Location in Odisha, India
|• Collector||Rajesh Prabhakar Patil|
|• Member of Lok Sabha||BJD|
|• Total||10,418 km2 (4,022 sq mi)|
|Elevation||559.31 m (1,835.01 ft)|
|• Density||241/km2 (620/sq mi)|
|• Official||Oriya, Hindi, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||1,005 ♂/♀|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Mayurbhanj|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||09|
|Precipitation||1,648.2 millimetres (64.89 in)|
Mayurbhanj district (ମୟୁରଭଂଜ ଜିଲ୍ଲା) is one of the 30 districts in Odisha state in eastern India. It is the largest district of Odisha by area. Baripada city is its headquarters. As of 2011[update], it is the third-most-populous district of Odisha (out of 30), after Ganjam and Cuttack.
Mayurbhanj is land-locked with a geographical area of 10,418 km2 (4,022 sq mi) and is in the northern boundary of the state. It is bounded in the northeast by Midnapure district of West Bengal, Singhbhum district of Jharkhand in the northwest, Baleshwar district in the southeast and by Kendujhar in the southwest. More than 39% of total geographical area (4,049 km2 (1,563 sq mi)) is covered with forest and hills. The district comprises four sub-divisions with 26 blocks with 382 Gram Panchayats and 3945 villages.
The district comes under "North Central Plateau" agro-climatic region with an average rainfall of 1648.20 mm per annum. Being away from the coastal belt, the district experiences a sub-tropical climate with a hot summer, chilling winter with good precipitation. Red-laterite category of soil dominates all over the district including Bamanghati and Panchpir plateau.
Mayurbhanj has lush green vegetation, different fauna and rich cultural heritage. The district has a rich mineral base and is home to the Similipal Biosphere. It was a princely state until its merger with the state of Odisha on 1 January 1949. Since the date of its merger, Mayurbhanj has been organized and is administered as one of the districts of Odisha.
Iron-ore (hematite), vanadiferous and titaniferous magnetic, chaina clay, galena (lead ore), Kyanite, asbestos, steatite (soap stone) and quartzite constitute the principal mineral resources of Mayurbhanj district, of these the iron-ore deposits of Gorumahisani, Badampahar and Suleipat, which have been exploited for about half a century, deserve special mention.
Mayurbhanj was inhabited by ancient Palaeolithic people since prehistoric times. Evidence represents an archaic Lower Palaeolithic human occupation, which evolved into an Acheulian form comparable to the Midnapur district of West Bengal. Some historians opine that Mayurbhanj acted as a large, rich, and pristine epicentre of Lower Palaeolithic occupation from where successive periodic movements must have entered Midnapur district and other parts of the country.
The rulers of the Bhanja dynasty continued to rule over this state in unbroken succession since about the 9th century A.D. The name of the state under the early Bhanja rulers was Khijjinga Mandala, named after the capital Khijjinga Kotta. The copper plate inscription issued by those rulers indicate that Khijjinga Mandala was an extensive territory comprising the present Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts as well as parts of Singhbhum district in Bihar and Midnapore district in West Bengal. During the Moghul period, the territory of Bhanja rulers extended as far as the sea. By that time, the capital had shifted from Khijjinga Kotta to Haripur.
The district was the centre of activity of the Bhanja kings who, incidentally, had very good relations with the Mayur kings of Kendujhar. The name of the district has been derived by joining these clans: the Mayurs and the Bhanjas. The Bhanjas are the longest reining clan of kings of the district. With their capital in Khiching of today, the Bhanjas ruled Mayurbhanj for more than 1000 years in royal succession until the freedom of the country. Founded by Sila Bhanja Angaddi, the rule of Bhanjas was responsible for all around development of the district. The Bhanjas were known to be the promoters of art, architecture and culture. The Haribaldev temple, the Khichhing temple and other architecture in and around the district stand testimony to this. Also the Bhanjas were responsible for the development and promotion of the Chau dance form which is now acknowledged worldwide for its unique martial, tribal and classical elements.
The kings of Mayurbhanj were a pioneering force in the upliftment of Odisha under British rule. It was one of the most progressive districts in the nation during the British rule. The Bhanja kings established the first medical college of the state in Cuttack. They donated huge sum of money and land for establishment of higher education institutions like Ravenshaw College. They were also responsible for making endeavors and finally persuading the British for a railway route to Odisha.
After the independence of India, Mayurbhanj state under Maharaja Pratap Chandra Bhanjdeo was acceded to the Indian dominion on 1 January 1949 and was merged with Orissa. Maharaja Sriram Chandra Bhanj Deo, father of Pratap Chandra Bhanj Deo was one notable person remembered for his contribution towards the development of Orissa and Oriya people. Ravenshaw College, S.C.B. Medical college (which is named after him) in Cuttack were some of his notable works.
During his reign, India's first iron ore mines Gorumahisani, badampahar and suleipat which were the mother mines of TISCO were leased to Tatas.
Sub-divisions and blocks of Mayurbhanj
- Mahulia baripoada
- Bamanghati Sub-division
- Kaptipada Sub-division
- Gopabandhu Nagar
- Panchapid Sub-division
- Baripada - 757001
- Barjupur -757003
- Kushalda - 757085
- Edelbeda- 757050
- Kalabadia- 757030
- Betajhari- 757038
- Baunshdiha- 757038
- Thakurmunda- 757038
- jhinkpada -757040
- pedagadi -757040
- Jugpura - 757052
- K. C Pur - 757029
- Gadigan -757018
- Betnoti - 757025
- Budhikhamari(B) - 757029
- Khadiabasa -K 757085
- Kailash Chandra Pur - 757029
- Khandadeuli - 757043
- jugal (HQ) - 757052
- Nudadiha - 757077
- Rengha kulgi - 757046
- Gadia - 757023
- laxmiposi - 757107
- Suruda - 1458
- Kuchei - 757105
- Padhia - 757047
- Kumbhar Mundhakata - 757081
- Dhobanisole - 757021
- Goudagan - 757040
- talapada - 751026
The economy of Mayurbhanj District is mostly dependent on agriculture. The agro climatic zone and the favorable soil type induce the proper growth of agriculture. Paddy is the major cultivated crop, followed by pulses and oilseeds. While there has been decrease in the coverage of Khariff paddy in high lands, the area under pulses, oilseeds and other cereals has been showing an increasing trend due to diversification of cropping patterns. Moreover, the land use pattern is quite accommodating in the field of agriculture.
Quite a good number of small-scale industries including mineral grinding, stone crushing, china–clay Washing, ceramic industries, fertilizer, safety matches, paper mill, paints and chemicals, washing, soap, electrical items, high–voltage, cable manufacturing, aluminum utensils, cold storage, mechanised hatchery, general fabrication, sheet–metals, poly–leaf cups and plates making, cement products, Sabai products, rice–Huller, flour mill and allied repairing and servicing, etc. serve the industrial economy of Mayurbhanj District.
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Mayurbhanj one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 19 districts in Odisha currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
According to the 2011 census Mayurbhanj district has a population of 2,513,895, roughly equal to the nation of Kuwait or the US state of Nevada. This gives it a ranking of 171st in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 241 inhabitants per square kilometre (620 /sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 13.06%. Mayurbhanj has a sex ratio of 1006 females for every 1000 males and a literacy rate of 63.98%.
Art and culture
Culture is deep rooted in the lives of the people of Mayurbhanj District. The vibrancy and richness of the cultural heritage, undoubtedly, makes Mayurbhanj one of the most noteworthy places on the map of Odisha. Makar Parva and Karama Parva are the two well-known festivals of Mayurbhanj District which are celebrated with great pomp and show.
Mayurbhanj District unfolds an enormous panorama of nature's beauty. In the midst of the surroundings evolved the beautiful, virile Chhau dance. This dance form has gained worldwide fame and recognition. It is noted for its beauty, vigour and marvel of the art. Jhumar, the popular traditional folk song, is inextricably interlinked with Mayurbhanj District. These songs depict the thought of the populace festivities, marriages other social functions, sorrows and happiness.
The handicrafts were acknowledged as an important part of rich cultural heritage of this region. Now though this sentiment continues to be repeated there is pronounced change in the general attitude towards crafts, which is completely unsetting basic sense of life values. For though handicrafts fulfilled a positive physical need in the daily requirements of the people of this region, they also served to satisfy the aesthetic hunger in man and provided a vehicle for his urge for self–expression which reveals a conscious aesthetic approach. The concept behind the handicrafts of this region as originally conceived was imbuing everything used in the daily life, no matter how common or insignificant with touch of beauty to add brightness to an otherwise dull and drab existence.
The handicrafts of late got partially submerged under the rising forces of modern industrialization with its high mechanization, and lost their basic role in the overall perspective. Efforts are being made to find new market now for the handicrafts of this region, hence it is necessary to adapt certain changes particularly in the forms of improved product, design, efficient production technique. At the same time scrupulous care taken to prevent any violence to the folk character and rustic vitality of these handicrafts and preserve their beauty of form and colour, perfected over centuries. Craftsman of this region are now trained in articles of modern use, traditional motifs, and designs without vulgarizing them.
Mayurbhanj has many tourist destinations. The Shimilipal is an internationally renowned tiger and forest reserve. It became a source of international attention in 1960s when the then director of the tiger reserve adopted a tigress known as Khairi.
Mudhi (puffed rice) is the popular diet here.
- Sriram Chandra Bhanj Deo - Ruler of Princely State of Mayurbhanj.
- [Sunaram Soren]- First Tribal cabinet minister as Minister of Tribal & Rural welfare, labour & commerce of Orissa Assembly[second pre-independent assembly,1946 & post independent 1952-1954).
- [Pandit Raghunath Murmu]- Founder of OL-CHIKI(Which is a script for major tribal community SANTAL)
Flora and fauna
Vidhan sabha constituencies
|No.||Constituency||Reservation||Extent of the Assembly Constituency (Blocks)||Member of 14th Assembly||Party|
|26||Jashipur||ST||Jashipur, Raruan, Sukruli, Kusumi (part)||Kamala Kanta Nayak||BJD|
|27||Saraskana||ST||Saraskana, Bijatala, Bisoi, Kusumi (part)||Rama Chandra Hansdah||BJD|
|28||Rairangpur||ST||Rairangpur (NAC), Rairangpur, Tiringi, Bahalda, Jamda||Shyam Charan Hansdah||INC|
|29||Bangriposi||ST||Bangriposi, Kuliana, Shamakhunta||Smt. Sarojini Hembram||BJD|
|30||Karanjia||ST||Karanjia (NAC), Karanjia, Thakurmunda, Kaptipada (part)||Bijay Kumar Nayak||BJD|
|31||Udala||ST||Udala (NAC), Udala, Gopabandhunagar, Kaptipada (part)||Shrinath Soren||BJD|
|32||Badasahi||SC||Betnoti, Badasahi (part)||Manoranjan Sethi||BJD|
|33||Baripada||ST||Baripada (M), Baripada, Khunta, Badasahi (part)||Sananda Marndi||BJD|
|34||Morada||None||Morada, Suliapada, Rasgobindapur||Praveen Chandra Bhanj Deo||BJD|
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme". National Institute of Rural Development. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Kuwait 2,595,62"
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "Nevada 2,700,551"
- Assembly Constituencies and their EXtent
- Seats of Odisha
- "List of Member in Fourteenth Assembly". ws.ori.nic.in. Retrieved 19 February 2013. "MEMBER NAME"
||West Singhbhum district, Jharkhand||Seraikela Kharsawan district, Jharkhand||Purbi Singhbhum district, Jharkhand|
|Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal|
|Kendujhar district||Baleshwar district|