|— Sub-provincial city —|
|Tianyi Square, Tianyi Chamber, Port of Ningbo, Hangzhou Bay Bridge, and Tianfeng Pagoda|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Type||Type Sub-provincial city|
|• CPC Ningbo Committee Secretary||Wang Huizhong (王辉忠)|
|• Mayor||Liu Qi[disambiguation needed] (刘奇)|
|• Sub-provincial city||9,816 km2 (3,790 sq mi)|
|Elevation||150 m (488 ft)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Sub-provincial city||7,605,700|
|• Density||770/km2 ( 2,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard Time (UTC+8)|
|- Total||CNY 605.92 billion (USD 93.81 billion)|
|- per capita||CNY 79,523 (USD 12,312)|
Camphor Laurel Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb.)
|Literal meaning||tranquil waves|
Ningbo (help·info) (Chinese: 宁波; pinyin: Níngbō; Ningbo dialect: Nyin-poh/Nyin-pou (help·info)) is a seaport city in the northeast of Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. Holding sub-provincial administrative status and separate state-planning status, as of the 2010 census, the municipality has a population of 7,605,700 inhabitants, 3,491,000 of whom reside in the urban area which comprises 6 districts. It lies south of the Hangzhou Bay, facing the East China Sea to the east. Ningbo borders Shaoxing to the west and Taizhou to the south, and is separated from Zhoushan by a narrow body of water.
The first character in the city's name (宁 or 寧) means "serene", while its second character (波) translates to "waves". Together, the name literally means "Serene Waves". The city is abbreviated Yǒng (甬), after the Yong Hill (甬山), a prominent coastal hill near the city, like the Yong River (甬江) that flows through Ningbo. The abbreviation Ning is used more commonly for Nanjing.
It was once named "明州" (Míngzhōu). The character Ming (明) was composed by two parts, representing two lakes inside the city wall, i.e., the Sun Lake (日湖) and the Moon Lake (月湖), but only Moon Lake remains.
Ningbo is one of China's oldest cities, with a history dating back to the Hemudu culture in 4800 BC . Once known as Mingzhou (明州), Ningbo was known as a trade city on the silk road at least two thousand years ago, and then as a major port, along with Yangzhou and Guangzhou in the Tang Dynasty; thereafter, the major ports for foreign trade in the Song Dynasty.
Tang and Song dynasty 
Since the Tang dynasty Ningbo was an important commercial port. Arab merchants lived in Ningbo during the Song dynasty when it was known as Mingzhou, because the ocean-going trade passages took precedence over land trade during this time. Another name for Mingzhou/Ningbo was Siming. It was a well known center of ocean-going commerce with the foreign world. These merchants did not intermingle with native Chinese, practicing their own customs and religion and they inhabited ghettos. They did not try to proselytize Islam to Chinese.
Ming Dynasty 
The city of Ningbo was known in Europe for a long time under the name of Liampó. This is the usual spelling used e.g. in the standard Portuguese history, João de Barros's Décadas da Ásia, although Barros explained that Liampó was a Portuguese "corruption" of the more correct Nimpó. The spelling Liampó is also attested in the Peregrination (Peregrinação) by Fernão Mendes Pinto, a (so-called) autobiography written in Portuguese during 16th century. For the mid-16th century Portuguese, the nearby promontory, which they called the cape of Liampó, after the nearby "illustrious city" was the easternmost known point of the mainland Asia. The Portuguese began trading in Ningbo around 1522. By 1542, the Portuguese had a sizable community in Ningbo (or, more likely, on nearby small islands). Portuguese activities from their Ningbo base included pillaging and attacking multiple Chinese port cities around Ningbo for plunder and spoil. They also enslaved people during their raids. In 1542 the Portuguese settled here by permission and flourished, but their rapacity led to their expulsion in 1545. After the Portuguese obtaining a trade mission in Ningbo using coercion and bribe, in retaliation, the Ming forces in 1545 exterminated the entire Portuguese community of Ningbo in the Ningbo Massacre (1542). A force of 60,000 Chinese troops descended on the community, 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, and 25 Portuguese vessels and 42 junks were destroyed.
Qing dynasty 
Ningbo was one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened by the Treaty of Nanjing (signed in 1842) at the end of the First Opium War between Britain and China. During the war, British forces took possession of the walled city of Ningbo briefly after storming the fortified town of Zhenhai at the mouth of the Yong River on October 10, 1841. The British repulsed a Chinese attempt to retake the city in the Battle of Ningpo on March 10, 1842. In 1864, the forces of the Taiping Rebellion held the town for six months. In March 1885, during the Sino-French War, Admiral Courbet's naval squadron blockaded several Chinese warships in Zhenhai Bay and exchanged fire with the shore defences. Ningbo was also once famed for traditional Chinese furniture production.
During the late Qing dynasty, in the 1800s, the Ningbo authorities contracted Cantonese pirates to exterminate and massacre Portuguese pirates who raided Cantonese shipping around Ningbo. The massacre was "successful", with 40 Portuguese dead and only 2 Chinese dead, being dubbed "The Ningpo Massacre" by an English correspondent, who noted that the Portuguese pirates had behaved savagely towards the Chinese, and that the Portuguese authorities at Macau should have reined in the pirates.
During late Qing era, Western missionaries set up a Presbyterian Church in Ningbo. Li Veng-eing was a Reverend of the Ningpo Church. The Ningpo College was mangaged by Rev. Robert F. Fitch. The four trustees were natives of Ningbo, three of them had Taotai rank. Rev. George Evans Moule, B. A. was appointed a missionary to China by the Church of England Missionary Society, and arrived at Ningpo with Mrs. Moule in February, 1858. He then commenced a mission station at Hang-chow, between which and Ningpo his time had been chiefly divided. He wrote Christian publications in the Ningbo dialect.
Republican Era 
During World War II in 1940, Japan bombed Ningbo with ceramic bombs full of fleas carrying the bubonic plague. According to Daniel Barenblatt, Prince Tsuneyoshi Takeda received, with Prince Mikasa, a special screening by Shiro Ishii of a film showing imperial planes loading germ bombs for bubonic dissemination over Ningbo in 1940.
- "It has been said of the Ningbo fishermen that, 'no people in the world apparently made so great an advance in the art of fishing; and for centuries past no people have made so little further progress.'"
Geography and climate 
Ningbo ranges in latitude from 28° 51' to 30° 33' N and in longitude from 120° 55' to 122° 16' E, bounded on the east by the East China Sea and Zhoushan Archipelago, on the north by Hangzhou Bay, across which it faces Jiaxing and Shanghai, on the west by Shaoxing, and on the south by Taizhou. Its land area is 9,816 square kilometres (3,790 sq mi), while oceanic territory amounts to 9,758 km2 (3,768 sq mi); there is a total 1,562 km (971 mi) of coastline including 788 km (490 mi) of mainland coastline and 774 km (481 mi) of island coastline, together accounting for one-third of the entire provincial coastline. There are 531 islands accounting for 524 km2 (202 sq mi) under the city's administration.
The city proper of Ningbo is sandwiched between the ocean and low-lying mountains to the southwest, with coastal plain and valleys in between. Important peninsulas include the Chuanshan Peninsula (穿山半岛), located in Beilun District and containing mainland Zhejiang's easternmost point, and the Xiangshan Peninsula (象山半岛) in Xiangshan County. The Siming Mountains (四明山) run north from Mount Tiantai and within Ningbo City, traverse Yuyao City, Yinzhou District, and Fenghua City, reaching a height of 979 m (3,212 ft).
Ningbo has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four distinctive seasons, characterised by hot, humid summers and chilly, cloudy and drier winters (with occasional snow). The mean annual temperature is 16.53 °C (61.8 °F), with monthly daily averages ranging from 4.9 °C (40.8 °F) in January to 28.1 °C (82.6 °F) in July. The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1,440 millimetres (56.7 in) and is affected by the plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June, when average relative humidity also peaks. From August to October, Ningbo experiences the effects of typhoons, and is affected by an average 1.8 storms annually, though the city is not often struck directly by these systems.
|Climate data for Ningbo (1971–2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||8.8
|Average low °C (°F)||1.8
|Precipitation mm (inches)||66.8
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||12.6||12.3||16.9||15.3||14.7||16.4||13.1||14.5||14.1||10.3||8.9||8.5||157.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||123.7||108.4||121.7||142.4||156.7||147.8||243.8||238.0||171.5||166.5||143.4||146.1||1,910|
|Source #1: China Weather (temperatures, precipitation) |
|Source #2: Ningbo Climate Studies (humidity, sunshine)|
Environmental problems 
Ningbo is suffering from severe environmental problems, especially for Zhenhai district because of Ningbo Chemical Economical Development Zone built on its eastern coast. In October 2012, anger arose from local people for revocation of a 50 billion yuan ($8 billion) investment program on a large chemical plant that will affect more than 9,800 households. Research has also shown that the mortality rate from cancer in Zhenhai rose significantly between 2007 and 2009.
Administrative Structure 
The mayor of Ningbo is Liu Qi[disambiguation needed]. Wang Huizhong is the secretary of CPC in Ningbo, who is first-in-charge of the city. The Communist Party Secretary is always the highest official in cities in China and overranks all other officials.
Ningbo Local Government Offices
|Map||No||Subdivision||Hanzi||Pinyin||Population (2010)||Area (km2)||Density|
|1||Haishu District||海曙区||Hǎishǔ Qū||373,742||29.38||12,720.96|
|2||Jiangdong District||江东区||Jiāngdōng Qū||366,648||33.75||10,863.64|
|3||Jiangbei District||江北区||Jiangbei Qū||361,242||208.16||1,735.40|
|4||Beilun District||北仑区||Běilún Qū||612,267||599.03||1,022.09|
|5||Zhenhai District||镇海区||Zhènhǎi Qū||418,500||245.90||1,701.91|
|6||Yinzhou District||鄞州区||Yínzhōu Qū||1,359,198||1,345.54||1.010.15|
|10||Xiangshan County||象山县||Xiàngshān Xiàn||503,279||1,382.18||364.11|
|11||Ninghai County||宁海县||Nínghǎi Xiàn||646,074||1,843.26||350.50|
|Satellite cities (County-level cities)|
Ningbo is an important port city located 220 kilometres (140 mi) south of Shanghai. The city's export industry dates back to the 7th century. Today Ningbo is a major exporter of electrical products, textiles, food, and industrial tools.
Historically Ningbo was geographically isolated from other major cities. In 2007 the Hangzhou Bay Bridge was built, cutting highway transit time between the two port cities to two and a half hours from four.
In 2009, Ningbo's economic activity reached USD 60.8 billion, down 10.4% from 2008. The exports totalled USD 38.65 billion, down 16.6% from the previous year. In addition, Ningbo imported USD 22.16 billion of goods, up 3.1% from the previous year.
Ningbo's economy grew 8.6 percent in 2009 to 421.5 billion yuan (US$61.7 billion). The city's per capita output was US$10,833, about three times the national average.
Ningbo is famous for the Si Lan Nong Xiang flower. Used for dyeing cloth, 2008 exports were responsible for 3% of the Ningbo economic growth.
Economic and Technological Development Zones 
Ningbo Economic & Technological Development Zone 
Located in the north-east of Ningbo, behind Beilun Port, NETD is 27 kilometers away from the city center. With more than 20 years of great effort, NETD has already formed the general framework for large scale construction and development, and established perfect investment environment. It is situated close to the Ningbo Port and Ningbo Lishe International Airport. Major Investors include Exxon Mobile, Dupont and Dow Chemical.
Ningbo National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone 
Ningbo National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in 1999 and was upgraded to a national level zone in January 2007. It is only 10 km away from Ningbo International Airport and 18 km away from Ningbo Port. The zone serves as the important technical innovation base of Yangtze River Delta. Industries encouraged include Chemicals Production and Processing, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Raw Material Processing, Research and Development.
Ningbo Free Trade Zone 
Ningbo Free Trade Zone is one of the 15 free trade zones authorized by the State Council of China, and is the only free trade zone in Zhejiang Province. It was established by State Council in 1992, covering the area of 2.3 square kilometers. It lies in the middle of the coastline of Mainland China, at the south of Yangtze River Delta. In 2008, its industrial output value was RMB 53.33 billion and grew at 19.8% as compared to 2007.
Nordic Industrial Park 
The Nordic Industrial Park Co. Ltd. (NIP) is one of the first wholly foreign-owned industrial parks in China located in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province. NIP is managed and operated by a Scandinavian management team.
Ningbo Port 
Ningbo is not just an ordinary city – it has the same authority as provincial governments for economic administration – and has a port second only to Shanghai around the world in terms of annual cargo throughput. Unlike Shanghai, the port is deepwater and capable of handling 300,000 tonne vessels. The port is located mainly in Beilun district and Zhenhai district. In 2006, Ningbo Port started its expansion to the neighbouring island City of Zhoushan for the purpose of building an even larger port with higher capacity to compete with neighbouring ports in the region, such as Shanghai's Yangshan Deep-Water Port. The statistics in 2010 showed that total cargo throughput was 627,000,000 tonnes and container throughput 13,144,000 TEUs. With bulk container breakdowns, hugely improved logistics, and massive chemical and foodstuff, processing developments, Ningbo could yet win the race with Shanghai as port of choice for servicing the Chinese east coast.
- Tianyi Pavilion Museum, (Tian Yi Ge Bowuguan) one of Ningbo's most popular tourist attractions, the Tianyi Chamber (daily 8am–4.30pm; ¥20), is tucked away in the vicinity of Moon Lake (Yuehu). Built in 1516 and said to be the oldest surviving library in China, it was founded by Ming official Fan Qin, whose collection went back to the 11th century and included woodblock and handwritten copies of the Confucian classics, rare local histories and lists of the candidates successful in imperial examinations. Nowadays you can visit the library's garden and outhouses, some of which contain small displays of old books and tablets.
- Baoguo Temple, the oldest intact wooden structure in Southern China, is located in Jiangbei District, 15 km north of Ningbo city.
- Tianfeng Pagoda
- Qingan Association
- Ashoka Temple
- Tiantong Temple
- Tian Yi Square
- Yushan Islands
- Dongqian Lake
- Xuedou Temple
- Hemudu Relics
- Jiulong Lake
- Zhaobao Mountain
- Mount Phoenix Theme Park
Notable people 
Many well known Chinese came from Ningbo or their ancestral home was Ningbo.
People in mainland China
- Zhang Jianhong (張建紅), freelance writer, playwright, poet, and also a democracy activist.
- Pan Tianshou (潘天寿), artist in Chinese painting.
- Zhou Xinfang (周信芳), artist in Peking Opera.
- Sha Menghai (沙孟海), the Master Calligrapher.
People in Hong Kong
People in Taiwan
- Chiang Kai-shek (蔣介石), political and military leader of 20th century China.
- Chiang Ching-kuo (蔣經國)
- Morris Chang (張忠謀)
As there are three main rivers running through Ningbo, it is crucial to build bridges to improve the efficiency of transport network in Ningbo. The Ling Bridge which connects Haishu district and Jiangdong District is the earliest modern bridge built in Ningbo, designed by German engineers. Since the late 1980s, 16 bridges have been built on the three rivers. Currently another 27 bridges are under construction. The Hangzhou Bay Bridge, a combination cable-stayed bridge and causeway across Hangzhou Bay, opened to the public on May 1, 2008. This bridge connects the municipalities of Shanghai and Ningbo, and is considered the longest trans-oceanic bridge in the world. It is the world's second-longest bridge, after the Lake Ponchartrain Causeway in Louisiana, USA. The Jintang Bridge, linking Jintang Island of Zhoushan and the Zhenhai district, is a 27-kilometer long, 4 lane sea crossing bridge which opened on December 26, 2009.
The port of Ningbo is one of the world's busiest ports, ranked 2nd by cargo tonnage in 2008, and 7th in TEU.
Ningbo Lishe International Airport connects Ningbo by air to the rest of China, with regularly scheduled domestic and international flights. In 2009, new air routes between Ningbo and Taiwan were opened. Jetstar Asia also launched a new air routes between Ningbo and Singapore which commenced in 2011 September.
Two railway lines intersect in Ningbo: the Xiaoshan-Ningbo Railway (Xiaoyong Line), which runs west to Hangzhou and the Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou (Yongtaiwen) Railway, which runs south to Wenzhou. With the booming economy in the region, the Xiaoyong Railway, a conventional railway built in the 1950s, cannot meet the demand for railway travel between Zhejiang's two largest cities, so construction of a new high-speed railway line between Hangzhou and Ningbo started in 2009. The new railway line will be finished by 2011, and will reduce travel time between Ningbo and Hangzhou to 26 minutes. The Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway is a high-speed railway that opened in September 2009. It connects Ningbo with cities along the coast to the south to Fujian Province. High-speed trains on this line operate at speeds of up to 250 km/hour.
Five expressways connect Ningbo with its surrounding cities:
- The Hangyong expressway, built in the 1990s, connects Hangzhou and Ningbo, now part of Hangzhou Bay ring expressway (G9211).
- The Yongtaiwen expressway (G15), opened in 2000, connects Ningbo with Taizhou and Wenzhou.
- The Yongjin expressway (G1512) connects Ningbo and Jinhua.
- The Huyong expressway (G15) connects Ningbo and Shanghai via the Hangzhou Bay bridge.
- The Yongzhou expressway (G9211) via Jintang Bridge.
The first phase of Ningbo ring expressway also opened in 2007, connecting western parts of districts around the city of Ningbo. The second phase is expected to open on 2012. Another expressway connecting Ningbo and Taizhou via Xiangshan county is currently under construction.
Subway line 
Ningbo has been constructing two subway lines, Line 1 and Line 2. Both lines are scheduled to be finished in the year 2015. Altogether, future plans foresee that there will eventually be 6 subway lines serving Ningbo.
Ningbo is the headquarters of the East Sea Fleet of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy. Its responsibility includes projecting force in the region around the Republic of China (Taiwan), which the People's Republic of China views as a renegade province.
Ningbo is known for Ningbo Tangyuan, small stuffed buns which are boiled. The stuffing is usually ground sesame mixed with sugar. It can also be mixed with pork. The stuffing is wrapped with sticky rice powder. Even more so, Ningbo is famous throughout China for its seafood. Seafood markets are abundant, carrying countless varieties of fish, crabs/lobsters/shrimp, shellfish, snails, jellyfish and other invertebrates, and sea vegetables in all stages of preparation from "still swimming," to cleaned and ready to cook, to fully cooked.
Universities and colleges
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2010)|
Ningbo has four universities. Towards the north of the city is Ningbo University, while the Ningbo Higher Education Zone (Yinzhou district) is home to Zhejiang Wanli University as well as the University of Nottingham Ningbo, China – a joint venture between the University of Nottingham and the Wanli Education Group. Affiliated to Zhejiang University, Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, which was ranked as the eleventh best of independent colleges in China in 2011, is also located in this beautiful education zone.
Secondary and primary education
Compulsory education (basic education in Chinese terms) is from the age 6 -15. Students are catered for in a variety of state and private schools. Studying for the gaokao (university entrance test) is optional.
Several schools are permitted to operate educational programmes instead of the Chinese National curriculum and accept international students into their schools.
Access International Academy Ningbo (AIAN) offers a US curriculum with the College Board Advanced Placement examinations, Ningbo Zhicheng School International is an IB World School and offers an international curriculum through the IB Diploma Programme, Ningbo International School offers the South Australian Curriculum Standards and Accountability framework (SACSA) for the Toddler grades up to and including Grade 5 and provides accredited Cambridge International University programmes for Grades 6-12 inclusive. Huamao Multicultural Education Academy, is an IB World School and offers an international curriculum through the IB Primary Years Programme for students aged 3 – 12 and the IB Diploma Programme for students aged 16–19.
International relations 
Twin towns and sister cities 
Ningbo is twinned with:
Sister cities 
- Nagaokakyo, Japan (since April 1983)
- Aachen, Germany (October 1986)
- Wilmington, Delaware, United States (May 1988)
- Rouen, France (March 1990)
- Waitakere, New Zealand (November 1998)
- Santos, São Paulo, Brazil (January 2002)
- São Paulo, Brazil
- Veszprem, Hungary (July 2003)
- Nelson Mandela Municipality, South Africa (September 2003)
- Varna, Bulgaria (June 2004)
- Stavanger, Norway (September 2004)
- Nottingham, England, United Kingdom (September 2005)
- Bydgoszcz, Poland (November 2005)
- Masuda, Japan (since October 1990)
- Ueda, Nagano, Japan (February 1995)
- Barcelona, Spain (October 1995)
- Suncheon, South Korea (June 1997)
- Surrey, British Columbia, Canada (May 1999)
- Houston, United States (September 2000)
- Wiener Neustadt, Austria (September 2000)
- Daegu, South Korea (September 2000)
- Aguascalientes, Mexico (November 2006)
- Milwaukee, United States (2006)
- Manzanillo, Mexico (June 2010)
- Tartu, Estonia (April 2011)
- Rijeka, Croatia (June 2011)
See also 
- "2009年宁波市经济社会发展情况" (in Simplified Chinese). Ningbo Municipal Statistic Bureau. 2010-01-26. Retrieved 2010-05-15.
- Piper Rae Gaubatz (1996). Beyond the Great Wall: urban form and transformation on the Chinese frontiers (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 210. ISBN 0-8047-2399-0. Retrieved 17th of July, 2011.
- Greville Stewart Parker Freeman-Grenville, Stuart C. Munro-Hay (2006). Islam: an illustrated history (illustrated, revised ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 228. ISBN 0-8264-1837-6. Retrieved 17th of July, 2011.
- Weichao Yu, Zhongguo li shi bo wu guan (1997). In Weichao Yu. A Journey Into China's Antiquity: Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, Northern and Southern Song Dynasties. Volume 3 of A Journey Into China's Antiquity (illustrated ed.). the University of Michigan: Morning Glory Publishers. p. 305. ISBN 7-5054-0507-1. Retrieved 17th of July, 2011.
- Tan Ta Sen, Dasheng Chen (2009). Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia (illustrated ed.). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 94. ISBN 981-230-837-7. Retrieved 17th of July, 2011.
- João de Barros, Décadas da Ásia; 1st Decade, Book IX, Chapter VII. Lisbon, 1552 (e.g., pp. 336-337, in the 1988 reprint)
- João de Barros, Décadas da Ásia, 3rd Decade, Book II, Chapter VII. Lisbon, 1563 (folio 44 in the original edition and the 1992 facsimile reprint)
- Sergeĭ Leonidovich Tikhvinskiĭ (1983). Modern history of China. Progress Publishers. p. 57. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "Thereafter they made the factory near Ningbo their chief trading outlet. In the late 1540s, there were more than 3,000 people there, some 1,200 of them Portuguese. From this base the latter raided neighbouring coastal cities, pillaging and taking people into slavery. The Chinese authorities responded with armed expeditions against them and, finally, the Portuguese had to abandon the factory"(Indiana University)
- Sergeĭ Leonidovich Tikhvinskiĭ (1983). Modern history of China. Progress Publishers. p. 57. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "Thereafter they made the factory near Ningbo their chief trading outlet. In the late 1540s, there were more than 3,000 people there, some 1,200 of them Portuguese. From this base the latter raided neighbouring coastal cities, pillaging and taking people into slavery. The Chinese authorities responded with armed expeditions against them and, finally, the Portuguese had to abandon the factory"(the University of Virginia)
- Alexandra Etheldred Grantham (1927). Hills of blue: a picture-roll of Chinese history from far beginnings to the death of Chʼien Lung, A, Part 1799. Methuen & co. ltd. p. 465. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
- Ernest S. Dodge (1976). Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia. Volume 7 of Europe and the World in Age of Expansion. U of Minnesota Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-8166-0853-9. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- A.J. Johnson Company (1895). In Charles Kendall Adams. Johnson's universal cyclopedia: a new edition. Volume 6 of Johnson's Universal Cyclopædia. NEW YORK: D. Appleton, A.J. Johnson. p. 202. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "Ningpo has long been an important center of trade. In 1522 the Portuguese settled here by permission and flourished, but their rapacity led to their"expulsion in 1542, when 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, and 25 Portuguese vessels and 42 junks were destroyed. The city was occupied by the British from Oct. 13, 1841, to May 7, 1842, and was cap"tured Dec. 9,1861, by the Taipings, who, however, were compelled by the foreign fleets then in the river to retire on May 10, 1862. It is an important center of missionary work. Pop. estimated (1893) 255,000."(Original from the University of California)
- appleton's new practical cyclopedia. NEW YORK. 1910. p. 432. Retrieved 18th of July, 2011.(Original from Harvard University)
- Marcus Benjamin, Arthur Elmore Bostwick, Gerald Van Casteel, George Jotham Hagar, ed. (1910). Appleton's new practical cyclopedia: a new work of reference based upon the best authorities, and systematically arranged for use in home and school. Volume 4 of Appleton's New Practical Cyclopedia. NEW YORK: D. Appleton and company,. p. 432. Retrieved 18th of July, 2011.(Original from the University of Michigan)
- Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. (1867). The Home and foreign record of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, Volume 18. PHILADELPHIA: PETER WALKER, AGENT, 821 CHESTNUT STREET: Presbyterian Board of Publication. p. 140.
- New-York observer, Volume 83. Morse, Hallock & Co. APRIL 27, 1905. p. 533.
- Alexander Wylie (1867). Memorials of Protestant missionaries to the Chinese: giving a list of their publications, and obituary notices of the deceased. With copious indexes. SHANGHAE: American Presbyterian Mission Press. p. 247.>
- Japan triggered bubonic plague outbreak, doctor claims, , Scaruffi, Piero (1999). "A time-line of World War II". Retrieved 2008-05-02.
- Daniel Barenblatt, A Plague upon Humanity, 2004, p.32.
- Worchester, G R G (1971). The Junks and Sampans of the Yangtze. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-87021-335-9. OCLC 216526.
- "鄞州城市介绍" (in Simplified Chinese). China Weather. Retrieved 2013-01-11.
- Ningbo Climate Studies (in Simplified Chinese). Weather Publishing House, China. 6 2001. ISBN 7-5029-3175-9.
- E China city defends chemical plant after protests
- Qingwei Yang; Zijun Feng; Jiaan Fang (3 2011). "Malignant tumor mortality and reduction of life span in Zhenhai District of Ningbo during 2007~2009". Chinese Rural Health Service Administration.
- Ningbo Foreign Affairs Office[dead link]
- Ningbo Foreign Trade & Economic Cooperation Bureau
- 大汉网络. "Ningbo Govt". English.ningbo.gov.cn. Retrieved 2011-03-29.
- Economic profile for Ningbo at HKTDC
- Chiang, Langi (2007-07-09). "Bridge to Shanghai should give Ningbo's economy a lift". International Herald Tribune (Paris: The New York Times Company). Retrieved 2008-05-02.
- "Ningbo Economic & Technological Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2011-03-29.
- "Ningbo National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2011-03-29.
- "Ningbo Free Trade Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2011-03-29.
- "Nordic Industrial Park". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2011-03-29.
- "China Briefing Developing Cities: Ningbo". China-briefing.com. Retrieved 2011-03-29.
- Jintang Bridge
- Libing Wang, Basic Education in China, Zhejiang University Press, 2009
- Prefeitura.Sp - Descentralized Cooperation[dead link]
- "International Relations - São Paulo City Hall - Official Sister Cities". Prefeitura.sp.gov.br. Retrieved 2011-03-29.
- "Ningbo in China: The city partnership between Nottingham and Ningbo in China is rapidly developing". Nottingham City Council. Retrieved 2010-11-26.
- "New statues are today's mane event". JS Online. 2008-07-21. Retrieved 2011-03-29.
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