List of monocotyledons of Montana

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Broad Leaf Cattail

Monocotyledon species found in Montana number at least 615.[1] The Montana Natural Heritage Program has identified a number of monocot species as Species of Concern.[2]

Monocotyledons are one of two major groups of flowering plants (or angiosperms) that are traditionally recognized, the other being dicotyledons, or dicots. Monocot seedlings typically have one cotyledon (seed-leaf), in contrast to the two cotyledons typical of dicots. Monocots have been recognized at various taxonomic ranks, and under various names (see below). The APG II system recognises a clade called "monocots" but does not assign it to a taxonomic rank. There are between 50,000 and 60,000 species within this group; according to IUCN there are 59,300 species. The largest family in this group (and in the flowering plants as a whole) by number of species are the orchids (family Orchidaceae), with more than 20,000 species.[3] In agriculture the majority of the biomass produced comes from monocots.[4] The true grasses, family Poaceae (Gramineae), are the most economically important family in this group. These include all the true grains (rice, wheat, maize, etc.), the pasture grasses, sugar cane, and the bamboos. True grasses have evolved to become highly specialised for wind pollination. Grasses produce much smaller flowers, which are gathered in highly visible plumes (inflorescences). Other economically important monocot families are the palm family (Arecaceae), banana family (Musaceae), ginger family (Zingiberaceae) and the onion family Alliaceae, which includes such ubiquitously used vegetables as onions and garlic.

Arrow-grass family[edit]

Order: Najadales, Family: Juncaginaceae [5]

Arum Family[edit]

Order: Arales, Family: Araceae [6]

Bur-reeds[edit]

Order: Typhales, Family: Sparganiaceae [7]

Cattails[edit]

Order: Typhales, Family: Typhaceae [8]

Ditch-grass Family[edit]

Order: Najadales, Family: Ruppiaceae [9]

Duckweeds[edit]

Order: Arales, Family: Lemnaceae [10]

Flowering-rush Family[edit]

Order: Alismatales, Family: Butomaceae [11]

Grasses[edit]

Order: Cyperales, Family: Poaceae [12]

Greenbriars[edit]

Order: Liliales, Family: Smilacaceae [13]

Horned Pondweeds[edit]

Order: Najadales, Family: Zannichelliaceae [14]

Irises[edit]

Order: Liliales, Family: Iridaceae [15]

Lillies[edit]

Order: Liliales, Family: Liliaceae [16]

Orchids[edit]

Order: Orchidales, Family: Orchidaceae [17]

Pod-grasses[edit]

Order: Najadales, Family: Scheuchzeriaceae [18]

Pondweeds[edit]

Order: Najadales, Family: Potamogetonaceae [19]

Rushes[edit]

Order: Juncales, Family: Juncaceae [20]

Sedges[edit]

Order: Cyperales, Family: Cyperaceae [21]

Spiderwort Family[edit]

Order: Commelinales, Family: Commelinaceae [22]

Sweetflag / Calamus Family[edit]

Order: Arales, Family: Acoraceae [23]

Water-hyacinth Family[edit]

Order: Liliales, Family: Pontederiaceae [24]

Water-nymph Family[edit]

Order: Najadales, Family: Najadaceae [25]

Water-plantains[edit]

Order: Alismatales, Family: Alismataceae [26]

Waterweeds[edit]

Order: Hydrocharitales, Family: Hydrocharitaceae [27]

Yuccas / Agaves[edit]

Order: Liliales, Family: Agavaceae [28]

Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Monocots". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-10. 
  2. ^ Species of Concern are native taxa that are at-risk due to declining population trends, threats to their habitats, restricted distribution, and/or other factors. Designation as a Montana Species of Concern or Potential Species of Concern is based on the Montana Status Rank, and is not a statutory or regulatory classification. Rather, these designations provide information that helps resource managers make proactive decisions regarding species conservation and data collection priorities. See the latest Species of Concern Reports for more detailed explanations and assessment criteria. "Montana Field Guide-Species of Concern". Retrieved 2010-12-07. 
  3. ^ Peter H. Raven; Ray Franklin Evert; & Susan E. Eichhorn. (2005) Biology of Plants, 7th ed., page 459
  4. ^ Reed, Barbara (2008). Plant cryopreservation a practical guide. New York: Springer. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-387-72276-4. 
  5. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Arrow grass". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-10. 
  6. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Arum". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-10. 
  7. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Bur-reeds". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-10. 
  8. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Cattails". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-10. 
  9. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Ditch-grass". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-10. 
  10. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Duckweeds". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  11. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Flowering Rush". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  12. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Grasses". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  13. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Greenbriars". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-13. 
  14. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Horned Pondweed". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-13. 
  15. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Irises". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-14. 
  16. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Lilies". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-20. 
  17. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Orchids". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-17. 
  18. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Pod-grasses". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-14. 
  19. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Pondweeds". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-14. 
  20. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rushes". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-17. 
  21. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Sedges". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-17. 
  22. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Spiderworts". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-14. 
  23. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Sweetflag". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-15. 
  24. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Water-hyacinth". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-15. 
  25. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Water-nymph". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-15. 
  26. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Water-plantains". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-15. 
  27. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Waterweeds". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-15. 
  28. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Yuccas". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-15.