Religious violence in Odisha
Kandhamal district contains several tribal reservations where only tribal people can own land. The largest community in Kandhamal is the Kandha tribe. Most Kandha tribal people follow tribal and animistic forms of Hinduism. However, the socio-economic and political landscape of Kandhamal is dominated by its second largest community, the non-tribal Pana caste, who are mostly converted Christians. The region is also home to the Maoist guerrillas who are the largest terror group operating inside India and responsible for several thousand deaths in India in the 2000s. Maoist leader Sabyasachi Panda stated groups tend to recruit most of their leaders and cadre insurgents from Christian communities. However at the same time he reiterated the Maoists's areligious position: "We do not believe in any religion or are attached to any religious groups. We are not in favour of any religion." 
Major Issues in Kandhamal that have led to tenions are claims that "The Scheduled Caste and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act” is violated. Such claims include forcible occupation of tribal land, fake issuance of tribal certificates, illegal building of places of worship (mostly churches) on tribal land, religious conversions, and exploiting tribals for insurgent activities. This has also resulted in civil unrest and communal tensions earlier in 1986, 1994 and 2001.
Historical background of conversions
Franciscan missionary Friar Odoric visited India in the 14th Century and wrote about his visit to Puri in a journal which he later published in Europe. In the journal, Odoric wrote in detail about a huge chariot containing idols of Hindu deities from the grand and famous Jagannath temple which is taken out annually in a procession known as the rath yatra. Odoric's account of the ceremony spread throughout Europe and by the 19th century the word juggernaut began to be associated with an unstoppable force of such proportions that is capable of destroying everything in its path. Subsequently, Baptist missionaries came to Odisha in 1822 during the British Empire's colonial rule over India.
After India's independence
The communal disharmony arose even before Indian independence in 1947 on aforementioned issue of religious conversion. Conversions have been legislated by the provisions of the Freedom of Religion Acts (acts replicated in numerous other parts through India). Odisha was the first provinces of independent India to enact legislation in regards to religious conversions. The Orissa Freedom of Religion Act, 1967, mentions that no person shall “convert or attempt to convert, either directly or otherwise, any person from one religious faith to another by the use of force or by inducement or by any fraudulent means”. Christian missions have been active in Odisha among the tribals and backward Hindu castes from the early years of the twentieth century. Hindus have alleged that the increase in the number of Christians in Odisha has been a result of exploitation of illiteracy and impoverishment by the missionaries in contravention of the law, instead of free will.
Behind the clashes are long-simmering tensions between equally impoverished groups: the Kandha tribe, who are 80% of the population, and the Pana. Both are original inhabitants of the land. There has been a Indian (Hindu) tradition of untouchability. Dalits, considered lower caste people, are subject to social and economic discrimination. This is outlawed in the Indian constitution. The prejudices remain. Conversion from untouchability has encouraged millions of such people to escape from their circumstances through joining other religions. The Panas have converted to Christianity in large numbers and prospered financially . Over the past several decades, most of the Panas have become Dalit Christians.
Hindu nationalist groups have blamed the violence on the issue of religious conversion. Conversions have been legislated by the provisions of the Freedom of Religion Acts, replicated in some of the states in India. Odisha was the first state of independent India to enact legislation on religious conversions. The Orissa Freedom of Religion Act, 1967, stipulates that 'no person shall “convert or attempt to convert, either directly or otherwise, any person from one religious faith to another by the use of force or by inducement or by any fraudulent means”'. Hindus claim the Christian missionaries were converting poor tribal people by feeding them beef, which is taboo in Hinduism.
The missionaries would upgrade the mud houses of the converts into brick-lime. Hindus have further alleged that the increase in the number of Christians in Odisha has been a result of exploitation of illiteracy and impoverishment by the missionaries. The Census of India shows that Christian population in Kandhamal grew from around 43,000 in 1981 to 117,950 in 2001.
Graham Staines was an Australian Christian missionary working with the Evangelical Missionary Society of Mayurbhanj, an Australian missionary society that was actively engaged in the education of poor and illiterate Hindu tribes in Odisha. On the night of 22 January 1999, he was sleeping in his station wagon when it was set afire. Graham and his two sons, ten-year-old Philip and six-year-old Timothy, were killed. Dara Singh, a Hindu fundamentalist from Etawah in Uttar Pradesh, was arrested for the crime. On 22 September 2003 a court appointed by the Central Bureau of Investigation sentenced Dara Singh to death and 12 others to life imprisonment for the murders.
Dara Singh's connections to the Bajrang Dal drew suspicions of a larger conspiracy. However, the Wadhwa Commission ruled out the involvement of any organization in the killings. In May 2005, the Odisha High Court commuted Singh's sentence to life imprisonment.
Incident at Brahmanigaon, Phulbani on 24 December
On 24 December 2007 a group of 150-200 people in the town of Brahmanigaon, in Phulbani District, arrived at the town market and demanded that an arch put across the road by Christians be removed even though the Christian community had received official permission for putting up the structure. The Hindu protesters argued that the arch along with a tent set up to organize a Christmas function was sought to be erected on the very site used by the Hindus to celebrate the Durga Puja festival in October. Protestors then sought to close the weekly market and attempted to close all the shops in the area. The Christian shopkeepers refused to comply with this leading to an outbreak of violence. More than 20 shops were looted and destroyed. Three persons were killed: one Christian, one Hindu while the identity of the third was not established.
Attack on Swami Laxmanananda
The violence was compounded when news spread that Hindu monk Swami Laxmanananda Saraswati had been attacked by Christian youth en route to the spot of the confrontation. The Swami had stated that he had left for Brahmanigaon to boost the “morale of the majority community" The National Commission for Minorities in its report stated that this was "indicative of his desire to exacerbate communal tensions".
The Swami's car had been blocked by a bus belonging to Mr. Sugriba Singh, Panna Christian leader and BJD Member of Parliament (Lower House) and the Swami was attacked on that spot injuring him, his driver and a security guard. In his statement the Swami blamed Mr. Radha Kanta Nayak, Congress Member of Parliament (Upper House) and chief of Christian group World Vision. This led to further clashes between Hindus and Christians. 
The authorities imposed a curfew in order to control the situation. Concerned with rising violence, after the assault on the Swami, some Dalit Christian leaders lodged a complaint with the Police for protection.
Intervention by CRPF
By 30 December, rioting was brought under control by the security forces such as the CRPF. The total number of security personnel deployed was about 2,500 police and paramilitary. The total number of people taking shelter in relief camps increased to 1200.
On 1 January 2008 further violence was reported at several places. Police said at least 20 houses and shops were torched at Phiringia, Khajuripada, Gochapada and Brahmanigaon by rioters on Tuesday night (1 January 2008) 
According to a fact-finding team of the Odisha state chapter of the All India Christian Council (AICC), the violence in Kandhamal around Christmas time was perpetrated by Hindu nationalist (Hindutva) groups that killed at least four Christians and burned 730 houses and 95 churches. Hundreds of displaced Christians were in various relief camps set up by the state government. There were also reports of houses of Hindus being burnt.
Jacob Pradhan, general secretary of the Kandhamal district chapter of the Christian Endeavour Union, told Compass that around 100 houses belonging to Hindus were burnt in Brahmanigaon, Godapur, Barakhama and some other villages on December 26 and 27. Pradhan, who visited Brahmanigaon and Godapur villages to take stock of the situation, suspected that these houses were torched by sections of “misguided Christians” possibly incited by Maoists.
Murder of Swami Lakshmanananda
On the evening of Saturday, 23 August 2008, the octogenarian Swami Lakshmanananda Saraswati, a leader of Vishwa Hindu Parishad was killed in the girl's religious school at his Jalespata ashram in Kandhamal district in Odisha, along with four others; three fellow leaders of the Vishwa Hindu Parishad and a boy. The attackers, estimated at thirty gunmen, were suspected of being Maoist insurgents. Both the manner of attack and a letter found at the attack provided the basis for this. The government announced a special investigative probe into the attack.
The police have arrested Pradesh Kumar Das, an employee of the World Vision, a Christian Charity, from Khadagpur while escaping from the district at Buguda. In another drive, two other persons Vikram Digal and William Digal have been arrested from the house of Lal Digal, a local militant Christian, from Nuasahi at Gunjibadi, Nuagaan. They have admitted to having joined a group of 28 other assailants.
On August 25–28, Hindu mobs angered by the multiple murders of Saraswati and the four others, also allegedly incited by leaders like Manoj Pradhan, an elected state legislator from the Bharatiya Janata Party, set fire to many Christian settlements, and at least 38 people were killed. In addition, several Christians were forced to flee their villages "after their houses were attacked by rampaging mobs." 
On 28 August, a letter of denial (denying responsibility for the murder of Saraswati) was received by some media houses from a Maoist group. While the letter denied that the Central Committee of the Kotagarha branch of the Maoists had approved the attack, it claimed that some Maoists may have been lured by "nefarious elements" to launch the attack. But the local police force continued to maintain that Maoists were behind the operation Soon after the appearance of the aforementioned letter, "Azad", another leader of the splinter Maoist People's Liberation Guerrilla Army group, claimed responsibility for the murder of Lakshmanananda in another letter. Azad was suspected by the police of leading the attack himself. Finally, on 9 September 2008 the Maoists, who work underground, made an official press release claiming responsibility for the killing of Lakshmanananda. Many Maoist sympathizers of south Odisha had initially denied the role of CPI-Maoist in the murder of VHP leaders that sparked off communal violence in Kandhamnal district. Communist Party of India (Maoist) leader Sabyasachi Panda claimed that they killed Swami Laxmanananda Saraswati and four of his disciples at his Jalespeta ashram on 23 August, for his pro-Hindu activities, especially against the religious conversions by Christian missionaries in the state of Odisha and the tribal Kandhamal region in particular.  Finally, on 7 October 2008, the Odisha police announced they arrested three Christian Maoists in connection with the murder of the Swami.
On 16 October 2008, in an interview to PTI the IG police Mr Arun Ray told that "Maoists were given money to train certain youth of a particular community to eliminate Saraswati", the "particular community" being a reference to the converted Christians of the region. The plan to eliminate Lakshmanananda was made immediately after the previous communal violence in 2007, he added. Elaborating the probe by the crime branch, Ray said investigations also showed that a group had collected money from some Christian villages in Kandhamal which was given to the Maoist group to train their youth for the purpose. The police said that they already arrested three persons, including two Christian tribals and others who belong to the extremist Maoist groups and efforts were now on to arrest the other accused. 
To protest the five killings of Hindus including that of Swami Lakshmananda, the Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP) and the Bajrang Dal called for a statewide shutdown on Monday, 25 August 2008. On the same day, rioters attacked a Christian orphanage at Khuntpalli village in Bargarh district. A local Hindu employee was killed when the orphanage was set on fire. The VHP claimed that Hindu people in the area had taken the death of the Swami "very seriously, and now they are going to pay them back." A curfew was imposed in all towns in Kandhamal. Despite this, violence continued in Phulbani, Tumudibandh, Baliguda, Udaygiri, Nuagaon and Tikabali towns. Many others fled into the jungle or into neighbouring districts and states. All nine towns in Kandhamal district were under a curfew, and the police had license to shoot. Curfew was also imposed in Jeypore town of Odisha's Koraput district. Five police personnel were injured in mob violence. The state government sought additional paramilitary forces to combat the continuing violence.
On 1 September 2008 the state government of Odisha claimed that the situation was under control. However, several houses and places of worship were burnt in the riots, especially in worst-hit Kandhamal district. 12,539 people were fed in 10 relief camps, 783 people got the facilities in two relief camps in Rayagada district. In all, 12 companies of para-military forces, 24 platoons of Odisha State Armed Police, two sections of Armed Police Reserve forces and two teams of Special Operation Group (SOG) were deployed to control the riots. On 4 September 2008, in Tikabali, Kandhamal, over 300 Hindu tribal women entered a relief camp meant exclusively for Christian riot victims. The rioters were protesting Christians having provisions in relief camps while the Hindu community was not so provided.
On 7 September 2008 VHP leader Praveen Togadia announced that an all-India agitation would be launched if the killers of Saraswati were not arrested. The Church and Christian groups in turn demanded dismissal of the state government.
On 30 September 2008, various news sources reported a case of rape of a Christian nun on 25 August. The incident was said to have taken place at K. Nuagaon in Kandhamal district. While a police complaint was lodged soon afterwards, no action was taken for over a month, adding to accusations of police misconduct. Police sources said: “Though the nun had denied the rape allegation during recording of her statement, she later given a written complaint alleging that she was raped by one person from among the mob”. During a press conference she said that a group of unidentified persons, dragged her along with Fr Thomas Chellan to the deserted Jana Vikas building. The priest was doused with petrol and beaten up. She reported that the mob paraded her on the streets in the presence of a dozen policemen. Eventually, four men were arrested for the attack, and a senior police office suspended over the delayed investigation. After the complaint was launched, police had a medical examination of the nun carried out, which showed she had been raped. Police sent the clothes of the said nun to the state forensic laboratory for further verification. Police arrested nine people in connection with the crime while the nun in case was in hiding for fear of reprisals. The Crime branch took charge of the probe following a government decision after the medical report.
On 22 October 2008, the Supreme Court of India, rejected an appeal by the Archbishop of Cuttack, Raphael Cheenath, for a Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) probe into the incident and asked the victim to look at an identity parade of those accused to identify the culprit with the help of the state police itself. Reuters reported the nun's media conference under the headline '40 men gang-raped me, says nun'; though she had made no such statement.
Political and legal fallout
At the time of the Kandhamal riots in 2008, the ruling government of Odisha, headed by Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik, was a coalition of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Biju Janata Dal (BJD). In the 147-member state assembly the BJD-BJP combine had 93 members, 32 of whom are from the BJP. Some BJP legislators blamed the government for not providing adequate protection to Saraswati, despite other attempts on his life. They called for withdrawing support from the government, which would lead to its collapse.
In the runup to the 2009 elections, Patnaik broke his ties with the BJP, saying that the alliance in the state had to be broken because it became impossible for him to stay with the BJP after the Kandhanmal riots which "horrified the entire world". 
In November 2009, after winning the elections again, this time without the support of the BJP and therefore free from political compulsions, re-elected chief minister of Odisha Naveen Patnaik, claimed that the Vishwa Hindu Parishad, the Bajrang Dal, and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh were involved in the Kandhamal violence in which at least 38 people were killed.
Also, on 4 September 2008, the Supreme Court of India issued an order on a petition filed by Archbishop Raphael Cheenath seeking a CBI enquiry and dismissal of the state government. The order refused to dismiss the Odisha state government but asked it to report on steps taken to stop the wave of communal rioting that had claimed at least 16 lives. In his petition, the Archbishop also claimed that VHP leader Pravin Togadia carried out a procession with Saraswati's ashes after his cremation, an act that clearly inflamed further communal tension and rioting. The Supreme Court, in its order, asked the state government to file an affidavit explaining the circumstances under which this procession was allowed.
However, it later emerged that Saraswati was never cremated in the first place (as a Hindu sannyasi, the holy man had already symbolically cast his physical body into fire while alive by wearing saffron robes, and set the soul free). As is the tradition of sannyasis, Saraswati was not cremated but instead buried and entombed after death. Since no cremation ever took place, Togadia replied that there was no question of "ashes" being proposed to be carried in any procession at all, and therefore the claims of "asthi kalash yatra" (carrying of the ashes) were untrue. He also alleged that Archbishop Raphael Cheenath had therefore "lied under oath to the apex court", because no such procession ever took place.
More than 18,000 were injured and 50,000 displaced. Another report said that around 11,000 people were still living in relief camps, as of October 2008. Some tribals even fled away to border districts in neighbouring states. 310 villages were affected with 4,640 homes, 252 churches, and 13 educational institutes torched during attacks. Multiple Hindu temples and an unknown number of Hindus were also killed during the riots, excluding the five Hindu sadhus (including Saraswati) who were killed in the beginning itself.
On 14 October 2008, Cuttack Archbishop Raphael Cheenath moved the Supreme Court seeking Rs 3 crore as compensation to rebuild the demolished and vandalized churches in the riot-hit areas. He also sought Rs 5.5 lakh for the kin of those killed in the riots and compensation of Rs 60,000 to those whose houses were damaged or torched.
On 6 November 2008, Dhanu Pradhana, a VHP activist was murdered in Kandhamal. Dhanu Pradhana was shot when he was at a school in Kumbharigaon. The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) leader of Eastern Odisha, Prabhat Panigrahi, was killed by Christian Maoist insurgents in late March 2009. Hindus have also been attacked by members of their own faith, for having Christian relatives. One woman, who is herself a Hindu, says she was gang raped by her grandparent's neighbors due to her uncle's refusal to renounce his Christian beliefs.
India's Prime Minister Manmohan Singh called the Odisha violence a "shame" and offered all help from the Centre to end the communal clashes and restore normalcy. He said he would speak to Odisha chief minister Naveen Patnaik to urge him to take all necessary steps to end the violence.  
The church network - including the Catholic Bishops' Conference of India, the Evangelical Fellowship of India and the National Council of Churches in India - organized for all Christian institutions to remain closed on 29 August 2008 in protest.
Vatican City On Wednesday, 27 August 2008, Pope Benedict XVI condemned the violence and expressed solidarity with the priests, nuns, and laypeople being victimized. He "firmly condemned" the violence and called upon Indian religious and civil authorities "to work together to restore peaceful co-existence and harmony between the different religious communities." In doing so he said: "I learnt with great sorrow the information concerning the violence against the Christian community in Orissa which broke out after the reprehensible assassination of the Hindu leader, Swami Laxmanananda Saraswati. This led to derisive remarks in the press about the Italian origins of Sonia Gandhi, a Catholic, whose United Progressive Alliance Party rules India."
Human Rights Watch, a US-based outfit, expressed extreme dismay at the mob violence against Christians instigated by the VHP. The organization also expressed concern at the state government's lack of action following the Christmas 2007 violence.
United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) a controversial federal agency advising the US administration has demanded the Indian authorities take immediate steps to quell the violence and order a probe to find out the perpetrators of the attacks.
"The continuing attacks targeting Christians represent the second major outbreak of religious violence in Orissa since December which underlines the pressing need for Indian government to develop preventive strategies," USCIRF said. "State governments must be held accountable for violence and other unlawful acts that occur in their state" Commission Chair Felice D Gaer said in a statement. USCIRF called on the US State Department to urge the central government and its Human Rights and Minority Commissions to continue their investigations, issue reports on the status of their investigations, and take further appropriate measures to address the situation, including ensuring that perpetrators of the violence are brought to account. 
In a press release made on 21 September, The National Commission for Minorities blamed the Sangh Parivar and Bajrang Dal for the communal violence in states of Karnataka and Odisha. Shafi Qureshi, member of the NCM team stated that the NCM teams had determined activists of Bajrang Dal were involved in these attacks in both in state of Odisha and Karnataka. Condemning the attack on churches in Kandhamal and other areas of Odisha and in Dakshina Kannada, Udupi, Chikmagalur and Mangalore in Karnataka, the Commission stressed the need for immediate confidence building measures to allay the fear from the minds of the minorities in both states of Odisha and Karnataka. 
November 2008. In the UK House of Lords, Lord Harries, former Bishop of Oxford urged the Indian government to prosecute those responsible for the attacks. Graham Dow, the Bishop of Carlisle added that anti-conversion laws in seven states have entailed threats of fines and imprisonment for clerics if they baptise Dalit people.
Arrests and convictions
On 29 June 2010, a fast-track court set up after the Kandhamal riots found Manoj Pradhan, a Bharatiya Janata Party politician and a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Odisha, guilty of murder of Parikhita Digal, a Christian from Budedi village who was killed by the mob on August 27, 2008. Manoj Pradhan who was nominated by the BJP while imprisoned pending trial, was sentenced to seven years rigorous imprisonment. However, pending his appeal, he was granted bail by the High court on July 6. A number of others have also been sentenced in riot-related cases. On 9 September 2010, another judge found Pradhan guilty in the murder of Bikram Nayak from Budedipada on August 26, 2008.
- Christianity in Odisha
- Anti-Christian violence in India
- Christian Terrorism
- Forced conversion
- Goa Inquisition
- Criticism of Hinduism
- Criticism of Christianity
- Persecution of Hindus
- Persecution of Christians
- Religious intolerance
- Apostasy in Christianity
- Church involvement in Fiji coups
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- Orissa priest injured in communal violence dies (2008-10-29). "Orissa priest injured in communal violence dies". NDTV.com. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Some 300 Christians who fled their homes are housed in relief camps in Srikakulam
- "It’s still religion, stupid". Indian Express. 2008-10-04. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- The Times Of India. 14 October 2008 http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Orissa_archbishop_seeks_Rs_3_cr_to_rebuild_churches/rssarticleshow/3592165.cms
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- Orissa Hindu activist shot dead BBC News - 19 March 2009
- Fear and Fundamentalism in India BBC News- 16 October 2008
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- Pope 'firmly condemns' violence in Orissa
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- Anti-Christian violence in Orissa: conference hears victims’ stories
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Odisha|
- Blind Faith? Fragile Peace Blown to Bits", CNN-IBN debate, Aug. 26, 2008, 10 p.m. broadcast time IST
- Indian State Struck by Rioting, WSJ article
- Christians cower from Hindu backlash in India's east, Reuters article, Sept 03,2008
- Violence in India Is Fueled by Religious and Economic Divide, New York Times,Sept 03,2008
- Pictures of Violence in Orissa, Reuters