|Regions with significant populations|
|Republic of Ghana : 15,000,000 [n1]|
|Republic of South Africa||2,000,000 [n1]|
|Federative Republic of Brazil||442,189 [n1]|
|People's Republic of China||200,000 [n1]|
|United Kingdom||93,000 [n1]|
|United States||91,322 [n1]|
|New Zealand||277 [n1]|
|Russian Federation||200 [n1]|
|English, Ghanaian English and other native languages.|
|^[n1] Ghanaian citizens or Ghanaian card nationals.|
The Ghanaian people are a nationality originating in the Ghanaian Gold Coast. Ghanaians are predominantly headquartered in the republic of Ghana, and they are the predominant cultural group and residents of Ghana. Ghanaians are predominant and proficient speakers of the English language, and they are also bilingual in kwa languages. Ethnic Ghanaians and citizens make up 60% of the total population. The word, "Ghana", means "Warrior King".
Worldwide, approximately 19 million people are of Ghanaian descent; of these, approximately 15 million are residents of the 4th Republic of Ghana. The term ethnic Ghanaian may also be used in some contexts to refer to a locus of ethnic groups native to the Gold Coast. The Ghanaian homeland, the Republic of Ghana; also "Ghanaland", is a natural resource, mineral resource and fossil fuel rich nation and is home to one of the world's largest gold bar and sweet crude oil reserves and they are the second major producers of cocoa in the world.
The Republic of Ghana is the biggest economical powerhouse on the west of Africa,  the fourth biggest economy on the African continent and one of the world's fastest growing economies. The Republic of Ghana is the biggest military powerhouse in West Africa and also a growing economic and military powerhouse in Africa.
- 1 Origin, ethnogenesis and history
- 2 Demography
- 3 National identity and citizenship
- 4 Indigenous peoples and native language
- 5 Nationalism, Independence and transformation to Republic
- 6 Population
- 7 Ghanaian Society and culture
- 8 Ghanaian National Border, Regions and Terrestrial plains
- 9 Gallery
- 10 Republic of Ghana Commander-in-chief (1957–present)
- 11 See also
- 12 References and notes
- 13 External links
Origin, ethnogenesis and history
|Part of a series on the|
|History of Ghana|
|Kingdom of Ashanti|
|Gold Coast region|
|United Gold Coast Convention|
The origin and ethnogenesis of the ancient ethnic Ghanaians is traced back to nomadic migration from Canaan and Nubia along the Sahara desert then south to the Gold Coast, and the Ghanaian ethnogenesis taking place on the Ghanaian Gold Coast region from the 10th century AD to the 16th century AD. The Ghanaians started a lucrative trade with Ghanaian gold bars and other Ghanaian natural minerals to the Portuguese in 1471 and then the Ghanaians became the wealthiest ethnic group and nation state on the African continent from the 17th century onwards following successful further expansion of lucrative Ghanaian gold bars trading to the Dutch, Prussian and Scandinavians from the 16th century through to the 20th century.
The Ghanaians established a number of powerful kingdoms from the 10th century AD to the 17th century and the Ghanaians became the dominant military power in the west of Africa. In 1902, the powerful Ghanaian kingdoms had all become a colony of Britain and their powerful kingdoms was renamed Gold Coast following a series of military warfare battles between the Ghanaians and the British. The Ghanaians gained their independence from Britain in 1957, and renamed their sovereign state; "Ghana (Warrior King)" due to the fact that pre-historic Republic of Ghana was ruled by warriors. The Republic of Ghana was the first sub-Saharan African country to become a sovereign state.
More than ninety percent of the Ghanaian citizens in Ghana live in urban areas – a figure higher than the world average. The rate of Ghana's population growth is slightly higher than the world average. Also, a large proportion of Ghana's population are young, largely because of recent decreases in the infant mortality rate. While 30 percent of Ghana's population are 14 years of age or younger, just 4 percent are aged 65 or older. 
National identity and citizenship
Ghana has a diverse population that reflects its colourful history and the peoples that have populated Ghana from ancient times to the present. The historic amalgam of the different main groups forms the basics of Ghana's current demographics and Ghanaian nationality: Africans, Asians, Middle Easterners, Europeans and other recent immigrants. In order to obtain Ghanaian nationality, one must be married to a Ghanaian citizen or be naturalized after seven years of Ghana Card permanent residency. The Asians; Middle Easterners; and Europeans who have lived in Ghana for most of their lives have acquired Ghanaian citizenship, which is granted without any discrimination. During the Gold Coast era, Ghanaian nationalism gained dominance through the Ghanaian Big Six independence movement and a number of Europeans intermarried with natives and had offsprings who became successful, such as Gold Coasters Carel Hendrik Bartels and James Bannerman. Most European settlers left Gold Coast after it won independence. Thus many Ghanaians are of European descent. Other immigrant populations in Ghana include Asians; Indians and Chinese; Middle Easterners; particularly Lebanese, and Syrians. About 81% of Ghanaian citizens are sub-saharan African, or of sub-saharan African and European ancestry, while 4% are of mixed African, European, and Asian ancestry. Another 8% are European ancestry and/or Middle Eastern ancestry, while 7% is of Asian ancestry. The city with the highest population in Ghana is Accra, it also serves as Ghana's capital city. The region with the highest population in Ghana is the Ashanti Region, which also contains the city with the second highest population in Ghana, Kumasi. Ghanaians predominantly speak the English and there are 9 recognized languages.
Indigenous peoples and native language
Before the British colonization of the Gold Coast region that become the country of Ghana, the territory was the home to ethnic Ghanaian indigenous peoples in their number of powerful kingdoms. Other than being dominant and proficient speakers of English and the Ghanaian dialect; Ghanaian English, the Republic of Ghana official language, the indigenous peoples of Ghana bilingually speak languages belonging to the New Kwa, Afro-Asiatic and Niger–Congo language families.
Nationalism, Independence and transformation to Republic
On June 12, 1949, Kwame Nkrumah, formed the first governing party in the history of the Ghanaian Gold Coast, which did not cooperate with the British and which led to the achievement of Ghanaian independence and the opposition to the 1951 Constitution, in which Nkrumah was incarcerated together with his collaborators.
On 8 February 1951, the first elections in the history of the Ghanaian Gold Coast were held, Nkrumah won, which was confirmed on 12 February 1951. Ghanaian nationalism was initiated in organisation with the Ghanaian nationlist movement, the Big Six and through the Ghanaian Aborigines' Rights Protection Society (ARPS); then due to the Ghanaian people strikes and mass riots formed on the streets of Ghana and by the Ghanaian people all over in the country, the British governor at the time, the Earl of Listowel, gave the Ghanaians their independence on 6 March 1957, Nkrumah became the first Ghanaian Prime Minister, but remained a British monarch as Governor general. On 1 July 1960, Nkrumah drew up the first Constitution of Ghana of the Ghanaian nation's history, and from that, the British monarch ceased to be head of state, and Ghana was transformed into a Republic.
Approximately 5% of Ghanaian citizens live in rural areas and 95% in urban areas. The rate of urbanization estimated for the period 2010–2015 is 4% per annum, one of the highest among developing countries. There is 4 million Ghanaians in the diaspora.
|Region (2012)||Region population||Area (km²)||City (2012)||City population||Administrative divisions of Ghana|
|Central Region||2,201,863||9,826||Cape Coast||217,032|
|Greater Accra Region||4,010,054||3,245||Accra||2,291,352|
|Upper East Region||1,046,545||8,842||Bolgatanga||66,68|
|Upper West Region||702,110||18,476||Wa||102,446|
Ghanaian Society and culture
|Part of a series on the|
Ghanaian and Ghana's culture has been practiced by Ghanaians since foundation of the ancient kingdoms of pre-historic Ghana. Ghana's and Ghanaian cultural diversity is most evident in cuisine, arts, literature, heritage, music, dance, football, and clothing.
The Ghanaian Kente national costume is very important in Ghanaian culture. The textile cloths are used to make the Ghanaian traditional and modern attire. Different symbols and different colours mean different things. Kente is an Ghanaian ceremonial cloth hand-woven on a horizontal treadle loom. Strips measuring about 4 inches wide are sewn together into larger pieces of cloths. Cloths come in various colours, sizes and designs and are worn during very important social occasions. In a cultural context, kente is more important than just a cloth. It is a visual representation of Ghanaian history and also a form of written language through weaving. The term kente means a basket. The first kente weavers used raffia fibres to weave cloths that looked like a basket; and thus were referred to as basket cloth. The original Ghanaian name of the cloth had a meaning "a cloth hand-woven on a loom"; however, "kente" is the most frequently used term today. The Ghanaian kente clothing is also popular among the African diaspora and worldwide.
Adinkra and literature
During the 13th century, Ghanaians developed their unique art of adinkra printing. Hand-printed and hand-embroidered adinkra clothes were made and used exclusively by the then Ghanaian royalty for devotional ceremonies. Each of the motifs that make up the corpus of adinkra symbolism has a name and meaning derived from a proverb, a historical event, human attitude, ethology, plant life-form, or shapes of inanimate and man-made objects. These are graphically rendered in stylized geometric shapes. The meanings of the motifs may be categorized into aesthetics, ethics, human relations, and concepts.
The most prominent Ghanaian authors are novelists; Ayi Kwei Armah and J. E. Casely Hayford, who have reached international success thanks to their most famous works, which are The Beautiful Unborn and Osiris Rising, respectively. In addition to the novels, other literature arts such as Ghanaian theatre and Ghanaian poetry have also had a very good development at the Ghanaian national level.
The Ghanaian music incorporates several distinct types of musical instruments such as the talking drum ensembles, the Ghanaian atenteben and koloko lute, court music, including the atumpan, and log xylophones used in asonko music. The most well-known genre to come from Ghana is highlife. Highlife originated in the late 19th century and early 20th century. In the 1990s, a new genre of music, Ghanaian hiplife, was created through the combination of highlife, Afro-reggae, dancehall and hiphop. Hiplife is the most popular Ghanaian music, followed by the other genre of Ghanaian music, highlife.
Ghanaian dance is globally well known and performed worldwide. The dances are varried and may involve complex and co-ordinated movement of the arms, torso, hips, feet and head. They are performed to the different Ghanaian music forms for celebrating, entertainment and other occasions.
Ghanaian Architecture and Museums
There are two types of Ghanaian traditional construction; The series of adjacent buildings in an enclosure around a common are common and the traditional round huts with grass roof. The round huts with grass roof architecture are in the Ghanaian northern regions, while the series of adjacent buildings are in the Ghanaian southern regions. Ghanaian postmodern architecture and high-tech architecture buildings are predominant in the Ghanaian southern regions, while the Ghanaian heritage sites are most evident by the more than thirty forts and castles built in Ghana. Some of these forts are Fort William and Fort Amsterdam. Ghana has museums that are situated inside castles, and two are situated inside a fort. The Military Museum and the National Museum organise temporary exhibitions. Ghana has museums that show a in-depth look at specific Ghanaian regions, there are a number of museums that provide insight into the traditions and history of their own geographical area in Ghana. The Cape Coast Castle Museum and St. Georges Castle (Elmina Castle) Museum offer guided tours. The Museum of Science and Technology provides its visitors with a look into the domain of Ghanaian scientific development, through exhibits of objects of scientific and technological interest.
Ghanaian cuisine is diverse, and includes an assortment of soups and stews with varied starchy foods. Most Ghanaian soups are prepared with vegetables, meat, poultry or fish. Fish is important in the Ghanaian diet with tilapia, fried whitebait, smoked fish and crayfish all being common components of Ghanaian dishes.
Banku (or dokonu) is a popular Ghanaian starchy food made from ground corn (maize), like sadza and ugali. The cornmeal based staples, banku and dokonu are usually accompanied by some form of fried fish (chinam) or grilled tilapia and a very spicy condiment made from raw red and green chillies, onions and tomatoes (pepper sauce). Dokonu and tilapia is a combo served in most Ghanaian restaurants.
Ghanaians most popular sport is football. There are several big club professional football teams of Ghana, such as Kumasi Asante Kotoko, Brong Ahafo Stars, Berekum Chelsea, Berekum Arsenal, Ashanti Gold SC, Sekondi Wise Fighters, Sekondi Hasaacas, FC Takoradi, Tarkwa Medeama, Aduana Stars, King Faisal, New Edubiase United, Cape Coast Ebusua Dwarfs, Sunyani Bofoakwa Tano, Bechem United, Gamba All Blacks FC, Okwawu United, Koforidua Power FC and Wassaman United, are all currently playing in the Ghana Premier League and the Ghana Poly Tank Division One League.
- Ghanaian Football managers
Notable Ghanaian football managers are: Charles Gyamfi who is remarkable for being the first African player to play in Germany, when he joined Fortuna Düsseldorf in 1960, and after retiring as a football player, Gyamfi became a football manager, and his career highlights include winning the African Cup of Nations three times, making Gyamfi the most successful football manager in African Cup of Nations history. The other legendary Ghanaian football manager is Fred Osam-Duodu who also won the African Cup of Nations, the notable Ghanaian football managers of the 21st century are: James Kwesi Appiah and Maxwell Konadu.
- Ghanaian Football players
Ghana has many internationally known football players, such as: Arthur Wharton is widely considered to be the first black professional association football player in the world, Abedi Pele and Tony Yeboah are considered one of the most prominent footballers and prolific goal scorers in African football history, Samuel Kuffour represented Bayern Munich for over a decade and won a total of 17 major titles, Michael Essien is a UEFA Champions League winner, Stephen Appiah, John Mensah, John Paintsil, and Richard Kingson.
As in regard to the Ghanaian national football team, the new generation of Ghanaian football players in the 2000s and 2010s include: Michael Kojo Essien (Real Madrid and Chelsea), Asamoah Gyan, Kwadwo Asamoah (Juventus), Richmond Boakye (Juventus), Sulley Muntari (AC Milan), Kevin-Prince Boateng (AC Milan), Wakaso (Espanyol), Abdul Majeed Waris (Spartak Moscow), Asamoah Gyan, Emmanuel Agyemang-Badu (Udinese Calcio), Anthony Annan (Schalke 04), André Ayew (Olympique de Marseille), Jordan Ayew (Olympique de Marseille), Quincy Owusu-Abeyie, Jonathan Mensah, Harrison Afful, and Daniel Opare.
Ghanaian National Border, Regions and Terrestrial plains
|National Border, Region and Terrestrial plain of the 4th Republic of Ghana|
|Accra||National capital and largest city.|
|Bolgatanga||Ghana's gateway to Burkina Faso.|
|Cape Coast||Cape Coast castle is a UNESCO World Heritage site.|
|Elmina||Coastal town with a quite harrowing fort.|
|Koforidua||Aburi Botanical Gardens location.|
|Kumasi||Traditional centre of the Ashanti Kingdom and Ghana's second largest city.|
|Obuasi||The World's 10th largest Gold Mine location; and Mining town.|
|Sekondi-Takoradi||Ghana's sweet crude oil fieds and location of Beaches and UNESCO World Heritage sites.|
|Tamale||Largest city in the north of Ghana and gateway to Mole National Park.|
|Ghanaian Artists and Academics|
Republic of Ghana Commander-in-chief (1957–present)
In 1966, Nkrumah was withdrawn and impeached which, from then on, the Republic of Ghana entered a period of military regime and political changes, which ended on 31 December 1981, led by the regime of Field marshal and Marshal of the Air force of the Air force, under the command of Flight lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings. After succession to power, Rawlings ordered the introduction of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana, and party system which incorporated the Government of Ghana. In 1992, Rawlings emerged as Ghanaian head of state and Chief of the Defence Staff.
In 2002, John Agyekum Kufuor succeeded Rawlings as Ghanaian head of state until the year 2008. Kufuor was replaced as Ghanaian head of state by John Atta Mills until the year 2012. In 2013, John Dramani Mahama succeeded Mills as the Republic of Ghana Commander-in-chief and President of Ghana.
References and notes
- "Ghana – 2010 Population and Housing Census". Government of Ghana. 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- New money transfer facility for Ghanaians in SA, Bizcommunity.com, retrieved 10 July 2013
- See: Coromantee. Edwards, Alesia, "Trekking for 'Tacky'", jamaicaobserver.com (The Jamaica Observer), retrieved 23 July 2012
- Hirsch, Afua (2013), Ghana opens its arms to diaspora in Brazil and beyond, The Guardian, retrieved 31 January 2013
- See: Chinese people in Ghana. 200,000 Ghanaians visited China last year – Ambassador, modernghana.com, retrieved 26 June 2012
- See: Ghanaians in the United Kingdom – The United Kingdoms's Office for National Statistics (ONS) reported in 2009 that 93,000 Britons were citizens or nationals of Ghana. Office for National Statistics (September 2009), "Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth (Table 1.3)", 2009 United Kingdom Census (census.gov), retrieved 21 June 2012
- See: Ghanaian American – The United States's United States Census Bureau reported in 2010 that 91,322 Americans were citizens or nationals of Ghana. United States Census Bureau (2010). "US Census Bureau, 2010, Ghanaian-American; Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". 2010 United States Census. census.gov. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- See: Ghanaian people in Italy – The Italy's National Institute of Statistics (Italy) reported in 2010 that 46,980 Italians were citizens or nationals of Ghana. National Institute of Statistics (Italy) (2010), "National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT)", 2010 Italy Census (istat.it), retrieved 21 June 2012
- Micah Bump (2006), "Ghana: Searching for Opportunities at Home and Abroad", Institute for the Study of International Migration, Georgetown University (migrationinformation.org), retrieved 21 June 2012
- "Comuni Italiani". Comuni. 11 January 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012. (Italian)
- Statistics Netherlands reported in 2003 that 40,000 Dutch people were citizens or nationals of Ghana. See:
Statistics Netherlands (2003), "Bevolking, publicaties en artikelen", Netherlands 2003 Census (cbs.nl), retrieved 21 June 2012
- Statistics Canada reported in 2006 that 23,225 Canadians were citizens or nationals of Ghana. See:
Statistics Canada (2006), "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories", Canada 2006 Census (statcan.ca), retrieved 21 June 2012
- See: Immigration to Spain. "Datos – Instituto Nacional de Estadística. (National Statistics)", Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain), 2007, retrieved 21 June 2012 (Spanish)
- Hayeon Lee, African men in Lebanon, nowlebanon.com, retrieved 26 June 2012
- See: Ghanaians in France. "Raveil de l'ethnicit", hal.archives-ouvertes.fr (Hyper Articles en Ligne), retrieved 21 June 2013 (French)
- The Australian Bureau of Statistics reported in 2006 that 2,770 Australians were citizens or nationals of Ghana. See:
Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2007), "Community Information Summary – Ghana-born", 2006 Australian Census (immi.gov.au), retrieved 21 June 2012
- Ghana Broadcasting Corporation (GBC), President Mills set to achieve Better Ghana Agenda, gbcghana.com, retrieved 26 June 2012
- No Ghanaian has perished in Japan-Ghana Embassy in Japan, citifmonline.com, retrieved 26 June 2012
- Statistics Norway (SSB) (1 January 2010), "Statistics Norway – Persons with immigrant background by immigration category and country background", 2010 Norwegian Census (ssb.no), retrieved 26 June 2012
- Ghana News Agency (GNA) (23 October 2011), Ghana Signs MOU to train 250 medical personnel in Cuba-Veep, ghananewsagency.org, retrieved 26 June 2012
-  Immigration and Ethnicity in the Auckland region. stats.govt.nz. Statistics New Zealand. 27 December 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- Govt Ghanaian in Russia. peacefmonline. 6 December 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- See also the article entitled Religion in Ghana.
- "History of Ghana", african-adventures.co.uk, retrieved 27 April 2013
- "The Ghanaian people", niica.on.ca, retrieved 27 April 2013
- Dave Brown. "Top 10 Gold Producers". Gold Investing News. Retrieved 27 April 2013., "World Cocoa - WorldCrops.com". WorldCrops. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "New fuel for faster development". worldfolio.co.uk. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "Five Countries to Watch". individual.troweprice.com. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- Cohen, Robin (1995). The Cambridge Survey of World Migration. Cambridge University Press. p. 197. ISBN 052-1-4440-55. Wickens, Gerald E; Lowe, Pat (2008). The Baobabs: Pachycauls of Africa, Madagascar and Australia. Springer Science+Business Media. 2008. p. 360. ISBN 978-1-4020-6431-9.
- Chronology of world history: a calendar of principal events from 3000 BC to AD 1973, Part 1973.
- "Etymology of Ghana". Douglas Harper. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- Video: A New Nation. Gold Coast becomes Ghana In Ceremony, 1957/03/07 (1957). Universal Newsreel. 1957. Retrieved 27 April 2013., "First For Sub-Saharan Africa". BBC. Retrieved 27 April 2013., "Exploring Africa". exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- Acting Director of the Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) Population Division (Dr. Philomena Nyarko) (2012). 2012 Population Census Results Out. 1 June 2012. Ghana Government. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- UNHCR 2001
- "Regions in Ghana", ghanahighcommissionuk.com, retrieved 26 June 2012
- "Nationalism and Independence". Ghana50. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "Nationalism and Independence Parte 2". Ghana50. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "History of Ghana". Ghana50. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "Post-Independence Ghana". Ghana50. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- World Bank (2012). "Government of Ghana partners with Cities Alliance to host Special Forum on rapid urbanization in Ghana". Worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 2012-06-30.
- "Jamaica National launches new Ghana money transfer brand". jamaicaobserver.com. 16 September 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
- "World Gazetteer online". World-gazetteer.com. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- "Man Ray, African art, and the modernist lens", Wendy Grossman, Martha Ann Bari, Letty Bonnell, International Arts & Artists, 2009 – Photography, 183 pp.
- A Treasury of African Folklore: the oral literature, traditions, myths, legends, epics, tales, recollections, wisdom, sayings, and humor of Africa, Crown Publishers, 1975, 617 pp.
- "Ghana". Amadeus (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Harvard University. Gérard. 1990.p:81
- "Influential Drummer Who Emphasised the African Origins of Jazz". allafrica.com. 12 February 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
- Kwasi Ampene. Female Song Tradition. Google Books''. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- HKW. "Ghana Hiplife" (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- "Ghanaian Highlife Music". National Geographic. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- "Ghanaian Dance" (PDF). Temple University. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- "Culture, Art and Architecture: Ghana". Countriesquest. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- "Ghana Museums and Monuments Board". Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- Oumou Bah (22 October 2011). "Ghanaian cuisine, dokonu, banku, okra and soup". kadirecipes.com. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
- Kofi Nsiah & Sabrina Schmidt. "50 years of the Ghanaian National Football Team – The German Connection". Retrieved 2007-12-05.
- Farayi Mungazi (2008-01-13). "Ghanaian Legend laments money culture". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-01-13.
- "Osam leads Ghana to play Europe". 2007-01-15. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
- "Notes: Country Republic of Ghana". Embassy of Spain in Accra (in Spanish). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and cooperation. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
- MPs called to Parliament as CJ prepares to swear in John Mahama as president. edition.myjoyonline.com.
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