Ningbo

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Ningbo
宁波市
Sub-provincial city
Clockwise from top: Ningbo's Skyline, Tianyi Square, Tianyi Chamber, Port of Ningbo, Hangzhou Bay Bridge, and Tianfeng Pagoda
Clockwise from top: Ningbo's Skyline, Tianyi Square, Tianyi Chamber, Port of Ningbo, Hangzhou Bay Bridge, and Tianfeng Pagoda
Ningbo City in Zhejiang
Ningbo City in Zhejiang
Ningbo is located in China
Ningbo
Ningbo
Location in China
Coordinates: 29°52′N 121°33′E / 29.867°N 121.550°E / 29.867; 121.550
Country People's Republic of China
Province Zhejiang
County-level divisions 11
Township divisions 148
Government
 • Type Type Sub-provincial city
 • CPC Ningbo Committee Secretary Liu Qi (刘奇)
 • Mayor Lu Ziyue (卢子跃)
Area
 • Sub-provincial city 9,816 km2 (3,790 sq mi)
Elevation 150 m (488 ft)
Population (2010 census)[1]
 • Sub-provincial city 7,605,689
 • Density 770/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
 • Urban 3,491,597
 • Metro 3,491,597
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 315000
Area code(s) 574
GDP 2011[1]
 - Total CNY 605.92 billion (USD 93.81 billion)
 - per capita CNY 79,523 (USD 12,312)
 - Growth Increase 8.6%
Website www.ningbo.gov.cn (Chinese)
City trees
Camphor Laurel Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb.)
City flowers
Camellia
Ningbo
Ningbo name.svg
"Ningbo", as written in Chinese
Simplified Chinese 宁波
Traditional Chinese 寧波
Wu nyingpo
Literal meaning tranquil waves

About this sound Ningbo  (Chinese: 宁波; pinyin: Níngbō; Ningbo dialect: About this sound Nyin-poh/Nyin-pou ), also formerly written Ningpo, is a seaport city in the northeast of Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. Holding sub-provincial administrative status and separate state-planning status,[2] as of the 2010 census, the municipality has a population of 7.6 million — with 3.5 residing within the 6-district urban area proper. Ningbo lies south of the Hangzhou Bay, which separates it from the municipalities of Jiaxing and Shanghai; to the east it faces the East China Sea; borders Shaoxing to the west; borders Taizhou to the south; and is separated from Zhoushan by a narrow body of water.

Etymology[edit]

The first character in the city's name, ning ( or ) means "serene", while its second character, bo () translates to "waves". The city is abbreviated Yǒng (), after the Yong Hill (甬山), a prominent coastal hill near the city, like the Yong River that flows through Ningbo. The abbreviation Ning is used more commonly for Nanjing.

It was once named Míngzhōu(明州). The character ming () was composed by two parts, representing two lakes inside the city wall, i.e., the Sun Lake (日湖) and the Moon Lake (月湖), but only Moon Lake remains.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Ningbo

Ningbo is one of China's oldest cities, with a history dating to the Hemudu culture in 4800 BC. Ningbo was known as a trade city on the silk road at least two thousand years ago, and then as a major port, along with Yangzhou and Guangzhou in the Tang Dynasty; thereafter, the major ports for foreign trade in the Song Dynasty.

Tang and Song dynasty[edit]

Tianfeng Tower, originally built in Tang Dynasty, is the symbol of old Ningbo.
A rock garden inside Tianyi Chamber

Since the Tang dynasty Ningbo was an important commercial port. Arab traders lived in Ningbo during the Song dynasty when it was known as Mingzhou, as the ocean-going trade passages took precedence over land trade during this time.[3][4] Another name for Mingzhou/Ningbo was Siming. It was a well known center of ocean-going commerce with the foreign world.[5] These merchants did not intermingle with native Chinese, practicing their own customs and religion and they inhabited ghettos. They did not try to proselytize Islam to Chinese.[6] Jews also lived in Ningbo, as evidenced by the fact that, after a major flood destroyed Torah scrolls in Kaifeng, a replacement was sent to the Kaifeng Jews by the Ningbo Jewish community.[7]

Ming Dynasty[edit]

The city of Ningbo was known in Europe for a long time under the name of Liampó. This is the usual spelling used e.g. in the standard Portuguese history, João de Barros's Décadas da Ásia, although Barros explained that Liampó was a Portuguese "corruption" of the more correct Nimpó.[8][9] The spelling Liampó is also attested in the Peregrination (Peregrinação) by Fernão Mendes Pinto, a (so-called) autobiography written in Portuguese during 16th century. For the mid-16th-century Portuguese, the nearby promontory, which they called the cape of Liampó, after the nearby "illustrious city" was the easternmost known point of the mainland Asia.[8] The Portuguese began trading in Ningbo around 1522. By 1542, the Portuguese had a sizable community in Ningbo (or, more likely, on nearby small islands). Portuguese activities from their Ningbo base included pillaging and attacking multiple Chinese port cities around Ningbo for plunder and spoil. They also enslaved people during their raids.[10] In 1542 the Portuguese settled here by permission and flourished, but their rapacity led to their expulsion in 1545. After the Portuguese obtaining a trade mission in Ningbo using coercion and bribe,[11] in retaliation, the Ming forces in 1545 exterminated the entire Portuguese community of Ningbo in the Ningbo Massacre (1542).[12] A force of 60,000 Chinese troops descended on the community, 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, and 25 Portuguese vessels and 42 junks were destroyed.[13]

Qing dynasty[edit]

Ningbo was one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened by the Treaty of Nanjing (signed in 1842) at the end of the First Opium War between Britain and China. During the war, British forces took possession of the walled city of Ningbo briefly after storming the fortified town of Zhenhai at the mouth of the Yong River on October 10, 1841. The British repulsed a Chinese attempt to retake the city in the Battle of Ningpo on March 10, 1842. In 1864, the forces of the Taiping Rebellion held the town for six months. In March 1885, during the Sino-French War, Admiral Courbet's naval squadron blockaded several Chinese warships in Zhenhai Bay and exchanged fire with the shore defences. Ningbo was also once famed for traditional Chinese furniture production.

During the Qing dynasty, western encyclopedias described Ningbo as a center of craftsmanship and industry.[14][15]

During the late Qing dynasty, in the 1800s, the Ningbo authorities contracted Cantonese pirates to exterminate and massacre Portuguese pirates who raided Cantonese shipping around Ningbo. The massacre was "successful", with 40 Portuguese dead and only 2 Chinese dead, being dubbed "The Ningpo Massacre" by an English correspondent, who noted that the Portuguese pirates had behaved savagely towards the Chinese, and that the Portuguese authorities at Macau should have reined in the pirates.

During late Qing era, Western missionaries set up a Presbyterian Church in Ningbo. Li Veng-eing was a Reverend of the Ningpo Church.[16] The Ningpo College was mangaged by Rev. Robert F. Fitch. The four trustees were natives of Ningbo, three of them had Taotai rank.[17] Rev. George Evans Moule, B. A. was appointed a missionary to China by the Church of England Missionary Society, and arrived at Ningpo with Mrs. Moule in February, 1858. He then commenced a mission station at Hang-chow, between which and Ningpo his time had been chiefly divided. He wrote Christian publications in the Ningbo dialect.[18]

Republican Era[edit]

During World War II in 1940, Japan bombed Ningbo with ceramic bombs full of fleas carrying the bubonic plague.[19] According to Daniel Barenblatt, Prince Tsuneyoshi Takeda received, with Prince Mikasa, a special screening by Shiro Ishii of a film showing imperial planes loading germ bombs for bubonic dissemination over Ningbo in 1940.[20]

"It has been said of the Ningbo fishermen that, 'no people in the world apparently made so great an advance in the art of fishing; and for centuries past no people have made so little further progress.'"[21]

Geography and climate[edit]

Yuehu Mosque of Ningbo.
The Cathedral of the Sacred Heart of Jesus was built between 1872-1876, was closed by the government in 1963, and was reopened and renamed in 1980. It was recognized as a national heritage site in 2006.

Ningbo ranges in latitude from 28° 51' to 30° 33' N and in longitude from 120° 55' to 122° 16' E, bounded on the east by the East China Sea and Zhoushan Archipelago, on the north by Hangzhou Bay, across which it faces Jiaxing and Shanghai, on the west by Shaoxing, and on the south by Taizhou. Its land area is 9,816 square kilometres (3,790 sq mi), while oceanic territory amounts to 9,758 km2 (3,768 sq mi); there is a total 1,562 km (971 mi) of coastline including 788 km (490 mi) of mainland coastline and 774 km (481 mi) of island coastline, together accounting for one-third of the entire provincial coastline. There are 531 islands accounting for 524 km2 (202 sq mi) under the city's administration.

The city proper of Ningbo is sandwiched between the ocean and low-lying mountains to the southwest, with coastal plain and valleys in between. Important peninsulas include the Chuanshan Peninsula (穿山半岛), located in Beilun District and containing mainland Zhejiang's easternmost point, and the Xiangshan Peninsula (象山半岛) in Xiangshan County. The Siming Mountains (四明山) run north from Mount Tiantai and within Ningbo City, traverse Yuyao City, Yinzhou District, and Fenghua City, reaching a height of 979 m (3,212 ft).

Ningbo has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four distinctive seasons, characterised by hot, humid summers and chilly, cloudy and drier winters (with occasional snow). The mean annual temperature is 16.53 °C (61.8 °F), with monthly daily averages ranging from 4.9 °C (40.8 °F) in January to 28.1 °C (82.6 °F) in July. The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1,440 millimetres (56.7 in) and is affected by the plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June, when average relative humidity also peaks. From August to October, Ningbo experiences the effects of typhoons, and is affected by an average 1.8 storms annually, though the city is not often struck directly by these systems.

Climate data for Ningbo (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.8
(47.8)
10.1
(50.2)
13.6
(56.5)
20.0
(68)
24.6
(76.3)
28.0
(82.4)
32.6
(90.7)
31.9
(89.4)
27.6
(81.7)
23.0
(73.4)
17.6
(63.7)
12.0
(53.6)
20.8
(69.5)
Average low °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
3.0
(37.4)
6.2
(43.2)
11.4
(52.5)
16.7
(62.1)
21.0
(69.8)
24.8
(76.6)
24.7
(76.5)
20.8
(69.4)
15.3
(59.5)
9.3
(48.7)
3.6
(38.5)
13.2
(55.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 66.8
(2.63)
75.3
(2.965)
127.8
(5.031)
115.3
(4.539)
130.5
(5.138)
204.7
(8.059)
176.9
(6.965)
165.9
(6.531)
174.8
(6.882)
89.4
(3.52)
66.4
(2.614)
49.3
(1.941)
1,443.1
(56.815)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12.6 12.3 16.9 15.3 14.7 16.4 13.1 14.5 14.1 10.3 8.9 8.5 157.6
 % humidity 76 78 80 81 82 86 83 83 83 80 77 75 80.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 123.7 108.4 121.7 142.4 156.7 147.8 243.8 238.0 171.5 166.5 143.4 146.1 1,910
Percent possible sunshine 38 35 33 37 37 35 57 58 46 47 45 46 42.8
Source #1: China Weather (temperatures, precipitation) [22]
Source #2: Ningbo Climate Studies (humidity, sunshine)[23]

Administrative Structure[edit]

The mayor of Ningbo is Liu Qi. Wang Huizhong is the secretary of CPC in Ningbo, who is first-in-charge of the city. The Communist Party Secretary is always the highest official in cities in China and overranks all other officials.

Ningbo Local Government Offices

  • Ningbo Foreign Affairs Office[24]
  • Ningbo Foreign Trade & Economic Cooperation Bureau[25]
  • Ningbo Govt.[26]

The sub-provincial city of Ningbo has direct jurisdiction over 6 districts (urban), 3 county-level cities and 2 Counties:

Map No Subdivision Simplified Chinese Pinyin Population (2010) Area (km2) Density
Ningbo mcp.jpg
City Proper
1 Haishu District 海曙区 Hǎishǔ Qū 373,742 29.38 12,720.96
2 Jiangdong District 江东区 Jiāngdōng Qū 366,648 33.75 10,863.64
Suburban
3 Jiangbei District 江北区 Jiangbei Qū 361,242 208.16 1,735.40
4 Beilun District 北仑区 Běilún Qū 612,267 599.03 1,022.09
5 Zhenhai District 镇海区 Zhènhǎi Qū 418,500 245.90 1,701.91
6 Yinzhou District 鄞州区 Yínzhōu Qū 1,359,198 1,345.54 1.010.15
Rural
10 Xiangshan County 象山县 Xiàngshān Xiàn 503,279 1,382.18 364.11
11 Ninghai County 宁海县 Nínghǎi Xiàn 646,074 1,843.26 350.50
Satellite cities (County-level cities)
7 Yuyao 余姚市 Yúyáo Shì 1,010,659 1,500.80 673.41
8 Cixi 慈溪市 Cíxī Shì 1,462,383 1,360.63 1,074.78
9 Fenghua 奉化市 Fènghuà Shì 491,697 1,267.60 387.89

Economy[edit]

The bustling downtown of Ningbo City with the nationwide famous shopping complex Tianyi Square, named after the Tianyi Ge (Chamber), the oldest private library in China.
Ningbo along rivers

Ningbo is an important port city located 220 kilometres (140 mi) south of Shanghai. The city's export industry dates back to the 7th century. Today Ningbo is a major exporter of electrical products, textiles, food, and industrial tools. The private economy of the city is especially well-developed, contributing 80 percent of total GDP in 2013.[27]

Historically Ningbo was geographically isolated from other major cities. In 2007 the Hangzhou Bay Bridge was built, cutting highway transit time between the two port cities to two and a half hours from four. The city now serves as the economic center for the southern Yangtze River Delta and has been ranked among the most competitive cities in China.[27]

In 2009, Ningbo's economic activity reached USD 60.8 billion, down 10.4% from 2008. The exports totaled USD 38.65 billion, down 16.6% from the previous year. In addition, Ningbo imported USD 22.16 billion of goods, up 3.1% from the previous year.[28]

Ningbo's economy grew 9.26 percent in 2013 to 712.89 billion yuan (US$115.12 billion).[27] In 2009, the city's per capita output was US$10,833, about three times the national average.[29]

Ningbo is famous for the Si Lan Nong Xiang flower. Used for dyeing cloth, 2008 exports were responsible for 3% of the Ningbo economic growth.

Foreign Investment[edit]

With several important development zones established in or around Ningbo, the city has received considerable foreign investment. To date over 60 domestic and foreign-invested financial institutions have established operations in the city, which has also attracted more than 10,000 foreigners. The municipal government offers preferential policies designed to encourage investment in international trade, new strategic industries, manufacturing, information services, and creative industries.[27]

Economic and Technological Development Zones[edit]

Ningbo Economic & Technological Development Zone[edit]

Located in the north-east of Ningbo, behind Beilun Port, NETD is 27 km (17 mi) away from the city center. With more than 20 years of great effort, NETD has already formed the general framework for large scale construction and development, and established perfect investment environment. It is situated close to the Ningbo Port and Ningbo Lishe International Airport. Major Investors include Exxon Mobile, Dupont and Dow Chemical.[30]

Ningbo Daxie Development Zone[edit]

The Ningbo Daxie Development Zone was approved in 1993 and covers an area of 5.92 km2 (2.29 sq mi). Over more than ten years of development and construction, industrial and logistical foundations have been established in the zone for the transshipment of energy, liquid chemicals and containers.[30]

Ningbo National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone[edit]

Ningbo National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in 1999 and was upgraded to a national level zone in January 2007. It is only 10 km (6.2 mi) away from Ningbo International Airport and 18 km (11 mi) away from Ningbo Port. The zone serves as the important technical innovation base of Yangtze River Delta. Industries encouraged include Chemicals Production and Processing, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Raw Material Processing, Research and Development.[31]

Ningbo Free Trade Zone[edit]

Ningbo Free Trade Zone is one of the 15 free trade zones authorized by the State Council of China, and is the only free trade zone in Zhejiang Province. It was established by State Council in 1992, covering the area of 2.3 km2 (0.89 sq mi). It lies in the middle of the coastline of Mainland China, at the south of Yangtze River Delta. In 2008, its industrial output value was RMB 53.33 billion and grew at 19.8% as compared to 2007.[32]

Nordic Industrial Park[edit]

The Nordic Industrial Park Co. Ltd. (NIP) is one of the first wholly foreign-owned industrial parks in China located in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province. NIP is managed and operated by a Scandinavian management team.[33]

Ningbo Port[edit]

Main article: Port of Ningbo

Ningbo is not just an ordinary city—it has the same authority as provincial governments for economic administration—and has a port second only to Shanghai around the world in terms of annual cargo throughput. Unlike Shanghai, the port is deepwater and capable of handling 300,000 tonne vessels. The port is located mainly in Beilun district and Zhenhai district. In 2006, Ningbo Port started its expansion to the neighbouring island City of Zhoushan for the purpose of building an even larger port with higher capacity to compete with neighbouring ports in the region, such as Shanghai's Yangshan Deep-Water Port. The statistics in 2010 showed that total cargo throughput was 627,000,000 tonnes and container throughput 13,144,000 TEUs. With bulk container breakdowns, hugely improved logistics, and massive chemical and foodstuff, processing developments, Ningbo could yet win the race with Shanghai as port of choice for servicing the Chinese east coast.[34]

Tourism[edit]

The Junjing Hall (尊经阁) located within the Tianyi Chamber
King Ashoka Temple.
The monument to victory in the Battle of Zhenhai (Sino-French War)
Statue of Dante in Ningbo

Notable people[edit]

Many well known Chinese came from Ningbo or their ancestral home was Ningbo.

People in mainland China
People in Hong Kong
People in Taiwan
People overseas

Transportation[edit]

Zhao bao shan Bridge, Zhenhai District, Ningbo
Ningbo New Railway Station was reopened in December 2013 after years of on-site restoration to accommodate high speed rails and increasing passengers.

Bridge[edit]

As there are three main rivers running through Ningbo, it is crucial to build bridges to improve the efficiency of transport network in Ningbo. The Ling Bridge which connects Haishu district and Jiangdong District is the earliest modern bridge built in Ningbo, designed by German engineers. Since the late 1980s, 16 bridges have been built on the three rivers. Currently another 27 bridges are under construction.

The Hangzhou Bay Bridge, a combination cable-stayed bridge and causeway across Hangzhou Bay, opened to the public on May 1, 2008. This bridge connects the municipalities of Shanghai and Ningbo, and is considered the longest trans-oceanic bridge in the world. It is the world's second-longest bridge, after the Lake Ponchartrain Causeway in Louisiana, United States.

The Jintang Bridge, linking Jintang Island of Zhoushan and the Zhenhai district, is a 27 km (17 mi) long, 4 lane sea crossing bridge which opened on December 26, 2009.

The Xiangshan Harbor Bridge opened to traffic on December 29, 2012, connecting Ningbo with Xiangshan. The 47 km-long project includes 22 km as the main body of the bridge plus an 8-km-long tunnel.[35]

Sea[edit]

The port of Ningbo is one of the world's busiest ports. It is ranked number 7 in Total Cargo Volume and number 6 in Total Container Traffic in 2011.[36]

Air[edit]

Ningbo Lishe International Airport connects Ningbo by air to the rest of China, with regularly scheduled domestic and international flights. In 2009, new air routes between Ningbo and Taiwan were opened. Jetstar Asia also launched a new air routes between Ningbo and Singapore which commenced in 2011 September. Tiger Air will also commence flying this route from 26 Dec 2013.

Railway[edit]

Three railway lines intersect in Ningbo: the Xiaoshan–Ningbo Railway (Xiaoyong Line), which runs west to Hangzhou, the Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou (Yongtaiwen) Railway, which runs south to Wenzhou, and the Hangzhou–Ningbo High-Speed Railway, which runs parallel to the Xiaoyong Line providing high-speed railway service.

With the booming economy in the region, the Xiaoyong Railway, a conventional railway built in the 1950s, cannot meet the demand for railway travel between Zhejiang's two largest cities, so construction of a new high-speed railway line between Hangzhou and Ningbo started in 2009. The new railway line is finished by 2013 and reduces travel time between Ningbo and Hangzhou to 50 minutes.

The Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway is a high-speed railway that opened in September 2009. It connects Ningbo with cities along the coast to the south to Fujian Province. High-speed trains on this line operate at speeds of up to 250 km/h (160 mph).

Ningbo re-opened the Ningbo Railway Station after three years of construction on December 28, 2013. With a construction area of more than 120,000 m2,[37] it is one of the largest railway stations in China.

Expressway[edit]

Seven expressways connect Ningbo with its surrounding cities:

  • The Hangyong expressway, built in the 1990s, connects Hangzhou and Ningbo, now part of Hangzhou Bay ring expressway (G9211).
  • The Yongtaiwen expressway (G15), opened in 2000, connects Ningbo with Taizhou and Wenzhou.
  • The Yongjin expressway (G1512) connects Ningbo and Jinhua.
  • The Huyong expressway (G15) connects Ningbo and Shanghai via the Hangzhou Bay bridge.
  • The Yongzhou expressway (G9211) via Jintang Bridge.[38]
  • The G1501 Ningbo Ring Expressway
  • The G15W2 Ningbo–Dongguan Expressway

Rapid transit[edit]

Main article: Ningbo Rail Transit
Line 1 train leaving Xujiacao Changle Station

Ningbo has one metro line in service consisting of Line 1, which is 20.9 kilometers in length and has 20 stations. More lines are under construction. Line 2 and an eastern extension of Line 1 are scheduled to be finished in the year 2015. Future plans are for 6 metro lines serving Ningbo.

Military[edit]

Ningbo is the headquarters of the East Sea Fleet of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy. Its responsibility includes projecting force in the region around the Republic of China (Taiwan), which the People's Republic of China views as a renegade province.

Food[edit]

Ningbo is known for Ningbo Tangyuan, small stuffed buns which are boiled. The stuffing is usually ground sesame mixed with sugar. It can also be mixed with pork. The stuffing is wrapped with sticky rice powder. Even more so, Ningbo is famous throughout China for its seafood. Seafood markets are abundant, carrying countless varieties of fish, crabs/lobsters/shrimp, shellfish, snails, jellyfish and other invertebrates, and sea vegetables in all stages of preparation from "still swimming," to cleaned and ready to cook, to fully cooked.

Education[edit]

Universities and colleges

Ningbo has four universities. Towards the north of the city is Ningbo University, while the Ningbo Higher Education Zone (Yinzhou district) is home to Zhejiang Wanli University as well as the University of Nottingham Ningbo, China – a joint venture between the University of Nottingham and the Wanli Education Group. The University of Nottingham (UK) agreed to invest an additional £27 million in the Ningbo campus during a visit in December, 2013.[39] UNNC graduated its first PhD students in 2013.[40] Affiliated to Zhejiang University, Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, which was ranked as the eleventh best of independent colleges in China in 2011,[41] is also located in this beautiful education zone.

Secondary and primary education

Compulsory education (basic education in Chinese terms) is from the age 6–15. Students are catered for in a variety of state and private schools. Studying for the gaokao (university entrance test) is optional.[42]

International Education

Several schools are permitted to operate educational programmes instead of the Chinese National curriculum and accept international students into their schools.

Access International Academy Ningbo (AIAN) offers a US curriculum with the College Board Advanced Placement examinations, Ningbo Zhicheng School International is an IB World School and offers an international curriculum through the IB Diploma Programme, Ningbo International School offers the South Australian Curriculum Standards and Accountability framework (SACSA) for the Toddler grades up to and including Grade 5 and provides accredited Cambridge International University programmes for Grades 6–12 inclusive. Huamao Multicultural Education Academy, is an IB World School and offers an international curriculum through the IB Primary Years Programme for students aged 3–12 and the IB Diploma Programme for students aged 16–19.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b 2009年宁波市经济社会发展情况 (in Chinese). Ningbo Municipal Statistic Bureau. 2010-01-26. Retrieved 2010-05-15. 
  2. ^ "中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号". 豆丁网. 1995-02-19. Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  3. ^ Piper Rae Gaubatz (1996). Beyond the Great Wall: urban form and transformation on the Chinese frontiers (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 210. ISBN 0-8047-2399-0. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  4. ^ Greville Stewart Parker Freeman-Grenville, Stuart C. Munro-Hay (2006). Islam: an illustrated history (illustrated, revised ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 228. ISBN 0-8264-1837-6. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  5. ^ Weichao Yu, Zhongguo li shi bo wu guan (1997). Weichao Yu, ed. A Journey Into China's Antiquity: Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, Northern and Southern Song Dynasties. Volume 3 of A Journey Into China's Antiquity (illustrated ed.). the University of Michigan: Morning Glory Publishers. p. 305. ISBN 7-5054-0507-1. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  6. ^ Tan Ta Sen, Dasheng Chen (2009). Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia (illustrated ed.). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 94. ISBN 981-230-837-7. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  7. ^ Xu Xin, The Jews of Kaifeng, Ktav Publishing House c 2003
  8. ^ a b João de Barros, Décadas da Ásia; 1st Decade, Book IX, Chapter VII. Lisbon, 1552 (e.g., pp. 336–337, in the 1988 reprint)
  9. ^ João de Barros, Décadas da Ásia, 3rd Decade, Book II, Chapter VII. Lisbon, 1563 (folio 44 in the original edition and the 1992 facsimile reprint)
  10. ^ Sergeĭ Leonidovich Tikhvinskiĭ (1983). Modern history of China. Progress Publishers. p. 57. Thereafter they made the factory near Ningbo their chief trading outlet. In the late 1540s, there were more than 3,000 people there, some 1,200 of them Portuguese. From this base the latter raided neighbouring coastal cities, pillaging and taking people into slavery. The Chinese authorities responded with armed expeditions against them and, finally, the Portuguese had to abandon the factory 
  11. ^ Alexandra Etheldred Grantham (1927). Hills of blue: a picture-roll of Chinese history from far beginnings to the death of Chʼien Lung, A, Part 1799. Methuen & co. ltd. p. 465. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  12. ^ Ernest S. Dodge (1976). Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia. Volume 7 of Europe and the World in Age of Expansion. U of Minnesota Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-8166-0853-9. Retrieved 18 October 2011. 
  13. ^ A.J. Johnson Company (1895). Charles Kendall Adams, ed. Johnson's universal cyclopedia: a new edition. Volume 6 of Johnson's Universal Cyclopædia. NEW YORK: D. Appleton, A.J. Johnson. p. 202. Retrieved 18 July 2011. Ningpo has long been an important center of trade. In 1522 the Portuguese settled here by permission and flourished, but their rapacity led to their"expulsion in 1542, when 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, and 25 Portuguese vessels and 42 junks were destroyed. The city was occupied by the British from Oct. 13, 1841, to May 7, 1842, and was cap"tured Dec. 9,1861, by the Taipings, who, however, were compelled by the foreign fleets then in the river to retire on May 10, 1862. It is an important center of missionary work. Pop. estimated (1893) 255,000. (Original from the University of California)
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  16. ^ Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. (1867). The Home and foreign record of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, Volume 18. PHILADELPHIA: PETER WALKER, AGENT, 821 CHESTNUT STREET: Presbyterian Board of Publication. p. 140. 
  17. ^ New-York observer, Volume 83. Morse, Hallock & Co. April 27, 1905. p. 533. 
  18. ^ Alexander Wylie (1867). Memorials of Protestant missionaries to the Chinese: giving a list of their publications, and obituary notices of the deceased. With copious indexes. SHANGHAE: American Presbyterian Mission Press. p. 247. 
  19. ^ Japan triggered bubonic plague outbreak, doctor claims
  20. ^ Daniel Barenblatt, A Plague upon Humanity, 2004, p.32.
  21. ^ Worchester, G R G (1971). The Junks and Sampans of the Yangtze. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-87021-335-9. OCLC 216526. 
  22. ^ 鄞州城市介绍 (in Chinese). China Weather. Retrieved 2013-01-11. 
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  25. ^ Ningbo Foreign Trade & Economic Cooperation Bureau
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  28. ^ Economic profile for Ningbo at HKTDC
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  30. ^ a b "Ningbo Economic & Technological Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 
  31. ^ "Ningbo National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 
  32. ^ "Ningbo Free Trade Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 
  33. ^ "Nordic Industrial Park". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 
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  35. ^ http://english.ningbo.gov.cn/art/2013/1/13/art_421_615600.html
  36. ^ http://www.aapa-ports.org/Industry/content.cfm?ItemNumber=900#Statistics
  37. ^ Straughan, David. "New Year, New Beginnings | New Railway Station Opens Its Doors". Ningbo Focus. Retrieved 29 January 2014. 
  38. ^ Jintang Bridge
  39. ^ Focus, Ningbo. "University of Nottingham invests GBP 27 million in UNNC campus". Ningbo Focus. 
  40. ^ Ntia, Obio. "An Interview with UNNC’s First PhD Graduate Zhou Tongyu". Ningbo Focus. Retrieved 29 January 2014. 
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  42. ^ Libing Wang, Basic Education in China, Zhejiang University Press, 2009

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 29°52′N 121°33′E / 29.867°N 121.550°E / 29.867; 121.550