Solar eclipse of July 22, 2009

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Solar eclipse of July 22, 2009
Solar eclipse 22 July 2009 taken by Lutfar Rahman Nirjhar from Bangladesh.jpg
Totality from Kurigram, Bangladesh
SE2009Jul22T.png
Map
Type of eclipse
Nature Total
Gamma 0.0698
Magnitude 1.0799
Maximum eclipse
Duration 6m 39s
Coordinates 24.2N 144.1E
Max. width of band 258 km
Times (UTC)
(P1) Partial begin 23:58:18
(U1) Total begin 0:51:16
Greatest eclipse 2:36:25
(U4) Total end 4:19:26
(P4) Partial end 5:12:25
References
Saros 136 (37 of 71)
Catalog # (SE5000) 9528

A total solar eclipse occurred on July 22, 2009. It was the longest total solar eclipse during the 21st century, not to be surpassed until 13 June 2132.[1] It lasted a maximum of 6 minutes and 39 seconds off the coast of Southeast Asia,[2] causing tourist interest in eastern China, Japan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh.[2][3][4]

Visibility[edit]

A partial eclipse was seen within the broad path of the Moon's penumbra, including most of Southeast Asia (all of India and China) and north-eastern Oceania.

The total eclipse was visible from a narrow corridor through northern Maldives, northern Pakistan, northern India, eastern Nepal, northern Bangladesh, Bhutan, northern Philippines, the northern tip of Myanmar, central China and the Pacific Ocean, including northern part of the Ryukyu Islands, Marshall Islands, and Kiribati.

Totality was visible in many large cities, including Surat, Vadodara, Bhopal, Varanasi, Patna, Gaya, Dinajpur, Siliguri, Guwahati, Tawang in India and Chengdu, Nanchong, Chongqing, Yichang, Jingzhou, Wuhan, Huanggang, Hefei, Hangzhou, Wuxi, Huzhou, Suzhou, Jiaxing, Ningbo, Shanghai, Chapai Nawabganj as well as over the Three Gorges Dam in China.  However, in Shanghai, the largest city in the eclipse's path, the view was obscured by heavy clouds.[5][6] According to NASA, the Japanese island Kitaio Jima was predicted to have the best viewing conditions[7][8] featuring both longer viewing time (being the closest point of land to the point of greatest eclipse) and lower cloud cover statistics than all of continental Asia. The Indian city of Varanasi had similar conditions to those in Kitaio Jima; although the eclipse was the longest there than anywhere else.[9]

The eclipse, and the reaction of thousands of observers at Varanasi was captured by the Science Channel Wonders of the Universe series hosted by Brian Cox.[10]

This eclipse may be the most-viewed total solar eclipse in history, with 30 million people in Shanghai and Hangzhou alone.[11]

Observations[edit]

Crowds gather on the ghats for the eclipse in Varanasi, India

Thousands of pilgrims gathered on the banks of the Ganges River in Varanasi, India to experience the eclipse as a religious or spiritual event. Some people expected that there would be a relationship, either positive or negative, between their health and the occurrence of the eclipse.[12]

View from a Boat in Ganges

Indian scientists observed the solar eclipse from an Indian Air Force plane.[13]

The Chinese government used the opportunity to provide scientific education and to dispel any superstition. Observers in Japan were excited by the prospect of experiencing the first eclipse in 46 years, but found the experience dampened by cloudy skies obscuring the view.

Thousands of people of Bangladesh witnessed the longest total solar eclipses of the 21st century on Wednesday, 22 July 2009 defying rain and a heavily overcast sky. Before this a "total solar eclipse observation committee" was formed with Bishwa Sahitya Kendra, Liberation War Museum, Chhayanaut's educational initiative Nalanda, Samannito Shikkha-Sangskriti, Bangladesh Nature Study and Conservation Union, and Cosmic Culture to observe the eclipse. Science initiative Discussion Project coordinated the committee, which set up the main observation camp at Madhupara village and another at the South Plaza of Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban in Dhaka. With the help of BRB Cable Industries Ltd, the committee also set up observation camps at Bell's Park in Barisal, Akimuddin Gronthagar in Chapai Nawabganj, science and technology university campuses in Syedpur and Gazipur, Jahangirnagar University and Araj Ali Matubbar library at Dania in Dhaka.[14][15][16] Akimudin Gronthagar arranged three camps to observe century's one and only solar eclipse of July 22, 2009. 99.56% totality was observed from main camp at Kamat Maath, Binodpur, Chapai Nawabganj. Totality started at 07:57:41BDT and end 3 minutes 44 seconds later. The other two camps were set up at Poddar Paar in Rajshahi and at railway's Dhar in Uttar, Dhaka.

Duration[edit]

These identically scaled photos compare the apparent diameter of the full moon (near apogee) to the nearly new moon (visible by earthshine) on the day before the solar eclipse near lunar perigee.

This solar eclipse was the longest total solar eclipse to occur in the 21st century, and will not be surpassed in duration until 13 June 2132. Totality lasted for up to 6 minutes and 39 seconds, with the maximum eclipse occurring in the ocean at 02:35:21 UTC about 100 km south of the Bonin Islands, southeast of Japan. The uninhabited North Iwo Jima island was the landmass with totality time closest to maximum, while the closest inhabited point was Akusekijima, where the eclipse lasted 6 minutes and 26 seconds.[17]

The cruise ship Costa Classica was chartered specifically to view this eclipse and by viewing the eclipse at the point of maximum duration and cruising along the centerline during the event, duration was extended to 6 minutes, 42 seconds.

The eclipse was part of Saros series 136, as was the solar eclipse of July 11, 1991, which was slightly longer, lasting up to 6 minutes 53 seconds (previous eclipses of the same saros series on June 30, 1973 and June 20, 1955, were longer, lasting 7 min 04 and 7 min 08, respectively). The next event from this series will be on August 2, 2027.[18] The exceptional duration was a result of the Moon being near perigee, with the apparent diameter of the Moon 8% larger than the Sun (magnitude 1.080) and the Earth being near aphelion[19] where the Sun appeared slightly smaller.

In contrast the annular solar eclipse of January 26, 2009 occurred near lunar apogee and 7% smaller apparent diameter to the sun. And the next solar eclipse of January 15, 2010 was also annular, with the Moon 8.1% smaller than the Sun.

Photos[edit]

Solar eclipse from kolkata 22 july 2009.jpg
Partial eclipse

View from space[edit]

Animation of eclipse path

The Terrain Mapping Camera in the Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission was used to image the earth during the eclipse.[20]

It was also observed by the Japanese geostationary satellite MTSAT:[21]

July 22, 2009 Total Eclipse 8,30 a.m. Taiwan.jpg
12:30 UT (pre-eclipse)
July 22, 2009 Total Eclipse 9,30 a.m. Taiwan.jpg
1:30 UT
Solar eclipse July 2009 NOAA.jpg
Close up at 1:30 UT

Related eclipses[edit]

This total eclipse the second in the series of three eclipses in a one-month period, with two minor penumbral lunar eclipses, first on July 7 and last on August 6.

Solar eclipses 2008–2011[edit]

Each member in a semester series of solar eclipses repeats approximately every 177 days and 4 hours (a semester) at alternating nodes of the moon's orbit.

Solar eclipse series sets from 2008–2011
Ascending node   Descending node
Saros Map Saros Map
121
Solar eclipse 2008Feb07-New Zealand-partial-Greg Hewgill.jpg
Partial from New Zealand
2008 February 7
SE2008Feb07A.png
Annular
126
NovosibirskTotalEclipsePhoto-cropped.jpg
Total from Novosibirsk, Russia
2008 August 1
SE2008Aug01T.png
Total
131
Solar eclipse of January 26, 2009 by Jefferson Teng.jpg
Bandar Lampung, Indonesia
2009 January 26
SE2009Jan26A.png
Annular
136
Solar eclipse 22 July 2009 taken by Lutfar Rahman Nirjhar from Bangladesh.jpg
Total from Bangladesh
2009 July 22
SE2009Jul22T.png
Total
141
(closeup) Solar annular eclipse of January 15, 2010 in Bangui, Central African Republic.JPG
Bangui, Central African Republic
2010 January 15
SE2010Jan15A.png
Annular
146
Eclipse 2010 Hao 1.JPG
Total from French Polynesia
2010 July 11
SE2010Jul11T.png
Total
151
Solar eclipse Vienna 2011-1-4 a.jpg
Partial from Austra
2011 January 4
SE2011Jan04P.png
Partial (north)
156 2011 July 1
SE2011Jul01P.png
Partial (south)
Partial solar eclipses on June 1, 2011, and November 25, 2011, occur on the next lunar year eclipse set.

Saros series[edit]

Solar Saros 136, repeating every 18 years, 11 days, contains 71 events. The series started with partial solar eclipse on Jun 14, 1360, and reached a first annular eclipse on September 8, 1504. It was a hybrid event from November 22, 1612, through January 17, 1703, and total eclipses from January 27, 1721 through May 13, 2496. The series ends at member 71 as a partial eclipse on July 30, 2622, with the entire series lasting 1262 years. The longest eclipse occurred on June 20, 1955, with a maximum duration of totality at 7 minutes, 8 seconds.[22]

Series members 29–42 occur between 1865 and 2100:

28 29 30
SE1865Apr25T.gif
April 25, 1865
SE1883May06T.png
May 6, 1883
31 32 33
SE1901May18T.png
May 18, 1901
SE1919May29T.png
May 29, 1919
SE1937Jun08T.png
Jun 8, 1937
34 35 36
SE1955Jun20T.png
Jun 20, 1955
SE1973Jun30T.png
Jun 30, 1973
SE1991Jul11T.png
Jul 11, 1991
37 38 39
SE2009Jul22T.png
Jul 22, 2009
SE2027Aug02T.png
Aug 2, 2027
SE2045Aug12T.png
Aug 12, 2045
40 41 42
SE2063Aug24T.png
Aug. 24, 2063
SE2081Sep03T.png
Sep. 3, 2081
SE2099Sep14T.png
Sep. 14, 2099

Metonic cycle[edit]

The metonic series repeats eclipses every 19 years (6939.69 days), lasting about 5 cycles. Eclipses occur in nearly the same calendar date. In addition the octon subseries repeats 1/5 of that or every 3.8 years (1387.94 days).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ NASA: Total Solar Eclipses with Durations Exceeding 06m 00s (2001 to 3000 )
  2. ^ a b (AFP) – 6 days ago. "AFP: Solar eclipse sparks tourism fever in China". Google.com. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  3. ^ "Scientists: China the best place to observe longest solar eclipse in 2,000 years_English_Xinhua". News.xinhuanet.com. 2009-05-19. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  4. ^ "Indian students on solar eclipse 'odyssey' to China – Yahoo! India News". In.news.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2009-07-22. [dead link]
  5. ^ 99.56% totality was observed in Kamat Maath, Binodpur, Chapai Nawabgan, the western part of Bangladesh.
    In Sichuan province, China, 150 km southwest of Chengdu many people ascended Mount Emei to view the eclipse. While viewing conditions were not ideal due to thick cloud cover, typical of this region and altitude, the effects were reported as impressive. The summit of Mt. Emei contains numerous Buddhist temples and statues, as well as a large candle and incense lighting ceremony/area. During the eclipse day turned to night, leaving only the candles to cast a unique lighting on the adjacent Buddhist statues and buildings.
    "NASA – Total Solar Eclipse of 2009 July 22". NASA.gov. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  6. ^ Weather conditions for cities in China during the July 22 eclipse (Chinese)
  7. ^ "NASA Map" (PDF). 
  8. ^ Espenak, Fred. "Total Solar Eclipse of July 2009". 
  9. ^ http://www.indiamike.com/india/varanasi-f63/best-place-to-view-july-22-solar-eclipse-t84134/
  10. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOvWioz4PoQ
  11. ^ Solar Eclipse on July 22 May Be Most Viewed Ever
  12. ^ "Indians enthralled by solar eclipse". Chinadaily.com.cn. 2009-07-23. Retrieved 2009-07-23. 
  13. ^ "Khabrein.info". Khabrein.info. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  14. ^ "Thousands watch long solar eclipse". Retrieved 2009-07-23. 
  15. ^ "People watch century’s last solar eclipse". Retrieved 2009-07-23. 
  16. ^ "People watch century’s last solar eclipse". Retrieved 2009-07-23. 
  17. ^ "Island « Total Eclipse.Jp". Totaleclipse.jp. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  18. ^ "August 2, 2027 Total Solar Eclipse". Tierrayestrellas.com. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  19. ^ "APOD: 2009 July 3 – Perihelion and Aphelion". Apod.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  20. ^ "Chandrayaan-1". ISRO. Retrieved 2009-07-31. [dead link]
  21. ^ NASAN.org
  22. ^ SEsaros136 at NASA.gov

References[edit]

Pre-eclipse news:

Photos:

External links[edit]