is characterised by many temples, including the Lingaraj, Rajarani, and Muktesvara temples, standing alongside residential areas. This area is congested, with narrow roads and poor infrastructure.[20] Among neighbourhoods in the old town are Rajarani Colony, Pandav Nagar, Brahmeswar Bagh, Lingaraj Nagar, Gouri Nagar, Bhimatanki and Kapileswar.

The planned city was designed in 1948 to house the capital. It is subdivided into units, each with a high school, shopping centers, dispensaries and play areas. While most of the units house government employees, Unit V houses the administrative buildings, including the State Secretariat, State Assembly, and the Raj Bhavan. Private residential areas were later built in other areas of the planned city, including Saheed Nagar and Satya Nagar. Unit I, popularly known as the Market Building, was formed to cater to the shopping needs of the new capital's residents. Later, markets and commercial establishments developed along the Janpath and Cuttack-Puri Road at Saheed Nagar, Satya Nagar, Bapuji Nagar and Ashok Nagar. A dedicated institutional area houses educational and research institutes, including Utkal University, the Institute of Physics, the Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology and Sainik School. Indira Gandhi Park, Gandhi Park and the Biju Patnaik Park are located in the unit.[20]

The added areas are mostly areas lying north of National Highway 5, including Nayapalli, Jayadev Vihar, Chandrasekharpur and Sailashree Vihar, which were developed by Bhubaneswar Development Authority to house the growing population.[20]

The peripheral areas are outside the municipal boundary, or that have subsequently been included within the extended boundary, including Tomando, Patia and Raghunathpur. Most of these areas were developed in a haphazard manner, without proper planning.[21]

Climate[edit]

Bhubaneswar has a tropical savanna climate, designated Aw under the Köppen climate classification. The annual mean temperature is 27.4 °C (81.3 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 22–32 °C (72–90 °F).[22] Summers (March to June) are hot and humid, with temperatures in the low 30s C; during dry spells, maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in May and June.[22] Winter lasts for only about ten weeks, with seasonal lows dipping to 15–18 °C (59–64 °F) in December and January. May is the hottest month, when daily temperatures range from 27–38 °C (81–100 °F). January, the coldest month, has temperatures varying from 15–28 °C (59–82 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 45 °C (113.0 °F), and the lowest is 12 °C (54 °F).[22]

Rains brought by the Bay of Bengal branch of the south west summer monsoon[23] lash Bhubaneswar between June and September, supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of 1,542 mm (61 in). The highest monthly rainfall total, 330 mm (13 in), occurs in August.[22]

Climate data for Bhubaneswar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34.8
(94.6)
38.2
(100.8)
41.8
(107.2)
44.8
(112.6)
46.3
(115.3)
44.4
(111.9)
41
(106)
37.2
(99)
37.7
(99.9)
36.4
(97.5)
35
(95)
33.3
(91.9)
46.3
(115.3)
Average high °C (°F) 28.3
(82.9)
31.5
(88.7)
34.9
(94.8)
37.3
(99.1)
37.9
(100.2)
35.4
(95.7)
31.7
(89.1)
31.4
(88.5)
31.7
(89.1)
31.4
(88.5)
29.8
(85.6)
28
(82)
32.4
(90.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 22.2
(72)
25.1
(77.2)
28.6
(83.5)
30.9
(87.6)
31.7
(89.1)
30.7
(87.3)
28.7
(83.7)
28.4
(83.1)
28.5
(83.3)
27.6
(81.7)
24.9
(76.8)
22
(72)
27.44
(81.44)
Average low °C (°F) 15.5
(59.9)
18.5
(65.3)
22.2
(72)
25.2
(77.4)
26.6
(79.9)
26.2
(79.2)
25.2
(77.4)
25.1
(77.2)
24.8
(76.6)
23
(73)
18.7
(65.7)
15.3
(59.5)
22.2
(72)
Record low °C (°F) 9.4
(48.9)
12
(54)
14.4
(57.9)
17.8
(64)
18.2
(64.8)
19.4
(66.9)
21.4
(70.5)
18.2
(64.8)
18.3
(64.9)
16.4
(61.5)
12.4
(54.3)
10.4
(50.7)
9.4
(48.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 12.4
(0.488)
24.2
(0.953)
24.2
(0.953)
21.8
(0.858)
55.5
(2.185)
196.4
(7.732)
325.3
(12.807)
329.5
(12.972)
287.6
(11.323)
208
(8.19)
37.4
(1.472)
5.5
(0.217)
1,542.2
(60.717)
Avg. rainy days 0.4 2.3 2.8 3.1 5.1 12 18 19.1 14.6 8.8 2.1 0.7 89
 % humidity 60 61 63 66 66 74 83 85 83 76 66 60 70.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 253.4 234 237.8 238.8 242.9 140.7 107.2 128.6 150.8 221.8 217.5 155.5 2,329
Source: IMD, NOAA (1971-1990) [24]

Economy[edit]

Panoramic View of Jaydev Vihar Interchange at Night

Bhubaneswar is primarily an administrative city and a tourism city.[11] Bhubaneswar has emerged as a fast-growing, important trading and commercial hub in the state and eastern India. Tourism is a major industry, attracting about 1.5 million tourists in 2011.[11][25] Bhubaneswar was designed to be a largely residential city with outlying industrial areas. The economy had few major players until the 1990s and was dominated by retail and small-scale manufacturing. With the economic liberalisation policy adopted by the Government of India in the 1990s, Bhubaneswar received investment in telecommunications, information technology (IT) and higher education.[11]

Fortune Towers

As of 2001, around 2.15% of the city's workforce was employed in the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, mining, etc.); 2.18% worked in the secondary sector (industrial and manufacturing); and 95.67% worked in the tertiary sector (service industries).[11]

In 2011, according to a study by Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India, Bhubaneswar had the highest rate of employment growth among 17 Tier-II cities in India.[26] Bhubaneswar has been listed among the top ten emerging cities in India by Cushman and Wakefield, taking into consideration factors like demographics, physical, social and real estate infrastructure, current level and scope of economic activities and government support.[27] In 2012, Bhubaneswar was ranked third among Indian cities, in terms of starting and operating a business by the World Bank.[28] Bhubaneswar has been traditionally home to handicrafts industry, including silver filigree work, appliqué work, stone and wood carvings and patta painting, which significantly contributes to the city’s economy.[11] The late 2000s saw a surge of investments in the real estate, infrastructure, retail and hospitality sectors; several shopping malls and organised retails have opened outlets in Bhubaneswar.[29][30][31][32] The Department of Industries established four industrial areas in and around Bhubaneswar, in the Rasulgarh, Mancheswar, Chandaka, and Bhagabanpur areas.[11] In the informal sector, 22,000 vendors operate in regulated or unregulated vending zones.[33][34]

In 2009, Odisha was ranked ninth among Indian states in terms of software export by NASSCOM, with most IT/ITES companies established in Bhubaneswar.[35] In 2011–12, Odisha had a growth rate of 17% for software exports.[36] According to a 2012 survey, among the tier-II cities in India, Bhubaneswar has been chosen as the best for conducting IT/ITES business.[37] The government fostered growth by developing of IT Parks such as Infocity-1, Infocity-2, STPI-Bhubaneswar and JSS STP.[38][39] Infocity was conceived as a five-star park, under the Export Promotion Industrial Parks (EPIP) Scheme to create infrastructure facilities for setting up Information Technology related industries. Infosys and Satyam Computer Services have been present in Bhubaneswar since 1996. Other software companies include TCS, Mindspace, Mindfire Solutions, Wipro, IBM, Genpact, Firstsource, Mindtree and MphasiS. Apart from the big multinationals, some 300 small and mid-sized IT companies and business start ups have offices in Bhubaneswar.[39]

Demographics[edit]

Bhubaneswar Population Growth Chart
Year Population
1951
16,512
1961
38,211
1971
105,491
1981
227,525
1991
423,465
2001
647,302
2011
837,737

As per the 2011 census of India, Bhubaneswar had a population of 837,737, while the metropolitan area had a population of 881,988.[2][1] As per the estimate of IIT Kharagpur, which made a development plan, the Bhubaneswar-Cuttack Urban complex, consisting of 721.9 square kilometres (278.7 sq mi), has a population of 1.9 million (as of 2008).[40] As of 2011, the number of males was 445,233, while the number of females were 392,504. The decadal growth rate was 45.90 percent. Effective male literacy was 95.69 per cent, while female literacy was 90.26 per cent. About 75,237 were under six. Bhubaneswar's literacy rate is 93.15 per cent[1]—significantly higher than the national average of 74.04 per cent.[41] According to the 2001 census, 11 per cent lived in 99 unauthorised and 47 authorised slums.[11] However, in 2009, the number of slums in Bhubaneswar increased to 377, mostly unauthorised.[42] Migration from rural areas and neighbouring states drove the growth of the slums.[43][44] According to the Bhubaneswar-Cuttack Police Commissionerate, the number of crime incidents reported in Bhubaneswar during 2011 was 3,350, decreasing from 4,417 incidents in 2010.[45][46]

The residents of the city are known as Bhubaneswarites.[47] The main language spoken in the city is Oriya, however, Hindi and English are understood by most residents. Although Oriyas comprise the vast majority, Marwaris, Bengalis and Telugus also live there. Growth in the information technology industry and education sector in Bhubaneswar changed the city's demographic profile; likely infrastructure strains and haphazard growth from demographic changes have been a cause of concern.

Civic administration[edit]

A wide four storied building with landscaped lawn and garden in the foreground
Odisha State Secretariat Building

The Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation, or BMC, oversees and manages civic infrastructure for the city's 60 wards.[48] Residents of each ward elect a councillor to the BMC for a term of five years. Standing committees, handle urban planning and maintains roads, government-aided schools, hospitals and municipal markets.[49] As Bhubaneswar's apex body, the corporation discharges its functions through the mayor-in-council, which comprises a mayor, a deputy mayor and other elected members. The executive wing is headed by a Commissioner. BMC responsibilities include drainage and sewerage, sanitation, solid waste management and street lighting.[11] As of 2012, the Biju Janata Dal party controlled the BMC; the mayor was Ananta Narayan Jena and Deputy Mayor was Bharati Singh.[50] The Bhubaneswar Development Authority is responsible for statutory planning and development and building regulation.[11]

As the seat of the Government of Odisha, Bhubaneswar is home to the Odisha Legislative Assembly and the state secretariat. Bhubaneswar has lower courts: the Court of Small Causes and the District Civil Court decide civil matters; the Sessions Court rules in criminal cases.[51] The Bhubaneswar–Cuttack Police Commissionerate, established in 2008, is a city police force with primary responsibilities in law enforcement and investigation within Bhubaneswar-Cuttack area.[52][53] Sunil Roy is currently the Police Commissioner.[54] Citizens of Bhubaneswar elect one representative to India's lower house, the Lok Sabha, and three representatives to the state legislative assembly, through the constituencies of Bhubaneswar North, Ekamra-Bhubaneswar and Bhubaneswar Central.[55][56]

Services[edit]

Utilities[edit]

Electricity is supplied by the state-operated Central Electricity Supply Utility of Odisha, or CESU.[13] Fire services are handled by state agency Odisha Fire Service. Drinking water is sourced from the Mahanadi, Kuakhai and Daya rivers. Water supply and sewerage are handled by the Public Health Engineering Organisation.[11] State-owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, or BSNL, as well as private enterprises, among them Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Aircel, and Tata DoCoMo, are the leading telephone, cell phone and internet service providers in the city.[57][58]

Transport[edit]

The headquarters of the Odisha State Road Transport Corporation (OSRTC) is located in Bhubaneswar. The main Bhubaneswar inter-state bus terminus is situated at Barmunda, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the city centre, from where OSRTC and private operators run buses connecting Bhubaneswar to cities in Odisha and with the neighboring states of Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Chhattisgarh.[59] Bhubaneswar is connected to the rest of Odisha and India by National Highways-NH 5, which is a part of the Kolkata-Chennai prong of the Golden Quadrilateral, NH 203, State Highway 13 (Odisha) and State Highway 27 (Odisha).[18]

Bhubaneswar has wide roads in grid form in the central city. Bhubaneswar has approximately 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) of roads, with average road density of 11.82 square kilometres (4.56 sq mi).[11] city bus service runs in public-private partnership between Bhubaneswar-Puri Transport Service Limited (BPTSL) and Dream Team Sahara (DTS) under JNNURM scheme.[60] A fleet of 105 buses cover all major destinations including Cuttack, Puri and Khurda.[60] Autorickshaws are available for hire and on a share basis throughout the city.[61][62] In parts of the city, cycle rickshaws are offer short trips.[63] To ease traffic-jams, over-bridges at major road junctions and expansion of roads are under construction.[64][65] Bhubaneswar has been ranked as India's third-best city for pedestrian infrastructure.[66]

East Coast Railway Headquarters

The East Coast Railway has its headquarters in Bhubaneswar. Bhubaneswar railway station is one of the main stations on the Howrah-Chennai main line. It is connected to major cities by daily express and passenger trains. However, the existing station is overloaded by existing traffic.[67] The city plans to expand it and create a new station at Barang to meet future needs.[67][68] Bhubaneswar has five railway stations within its city limits; namely (from north to south) Patia Halt, Mancheswar, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar station (near Master Canteen) and Lingaraj Temple Road.

Biju Patnaik Airport also known as Bhubaneswar Airport, situated 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) south of the city center, is the major airport in Odisha. As of 2012, the airport was planned to be upgraded to handle international operations, connecting the city to Southeast Asia and the Middle East.[69][70] In March 2013, a new domestic terminal with a capacity of handling 30 million passengers per year was inaugurated to handle increased air traffic.[71] It is also set to be an international airport soon, with 3 airlines giving nod to starting operations soon. Fly Dubai is looking forward to commence Dubai-Bhubaneswar operations from April 1, 2014.[72]

Education[edit]

Academic Block of Xavier Institute of Management; a prestigious management school of India.

Schools in Bhubaneswar are run by the state government or private organisations, many of which are religious. Oriya and English are the primary languages of instruction. Schools in Bhubaneswar follow the "10+2+3" plan. After completing secondary education, students typically enroll in schools that are affiliated with the Council of Higher Secondary Education, the ICSE, or the CBSE. The regional CBSE board office for Odisha is located in Bhubaneswar. Liberal arts, business, science and vocational programs are available.

Colleges are affiliated with a university or institution based either in Bhubaneswar or elsewhere in India. Bhubaneswar has emerged as an education hub in eastern India, with several private and government colleges geared towards engineering, management, and other courses.[73][74][75] Utkal University, established in 1939, is the oldest, with 267 affiliated general colleges, 15 law colleges, six medical and pharmacy colleges. Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology established in 1962, is the second oldest agricultural university in the country. Utkal University of Culture is a university dedicated for research, teaching and education.

Bhubaneswar has two deemed universities: KIIT University and Siksha O Anusandhan University; four medical colleges—All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, Hi-Tech Medical College & Hospital and Institute of Medical Sciences and Sum Hospital and two autonomous institutions affiliated to Utkal University: Rama Devi Women's College and Buxi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar College. Other educational institutions include the IIT Bhubaneswar, Xavier Institute of Management (XIMB), Institute of Mathematics and Applications(IOMA), National Institute of Science Education and Research, National Institute of Fashion Technology, Institute of Physics, Institute of Life Sciences, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Regional Medical Research Center and Regional Institute of Education.[76] The other colleges of repute are College of Engineering and Technology, and Central Institute of Plastic Engineering and Technology.

Culture[edit]

Muktesvara deula, covered with erotic ancient carvings, known for its quality of sculptures.
Ravindra Mandap, an auditorium in Bhubaneswar

Bhubaneswar is supposed to have had over one thousand temples; earning the tag of the Temple City of India. Temples made in the Kalinga architectural style with a pine spire that curves up to a point over the sanctum housing the presiding deity and a pyramid-covered hall where people sit and pray. Some of the famous temples include, Lingaraj Temple, Muktesvara Temple, Rajarani Temple, Ananta Vasudeva Temple.[77] The twin hills of Khandagiri & Udayagiri, served as the site of an ancient Jain monastery which was carved into cave-like chambers in the face of the hill. These caves, with artistic carvings, date back to the 2nd century BCE. Dhauli hills has major Edicts of Ashoka engraved on a mass of rock and a white Peace Pagoda has been built by the Japan Buddha Sangha and the Kalinga Nippon Buddha Sangha in the 1970s. Apart from the ancient temples, other important temples were built in recent times include Ram Mandir and ISKCON.

Bhubaneswar along with Cuttack is the home of the Oriya cinema industry, dubbed "Ollywood", where most of the state's film studios are located. Oriya culture survives in the form of Classical Odissi dance, handicrafts, sand artistry and sculpturing as well as theatre and music. Boundary walls and gardens are increasingly being redone to depict the folk art of the state.[78][79] Odissi, the oldest of the eight surviving classical dance forms of India can be traced from archaeological evidence from the temples in Bhubaneswar.[80][81][82] Odissi dance is generally accompanied by Odissi music. Srjan, the Odissi dance academy founded by Guru Kelucharan Mohapatra, the legendary Odissi dancer is located here.[83][84] The Rabindra Mandap in central Bhubaneswar plays host to cultural engagements, theater and private functions.[85] As a part of the Ekamra Festival, many cultural sub-festivals takes place in January in Bhubaneswar which includes, Kalinga Mahotsav (for traditional martial arts), Dhauli-Kalinga Mahotsav (for classical dance forms), Rajarani Music Festival (for classical music) and Mukteswar Dance Festival (for Odishi dance).[86] Residents engage in khattis, or leisurely chats, that often take the form of freestyle intellectual conversation.[87] Though Oriya women traditionally wear the sari and the shalwar kameez, Western attire is gaining acceptance among younger women.[88] Western-style dress has greater acceptance among men, although the traditional dhoti and kurta are seen during festivals.[89]

The Odisha State Museum offers archaeological artifacts, weapons, local arts and crafts as well as insights into Odisha's natural and indigenous history.[90] The Tribal Research Institute Museum hosts authentic tribal dwellings created by tribal craftsmen.[91] Nandankanan Zoological Park, located on the northern outskirt of the city, is India's first zoo to join World Association of Zoos and Aquariums.[92][93] The State Botanical Garden (Odisha) and Regional Plant Resource Center, popularly known as Ekamra Kanan, a park and botanical garden, has a large collection of exotic and regional fauna. The Ekamra Haat is a hand-loom and handicrafts market. Nicco Park and Ocean World, are amusement parks. Other museums include Pathani Samanta Planetarium, Regional Museum of Natural History, Regional Science Center and State Handicrafts Museum.

Festivals[edit]

On the day of Ashokashtami in the month of March or April, the image of Lingaraja (Shiva) and other deities are taken in a procession from Lingaraja Temple to the Mausima Temple, where the deities remain for four days.[94] Hundreds of devotees participate in pulling the temple car that carries the deities, known as Rukuna Rath.[95] Ratha-Yatra, "Temple car Festival" is the most important festival in Odisha and Bhubaneswar alike.[96] The festival commemorates Jagannath, who is said to have been the incarnation of India's revered deities, Vishnu and Krishna. Durga Puja, held in September–October, is an occasion for glamorous celebrations.[97][98] Other festivals celebrated include Shivaratri, Diwali, Ganesh Puja, Nuakhai and Saraswati Puja. Eid and Christmas is also celebrated by the religious minorities in the city.[99][100][101]

Adivasi Mela is a fair that displays art, artifacts, tradition, culture, and music of the tribal inhabitants of Odisha is held in January.[102] Toshali National Crafts Mela, held in December showcase handicrafts from all over India, and from foreign countries as well.[103] Other important fairs in the city includes, the Rajdhani Book Fair and Khandagiri Utsav.[104][105]

Cuisine[edit]

Rasgulla, a sweet which originated in Odisha

Key elements of Bhubaneswar's cuisine include rice and a fish curry known as machha jholo, which can be accompanied by desserts such as roshogolla, Rasabali, Chennajhilli and Chhena Poda.[106] Odisha's large repertoire of seafood dishes includes various preparations of lobsters and crabs brought in from Chilika Lake.[107] Street foods such as Gupchup (a deep-fried crêpe with tamarind sauce), Cuttack-chaat, Dahi bara-Aloo dum and Bara-ghuguni are sold all over the city.[108] Traditional Oriya food such as Dahi-Pakhal (rice soaked in water with yogurt and seasonings) is considered as a body coolant, accompanied by Badi chura or saga are consumed during months of April–June.[109] The Abadha of Lingaraj Temple and Ananta Vasudeva Temple served for devotees is considered a vegetarian culinary delight. Other vegetarian dishes are Dalma (made of lentils and vegetables boiled together and then fried with other spices) and Santula (lightly spiced steamed vegetables).[107] Sweets play a large part in the diet of Bhubaneswarites—especially at their social ceremonies. Bhubaneswar is known for its kora-khhaii which are made up of paddy, jaggery and coconut pieces. Pitha, a kind of sweet cake, bread or dim sum are winter specialties.

Sports[edit]

Bhubaneswar Golf Club

Bhubaneswar's major sporting arena is the Kalinga Stadium, having facilities for athletics, football, hockey, basketball, tennis, table tennis and swimming.[110][111][112] Kalinga Lancers, the sixth franchise of Hockey India League and Samaleswari S.C., a franchise of I-League 2nd Division, are based in Bhubaneswar with Kalinga Stadium as their home ground. East Coast Railway Stadium, a prominent cricket stadium hosts Ranji Trophy and other matches.[113] Construction of galleries and stadium renovation is in process. An air-conditioned indoor stadium with a capacity of 2000 spectators for badminton, volleyball, basketball and table tennis games is under construction.[110] Barabati Stadium in Cuttack, Odisha's only venue for international cricket matches, is located around 25 kilometres (16 mi) away.[114] Bhubaneswar has a franchise of Odisha Premier League, Bhubaneswar Jaguars, which started in 2010. Bhubaneswar Golf Club, a nine-hole golf course is situated in Infocity.[115]

Media[edit]

Among Bhubaneswar's widely circulated Oriya-language newspapers are Sambad, Dharitri, Pragatibadi, Samaja, Khabar, Orissa Bhaskara, Prameya and Samaya.[116] Orissa Post and Orissa Age are the two English-language newspaper that is produced and published from Bhubaneswar. Other popular English-language newspapers published and sold in Bhubaneswar include The Times of India, The Telegraph, The Statesman, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Indian Express, and the Asian Age.[116] Bhubaneswar has substantial circulation of financial dailies, including The Economic Times, The Financial Express, Business Line, and Business Standard.[116] Vernacular newspapers, such as those in the Hindi, Bengali and Telugu, are read by minorities.[116] Major periodicals based in Bhubaneswar include Saptahik Samaya, Saptahik Samaja, and Kadambini.

All India Radio, the national state-owned radio broadcaster, airs several AM channel from the radio station located in Cuttack.[117] Bhubaneswar has five local radio stations broadcasting on FM, including two from AIR.[117][118] India's state-owned television broadcaster, Doordarshan, provides two free-to-air terrestrial channels,[119] while a mix of Oriya, Hindi, English, and other regional channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast satellite services. Oriya-language 24-hour television news channels include Orissa TV, Kanak TV and Naxatra News.[120]

Sister cities[edit]

City Geographical location Nation
Cupertino  California  United States

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]