# Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/April 2005 - Suspected Duplicates

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The Reference desk suffered from some article duplication. This page represents what are thought to be duplicates of questions now in the archive or still on the main page. However some data in this section may not be duplicated. If anyone has the energy to merge these with their counterparts in the archive, then please go ahead.

## My PC has been hijacked

I went to a website that immediately started loading all kinds of programs onto my PC. I've managed to turn off all of the junk that it was running, and I've run all kinds of spybot removers, and I downloaded HijackThis, and I was able to get rid of something called "Intelligent Explorer", which installed an extra toolbar on my PC. But Intelligent Explorer keeps reintalling itself, and I keep getting popup windows from someting that must have embedded itself into my registry. I see lots of things when HijackThis runs that it questions, but I'm afraid to delete any of that stuff. I keep using it to delete Intelligent Explorer, but it won't stay away.

Any help?

RickK 07:22, Mar 24, 2005 (UTC)

Intelligent explorer is one of the nastier ones to remove. I googled around and found this, if it helps you. →Raul654 07:37, Mar 24, 2005 (UTC)
I think it got worse. Thanks, Mark. I went to the link you provided, and the link they wanted you to go to to get Spybot S&D doesn't work, but I did find one and re-installed Spybot, which I already had. But in the process of dowloading that, all kinds of other stuff got downloaded, including some sort of games page. I've just spent half an hour clearing all of that out, but something keeps showing up in my running jobs called Bargains and NIs. I keep deleting the crap out of my running jobs and it keeps reestablishing itself. I've run three different spy program detection programs now. Sigh. RickK 08:23, Mar 24, 2005 (UTC)
I don't know if this will help, but downloading and running the free Ad-aware Personal is probably a good idea. Worth a shot, anyway. Good luck --Neutralitytalk 08:27, Mar 24, 2005 (UTC)
Looks like my best cleanup was from the AOL spyware protector. It caught 11 spyware programs and I was able to get rid of them, especially the most egregious one, BargainsBuddy. I'm still getting popups, sigh, but there doesn't seem to be anything running, so I don't know where it's coming from. I've run AOL spyware protector, Spybot Search and Destroy, and HijackThis. All because of that one stoopid page I went to.  :( RickK 09:09, Mar 24, 2005 (UTC)
To avoid further problems, don't run Internet Explorer unless you absolutely have to for specific web sites. When you do run IE, disable ActiveX controls. Make sure you install a firewall and antivirus program - http://www.grisoft.com makes a decent free antivirus for personal use. Disclaimer: I work for a different anti-virus manufacturer, and haven't tried Grisoft myself. You may already need to reinstall Windows if you can't get rid of the existing malware.-gadfium 09:49, 24 Mar 2005 (UTC)
AOL virus protection was SUPPOSEDLY running. I had turned off my McAfee, which I pay for, because AOL supposedly bundled virus protection in with the latest version of their software, but it didn't do a bit of good against that page. And Intelligent Explorer just RE-installed itself on my PC again. I turned on popup control (again via AOL) but it doesn't seem to be working. I'm very actively deleting popups as soon as they show up, but that's probably not going to solve the problem. RickK 10:04, Mar 24, 2005 (UTC)
You might want to disconnect your PC from the Internet whilst you try to disinfect it. Many malware programs connect back to base in order to upload new infectors: by disconnecting, you will at least stop the rate of re-infection exceeding your rate of disinfection. Needless to say, you should never use IE or any IE-derived browser for web browsing: in my opinion Firefox 1.0.2 (latest version, available last night) looks like the best choice for secure browsing. -- The Anome 10:11, Mar 24, 2005 (UTC)
The potent cocktail of Firefox, Ad-Aware, HijackThis, AVG Antivirus and ZoneAlarm, all good and all free, should keep your computer pretty clean. I would definately avoid using IE if you still have malware that hasn't been cleaned out. — Asbestos | Talk 11:16, 24 Mar 2005 (UTC)
By the way, you were noting that you were worried about which files to delete after the HijackThis scan. If you run a search, you'll find several forums where people post their logs and others comb through it to find out which programs are malware. You can either post your own or look for similar programs in other people's. One such forum is here (www.security-forums.com); I can't remember what forum I went to the last time I used HT. — Asbestos | Talk 12:32, 24 Mar 2005 (UTC)

Please do tell us, what site did you visit? I'd like to stay away from it. Mgm|(talk) 12:54, Mar 24, 2005 (UTC)

If you do that, please don't just paste the URL. Someone might inadvertantly click on it, or a web crawler might head to a very undesirable place. -- Jmabel | Talk 19:30, Mar 24, 2005 (UTC)

OK, between running Microsft Add/Delete programs, AOL sypware protection, HijackThis, Spybot S&D and ad-aware, I *think* (knock on wood) that I've got it all cleaned up. The site I went to was www.allthelyrics.com/lyrics/postal_service_the/ give_up/such_great_heights-211502-lyric/ - I was looking for some song lyrics. RickK 21:36, Mar 24, 2005 (UTC)

After looking at that with the invulnerable Lynx and seeing nothing particularly suspicious, I loaded it up with Firefox and nothing happened. I then did the same with Internet Explorer, which asked me if I wanted to run ActiveX controls, to which I of course answered NO!
Do this now: choose Tools -> Internet Options..., go to Security, click "Custom Level", and set everything under "ActiveX controls and plugins" to "Disable". ActiveX controls are plain executable code with no security restrictions whatsoever; running them is tantamount to playing Russian roulette.
Of course, an even better option is to just install Mozilla Firefox, which solves a whole lot of other problems as well. JRM 12:10, 2005 Mar 26 (UTC)
Thanks, JRM, I changed my IE settings. I actually have already downloaded Firefox, I just haven't been using it. I may start now. RickK 22:32, Mar 26, 2005 (UTC)
How do I import my IE favorites into Firefox? RickK 22:34, Mar 26, 2005 (UTC)
File, import, yadayada -- John Fader (talk | contribs) 22:39, 26 Mar 2005 (UTC)
Thanks, John. RickK 23:03, Mar 26, 2005 (UTC)
Sheesh, what a life, get a Mac. :-) --Bishonen|talk 11:40, 14 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Apart from AVG Anti-Virus, I also reccomend Kerio, a very easy to use firewall that detects all applications running on your computer especially those that need the internet. Gray 21:03, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## famicom games to use on Super Joy 3

Hi, i'm looking for famicom games to use on my Super Joy 3. User:4.166.195.13

Moved from List of Famicom and NES accessories by akaDruid 15:28, 24 Mar 2005 (UTC)

## Bud Shuster's real name

When I rewrote the article, I could not find anything besides the initials E.G. for him. None of the usual sources, e.g. Bioguide, Congressional Directory, Almanac of American Politics, The New York Times, had the answer. So what is Bud Shuster's real name? PedanticallySpeaking 19:46, Mar 24, 2005 (UTC)

You certainly did your research (though citing sources is also good :). Since all that failed, you might try to contact his son, Congressperson William Shuster. 68.81.231.127 06:01, 25 Mar 2005 (UTC)
Well, this page says his name was Elmer Greinert Shuster, and this one and a few others agree. But it seems to be very rarely used. (I found it simply by guessing what E could stand for — Edward, Eric, Edmund...) -- Vardion 05:39, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Bizarre hypothetical question about American free speech laws

Under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution could I (pretending for the purposes of the question that I'm a U.S. citizen) hold a rally that called for the execution of George Bush. Of course, actually trying to hire an assassin would probably and understandably land me in jail, but let's say I make a public speech in which I call for a law or a constitutional amendment that would allow Congress to order the execution of the president by a simple majority, and I state that once the necessary arrangements are in place I would like this to be carried out. Am I legally protected or would this be seen as going too far? (Secret Service personnel scanning the Wikipedia reference desk for threats to national security should note that while I am no great fan of Dubya, I don't actually intend to kill him, I am just interested in how freedom of speech protections differ from country to country.) — Trilobite (Talk) 05:43, 27 Mar 2005 (UTC)

• Seems to me that subjunctive threats are probably protected speech... --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 06:02, 27 Mar 2005 (UTC)
• I think the net result would be you having an uncomfortable conversation with a pair of men in dark suits and getting your own file folder in Washington, DC. -- Cyrius| 06:06, 27 Mar 2005 (UTC)

First, I am not a lawyer. With that said, in the US, different kinds of speech are afforded different protection under the law. Political speech is the most highly protected. Some kinds of speech are deemed dangerous (such as insightment to riot). The SCOTUS considered these matters in Schenck v. United States:

"Words which, ordinarily and in many places, would be within the freedom of speech protected by the First Amendment may become subject to prohibition when of such a nature and used in such circumstances as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils which Congress has a right to prevent. The character of every act depends upon the circumstances in which it is done."'
This case is also the source of the saying "You can't shout fire in a crowded theater", a paraphase of Holmes' view that "The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic." →Raul654 06:08, Mar 27, 2005 (UTC)
• It would probably be permissible; you wouldn't wind up in jail. However, you probably would end up getting watched and perhaps interviewed by the FBI/Secret Service. Neutralitytalk 07:07, Mar 27, 2005 (UTC)
Great, thanks for your replies. The reason I asked is that a couple of years ago when Betty Windsor celebrated her Golden Jubilee a lot of towns and villages put on street parties, and someone held an "Execute the Queen" street party in the time-honoured fashion of the anarchists from Class War. They didn't actually incite anyone to murder her, just said she should be killed. Some of the organisers got arrested on public order grounds (not notifying the police so they could close the roads in advance etc) but were never charged with anything as I recall. There was some minor talk about restriction of freedom of speech as a result of the affair, although the whole thing was taken more as a 'funny story' at the end of the news than as a serious threat either to the queen's safety or people's rights of free speech. I may be remembering this wrong but that's my recollection of it. Of course, it would only be possible to make a proper comparison with the hypothetical American example I gave if it had been the the Prime Minister they had been trying to execute, but you get the idea. I suspect the consequences would be similar on both sides of the Atlantic: not totally illegal but liable to get you some unwanted attention from the powers that be. — Trilobite (Talk) 06:19, 28 Mar 2005 (UTC)
With the usual legal disclaimers, I think that calling for the execution of the monarch in the UK is one of the things that is almost certainly illegal - if nothing else, you're hard pressed to justify it as a rational political stance... OTOH, it's rarely in anyone's interests to have a prosecution over this sort of thing. Shimgray 17:59, 28 Mar 2005 (UTC)
I suspect the other thing you would have to do is step very carefully around the laws about incitement to commit a crime. My guess is that your British anarchist group weren't charged because it was clear that they weren't expecting to be taken seriously, or that the police thought charging them would give them a legitimacy they didn't really have. In calling for the killing of GWB I would expect you would have to make it very, very clear that you were in no way encouraging anyone to actually do the thing that you were 'calling for', if you wanted to escape prosecution. My guess is also that given the number of recent actual assasination attempts on US presidents compared with those on British Royalty, the US authorities might be more inclined to take you seriously. In short, my advice would be not to do it! DJ Clayworth 18:13, 28 Mar 2005 (UTC)
• In Britain, not only can you be jailed for making threats to the Queen's life, you can be jailed for imagining kiling her or even calling for the country to become a republic. So says the Treason Felony Act 1848, which The Guardian unsuccessfully went to court to try to overturn (see the story here). I believe that a peaceful call such as you describe should be protected and there are precedents to support that. Witness the court rulings that mere membership in the Communist party could not be criminalized or that the State Department's passport chief Ruth Shipley (a Foggy Bottom J. Edgar) couldn't just deny people, e.g. Paul Robeson, passports because of their opinions. But we also have the precedents, e.g. Matthew Lyon et alia, who were jailed under the Sedition Act for mere criticism of John Adams. Or in World War I, a man who made a film about the American Revolutionary War that depicted the British as beastly was jailed as the Brits were then our allies. (Look out Mel Gibson!) Similiarly, the terrorism laws (including those passed before the so-called "Patriot" Act) are so broad they run counter to the 1950's era precedents. Considering how this administration has jailed people who dare heckle even the President's wife, I think advocating this line of argument is asking for a visit from the Feds--or worse. PedanticallySpeaking 19:26, Mar 28, 2005 (UTC)
Bear in mind that whilst precedent in the UK would almost certainly rule in favour of someone campaigning for a republic by any normal means - otherwise half of every Liberal conference these days is on risky grounds - "kill the monarch" is by no means automatically covered by this; you're going to find it hard to defend this on political-free-speech grounds, since there isn't really a sensible ground to campaign for the death over and above the deposition. I should clarify that AIUI agitating for the death of anyone under British law is likely to be considered illegal, since it's an implicit incitement; it's just that HM is covered explicitly.
With regards to 1848 ch.12, the Treason Felony Act, I quote from one of the judges in the case...
... it is still the role of the legislature, rather than that of the courts, to decide whether to repeal or retain legislation. Sections 3 and 4 of the Human Rights Act 1998 are intended to promote and protect human rights in a practical way, not to be an instrument by which the courts can chivvy Parliament into spring-cleaning the statute book, perhaps to the detriment of more important legislation. Such a spring-cleaning process might have some symbolic significance but I can see no other practical purpose which this litigation would achieve.
- ie, the law is there, it's not the place of the Attorney General to state that he intends to disregard the law, and if Parliament want it fixed they can do it themselves. Which is a standpoint I can agree with, I think. Another appropriate comment:
My Lords, I do not believe a word of it. It is plain as a pikestaff to the claimants and everyone else that no one who advocates the peaceful abolition of the monarchy and its replacement by a republican form of government is at any risk of prosecution. Whatever may be the correct construction of s.3, taken by itself, it is clear beyond any peradventure first, that the section would now be 'read down' as required by s.3 of the 1998 [Human Rights] Act so that the advocacy contemplated by the respondents could not constitute a criminal offence, and second, that no Attorney General or Director of Public Prosecutions would or could authorise a prosecution for such advocacy without becoming a laughing stock. To do so would plainly be an unlawful act under s.6(1) of the 1998 Act.
I think that sums up the current legal situation in the UK on the issue... Shimgray 20:16, 28 Mar 2005 (UTC)
I'm not a lawyer, but my answer would be that it would depend on the nature of your statement. US Law 18 USC 871 makes it a crime to make a true threat to kill or injury the President. The law requires that the you understood and intended your statement to be a threat, that you uttered them knowingly and willfully. Something said as political rhetoric, or in a joking manner would probably not be illegal. See LectLaw article on 18 USC 871. Kenj0418 05:39, Apr 2, 2005 (UTC)

## Modern-day Leprechauns.

Uh . . . this? --CVaneg 16:11, 27 Mar 2005 (UTC)

• I'm not sure what you're asking about. Joyous 19:08, Mar 27, 2005 (UTC)
• I'm also not sure what you're asking about. Are you looking for the Leprechaun article? As for the movie, currently the Leprechaun (movie) article still needs to be started. Zzyzx11 02:52, 28 Mar 2005 (UTC)

Homo floresiensis ("Man of Flores") is a species in the genus Homo, remarkable for its small body, small brain, and survival until relatively recent times. It is thought to have been contemporaneous with modern humans (Homo sapiens) on the remote Indonesian island of Flores. One sub-fossil skeleton, dated at 18,000 years old, is largely complete except for arm bones which may yet be found. It was discovered in deposits in Liang Bua Cave on Flores in 2003. 4.250.33.254 20:51, 28 Mar 2005 (UTC)

## a page in wikipedia

I've seen a page in wikipedia that list some extremes on earth, the highest, lowest place; highest, lowest temperature; driest place, etc. But I couldn't find it out now, even google can't help. Can anyone help. Thanks. anonymous

You're probably looking for Extreme points of the world -- Ferkelparade π 18:45, 27 Mar 2005 (UTC)
How bout Extreme points of the world? Gkhan 18:46, Mar 27, 2005 (UTC)
Ha! Identical replies. How was an edit conflict avoided? Alphax τεχ 02:11, 28 Mar 2005 (UTC)

No, i don't think that's the one. Cause the page don't give any information about highest and lowest temperature. As I remember the page has table in it. Or maybe the page never exist. anon

## Koch

I've had a hard time finding a good reference for Koch's postulates. This is the theoretical backdrop to every major microbiological discovery of the last 120 years, from tuberculosis to SARS. Methinks Wikipedia should cite Koch's 1890 article properly. Can anyone help? JFW | T@lk 18:56, 27 Mar 2005 (UTC)

Best I can find on google is [1], which is from the University of Bern. Problem 1, it's in german. But it has a reasonably good quality pdf scan of Koch's original article. Problem 2 is that this is in german as well.--Fangz 21:15, 27 Mar 2005 (UTC)

Mmm. Suppose I should link to the 1882 article then? I've been bumping into that one, but apparently he wrote more on the matter in 1890. Thanks anyway. JFW | T@lk 12:43, 28 Mar 2005 (UTC)

## Chinese Provincial Symbols

I've been searching for symbols, especially flags, of the Chinese provinces and autonomous regions in the PRC. I'm mostly interested in traditionalist ones, but I wouldn't mind seeing some Communist stuff. Thanks, -- Djinn112 04:00, Mar 28, 2005 (UTC)

## Link pointing to the wrong article

How do we change a link that is pointing to the wrong article? For example in the page labeled Greene, down towards the bottom, there is a section to click on Charles Greene, American architects. When you click on the link for Charles Greene, it takes you to a page for some athlete, not Charles Greene the architect. Is there a way of getting this fixed so it points to the correct person?

Thanks

We probably don't have an article yet on the architect. But I'll set it up so that it is appropriately red-linked. -- Jmabel | Talk 07:11, Mar 28, 2005 (UTC)

## Arabic translitteration

I cannot visualize correctly the article about Arabic alphabet. Do I need a special font? How can I get it? Thank you.

Fabio Pesaresi

It's in Unicode. For transliteration proper, you need:

• ḥ ḍ, ṭ, ṣ, ẓ are h, d, t, s, z respectively, with underdots
• ʾ ʿ are "spirants", alif and ayin
• ǧ, ġ are g with hacek and overdot, respectively
• ẖ ḏ ṯ are h, d, t with underscore
• š is s-hacek

most of these are "Latin Extended Additional" (U+1Exx, see [2]), and should be visible on all more or less recent platforms. Also in the article are IPA symbols, and Arabic script itself, of course. They are also in Unicode, see also Template:SpecialChars:

dab () 11:41, 28 Mar 2005 (UTC)

## How much does a movie weigh?

What is the mass of a 120-minute movie shot on 35 mm film? Does it weigh twice as much for 70 mm film? I did an estimate like this:
24 frames/sec * 3600 sec/hr * 2 hours * 22.1 mm per frame = about 3.82 km for the whole movie. Assuming a linear density of 1 g per cm, this is about 380 kg. How good is this estimate? Does this mean that the same movie on 70 mm film weighs some 760 kg? How do film technicians physically handle the reels? -- Brhaspati (talkcontribs) 12:06, 2005 Mar 28 (UTC)

Not being an expert in film, I can't say for sure if your calculations are correct, but I do know that films are typically broken up into multiple reels, so while an entire movie may be far too heavy for an average person to handle, an individual reel is quite manageable. See Movie_projector#Film_transport_elements for more info on this --CVaneg 01:35, 29 Mar 2005 (UTC)
Let's assume you buy 3000 ft rolls (about 33 minutes). These are the biggest rolls for playback only. A film maker always use shorter rolls to facilitate film making and post-production. You don't want your cinematographer to carry a steadicam-mounted Panavision with so much heavy film. Nor will you use that kind of rolls on your lovely Steinbeck editor (oops, people are using computers nowadays). Alfred Hitchcock shot Rope in segments no longer than 10 minutes each. Goodfellas has a 4-minute-long steadicam shot. The camera operator could have been using 400 ft rolls.
According to Kodak literature, a case of three 3000 ft rolls weights 47 lb (21 kg) (including a box). For a 120 minutes movie, you need 4 rools (about 64 lb or 28.5 kg). There were two double feature theaters in my town years ago. When movie A is being shown in theater A, the theater B shows movie B. And then they switch movies. I remember the guy who delivered the canisters always placed one or two canisters in a clothes bag and struggled his way up to the projector's booth (you know the floor is a gentle slope upwards). -- Toytoy 02:39, Mar 29, 2005 (UTC)
An article you may find interesting to read is "Who Was That Food Stylist? Film Credits Roll On" by Randy Kennedy, New York Times, January 11, 2004. It says the closing credit for The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King lasts 9 minutes and 33 seconds. That's about 1000 ft long. The whole show runs for 201 minutes (about 6 rolls at 3000 ft each). The closing credit part is now used as unused reel killer. -- Toytoy 03:26, Mar 29, 2005 (UTC)
Wow! That was very informative. You mention that a single 3000-foot roll weighs 21 kg (with box). How did you go from there to a value of 28.5 kg of film for the whole 120 minutes? Are the boxes that heavy? Should the film weigh closer to about 80 kg instead of 28.5 kg? FYI, I also found this link that describes the IMAX version of Matrix: Reloaded as weighing about 800 lb. Does that mean that the standard 70 mm version would weigh approximately 1/3 of that (which comes to 267 lb or 121 kg)? -- Brhaspati (talkcontribs) 19:43, 2005 Mar 29 (UTC)
Addendum: That website I mentioned apparently checks referral addresses before allowing page-views (quite infuriating). Anyway, go here, then click Pictures on the left, then click "Edwards IMAX Theater Houston". -- Brhaspati (talkcontribs) 19:50, 2005 Mar 29 (UTC)
a case of three 3000 ft rolls weights 47 lb (21 kg). Not one roll. Smoddy (tgeck) 19:53, 29 Mar 2005 (UTC)

## What's Japanese for "Meow"?

How do you say "meow" in Japanese? Judging from Elfen Lied, it's "nyuu", or from [3] it's "nyan". I'd be interested in knowing what the French for "woof" or the Spanish for "cockadoodle-doo" is as well. Is there an article for this kind of thing? I figured it'd be on unusual articles, but alas, it didn't show up. grendel|khan 21:27, 2005 Mar 28 (UTC)

The article you're looking for is onomatopoeia. French for woof is wouf and the Spanish for "cockadoodle-doo" is quiquiriqui. I don't know Japanese.
Diderot 21:54, 28 Mar 2005 (UTC)
Er.. I would have believed that it was more like "ouaf ouaf" for "woof" in French. David.Monniaux 07:02, 13 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Results in EDICT (link) when searching for "meow":

にゃあ           (n) mewing (cat), meow, miaow
にゃお                (n) mewing (cat), meow, miaow
にゃんにゃん        (1) cat meow, miaow, (2) cat
にゃにゃ        (1) cat meow, miaow, (2) cat



The results are from the December 18, 2003 version of the dictionary. For those who can't read hiragana, the words read (from top to bottom) nyaa, nyao, nyan'nyan and nyanya. The link in the onomatopoeia article linked above uses the first term, nyaa. --Pidgeot (t) (c) (e) 23:45, 28 Mar 2005 (UTC)

This page has sounds in many languages. --ibroadfo

What are some places on the web where I can find the names of various songs played in the backgrounds of commercials? I don't have any commercial specifically in mind. I know adcritic.com used to have this feature, but $100 a year is a bit steep since all I want are the names of songs. --Michael Try What's That Called? (I've never used it myself, but I have it bookmarked just in case :)) Adam Bishop 01:12, 29 Mar 2005 (UTC) Or there's Ad Tunes. I assume you're in America. For other people happening across this there's a British one called Commercial Breaks & Beats, and that link takes you to their further reading page with links to Canadian ads and more. --bodnotbod 17:52, Mar 29, 2005 (UTC) ## Anarchist Society I was wondering if there is any consensus regarding what an anarchist society would be refered to as (for example some representitive democracies are called republics...) If, for example Mongolia was anarchist, it would be called the _________? of Mongolia... Thanks --RileyMcLeod 01:29, Mar 29, 2005 (UTC) I would probably call it an Anarchy much like I would call rule by monarchs a monarchy, something that I'm sure a person who is actually educated in linguistics will tell you is completely wrong. Barring that, I would probably use the term "Anarchist state". As referenced from our Anarchy article, if you look at the Somalia entry in the CIA Factbook where they are usually sticklers for such terminology. [4] it is shown as simply not having any national government and no specific term is attributed to this form of "government". --CVaneg 02:00, 29 Mar 2005 (UTC) The thing is, that "anarchy" usually implies something other than what anarchists advocate. "Anarchy" usually means lack of order (as in Somalia). An area run in accord with the principles of anarchism would more likely be referred to as an "anarchist zone" ("zone" to avoid the problematic term "state") than an "anarchy". -- Jmabel | Talk 03:12, Mar 29, 2005 (UTC) the problem i've got is, i'm writing an essay in which i advocate an anarchist state- i have to give this state a categorical name and cannot find a title both linguistically correct and relevant to the social order of anarchism... i may go with somthing like "the libertarian socialist federation of ______"? --RileyMcLeod 03:29, Mar 29, 2005 (UTC) Do you really need to give it a specific name? Can't you just call it 'Elbonia' and leave it at that, with no further labels? --Smack (talk) 04:50, 29 Mar 2005 (UTC) Just call it "The autonomous zone of _________". Taco Deposit | Talk-o to Taco 18:07, Mar 29, 2005 (UTC) Whenever, for whatever reason, there was no archon in Athens (or some other Greek city), it was called "anarchy" - "no archon". I suppose that is the sort of thing anarchists advocate, although anarchy seems to have a negative connotation to me. Well, maybe this helps, I don't know. Adam Bishop 07:08, 29 Mar 2005 (UTC) Kind of depends - anarchists don't tend to agree on what an anarchy would / should look like. I think they would probably not be in favor of agreeing on what it should be called. Guttlekraw 07:35, 29 Mar 2005 (UTC) I would like to see it called ! in a really large font for the maps. --bodnotbod 18:03, Mar 29, 2005 (UTC) Well, if we're talking about what should be put on maps, then I think it should be an amorphously defined area with the warning "Here be monsters/dragons/anarchists" in ye olde script. --CVaneg 18:52, 29 Mar 2005 (UTC) ## find diagonal of a rectangular solid, et al. Find the diagonal of a rectangular solid whose dimensions are 3, 4, and 5. Find the slant height of a regular square pyramid if the altitude is 12 and one of the sides of the square base is 10. Find the diagonal of a cube if each edge is 2. Find the diagonal of a cube if the perimeter of a face is 20. Thank you. Sounds a lot like you are trying to get someone to do your homework. The general approach is: • Using the Pythagorean theorem, calculate the length of a diagonal of one side. That and the edge that forms a right angle to that side now form two adjacent sides of a rectangle (slicing the original rectangular solid in half). Now use the Pythagorean theorem again to calculate the diagonal of that rectangle. -- Jmabel | Talk 03:18, Mar 29, 2005 (UTC) ## Image copyright tags Hi, if I want to upload one of my pictures to Wikipedia, is it better to tag it {{GFDL}} or {{PD}}? What's the difference between the two? I've read the articles in question, but still don't understand why one might be perfered over the other. Thanks! A simplified explaination: PD: You give up all of your rights. A profti-making business may use your image without paying you a dime. If they modify your image and you want to use the modified version, you may infringe their copyright. GFDL and many other licenses: You reserve some vital rights. However, a fellow user is generally allowed to use the image without your approval unless the use actually infringes your reserved rights (generally commercial rights). -- Toytoy 10:00, Mar 29, 2005 (UTC) MY FAULT! -- Toytoy 01:09, Mar 30, 2005 (UTC) This is not correct. To release it into the public domain is indeed to give up all rights. But the GFDL allows anyone to use it for any reason provided attribution is given and the derivative work is released under the GFDL. Both allow commercial use. 119 19:26, 29 Mar 2005 (UTC) The main purpose of GFDL is to keep your right to be credited (authorship). -- Toytoy 01:09, Mar 30, 2005 (UTC) ## Jared Christmas lyrics Jared is a cost-free software released by Freeverse Software last century. It sings a horrific version of Luna de Xelajú on Mac OS and Windows computers. Later Freeverse published many other software that plays songs sung by Jared, a modern day Florence Foster Jenkins. Among his greatest hits was a Christmas song I am not allowed to play right now because my Macintosh is broken. Anyone knows the lyrics of that song? "Feliz navidad in Cuba. Feliz navidad in China. ..." I guess. I don't speak Spanish well. -- Toytoy 10:25, Mar 29, 2005 (UTC) Are you starting an article about the butcher of song? I can't find the lyrics to it either, as I can't speak Spanish well, and neither can Jared. -- Cyrius| 13:05, 29 Mar 2005 (UTC) OK, here's the article: Jared Smith. -- Toytoy 13:40, Mar 29, 2005 (UTC) ## electricity How exactly electricity kill people or animal? Thanks. ~anon See electric shock and electric chair --CVaneg 19:10, 29 Mar 2005 (UTC) ## zimbabwe under dictatorship (from talk:Main page) I like to comment on the issues concerning zimbabwe or better rather to request some form of advise as to how to remove the Bob from power.I believe the ballot box has failed the people and we can't continue to live under these repressive conditions form of government we need to take fight to mugabe and use the same means he used .He has brought only hardship to the people don't be mislead by what we see on the news the people want him out even if its through armed resists it well have to be done . -- Anon ## What is a meteor? Try looking here. Joyous 03:39, Mar 30, 2005 (UTC) ## Question about breathing; shortness of I've noticed a, at first amusing but now worrisome, little quirk of my body: I find myself having to consciously take deep breaths very often. Before this used to be every 15 minutes but it seems to be increasing and I'd guess its around once every five minutes or more. It feels like an itch in my lungs that has to be scratched by taking in a full deep breath. I spend long amounts of time sitting next to or around other people on the subway or in a theatre or library or wherever and I never notice anyone else having to do the same. Ever. I hear the phrase "shortness of breath" thrown around, but I dont know exactly what it means and if it truly applies. I'm quite physically active, don't smoke, am young, etc. I'm curious as to why this is, what this might be, and what might exacerbate it (I exercised today and it seems to be happening exponentially more). --Clngre 03:35, Mar 30, 2005 (UTC) I think it would be unwise for us to give you medical advice on Wikipedia. You should see a doctor.-gadfium 04:07, 30 Mar 2005 (UTC) hah, i knew someone would say that. I'm not looking for medical advice per se, just information, anecdotes, some topics I should look into, etc. Don't worry, I wont follow any advice. I said I was young, not stupid. I don't even think its anything particularily serious, I'm just curious about it. --Clngre 04:46, Mar 30, 2005 (UTC) Remebering the Wikipedia:General disclaimer, I suppose you could read every article in our pulmonology category and try and diagnose yourself, but that really is a bad idea. I think some online medical sites allow you to search by symptom, too, but that is an even worse idea. --CVaneg 08:29, 30 Mar 2005 (UTC) Episodes of a subjective sense of a need to take extra deep breaths are very common in adolescents and young adults. The cause is unknown. The sensation can be accompanied by anxiety and sometimes chest pain localized to a small area of the anterior chest wall. If enough deep breaths are taken in a short period of time it can lead to light-headedness, tingling around the mouth, or even cramping of the hands and feet. The term doctors use for this is hyperventilation. The treatment is explanation and reassurance. When the episodes are recognized for what they are, they become less distressing and usually less frequent. In rare cases with paresthesias and cramping, "rebreathing" (breathing into a paper bag) reverses the symptoms. alteripse 12:24, 30 Mar 2005 (UTC) Thanks. I was curious about the "subjective sense of a need" idea, because it does seem like if I think about it, it happens more often. Not much of the rest really applies to my "symptoms." I'll check out that category too, mindfully.--Clngre 13:41, Mar 30, 2005 (UTC) ## Winking Chicken I've been told that chickens do not have eyelids. Is this true? Can chickens truly not wink? ~jimmy Chickens do have eyelids (warning graphic pictures of various diseased and dead chickens) [5]. You'll notice that one of the picture's caption states Conjunctivitis and edema of the eyelids with a close up of the eye. Now just because they have eyelids does not mean that they can necessarily wink. I'm not sure how you would determine that.--CVaneg 08:46, 30 Mar 2005 (UTC) ## What to do in the Boston Metropolitan area? What are the major tourist attractions in the Boston (MA) area? Besides Fenway Park. What should a first time tourist not miss? The North End, Harvard and Havard Square, MIT, Boston Common, Fanueil Hall Market, the Museum of Fine Arts, and lots of good ice cream... -- Jmabel | Talk 21:19, Mar 30, 2005 (UTC) Our Boston, Massachusetts#Sites of Interest section may prove enlightening as well. --CVaneg 00:41, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) MIT has a neat museum on campus. More recommended for geeks than for general tourists, but interesting for anyone. I also recommend hitting an icecream shop while you're in Boston. Isomorphic 01:15, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) See the MBTA Silver Line Phase 1 on Washington Street and decide for yourself if it's a good replacement for an elevated railway. See the bustitution of the MBTA Green Line north of North Station while they put the line underground, something that should have been done before abandoning the El, but no, prettying up the city for the Democratic National Convention got in the way of the people that actually live there. See the leaks on the Big Dig. Maybe take a Duck Tour. --SPUI (talk) 13:43, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) If you fancy a walk, the Freedom Trail takes you to many historic locations. --Theo (Talk) 16:29, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) ## Song of Myself I would like to find a good site with analysis and explanations of Walt Whitman's poem, "Song of Myself." Does anybody know of one or has a talent for finding such things? I've tried searching all over google, but just don't seem to be having any genuine luck. Any help is much appreciated. I think that poem had a title change, either before it was published or shortly afterward. Try looking for "Song of Walt Whitman." --Smack (talk) 04:16, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) Thanks for the suggestion but I do not believe my problem lies in the poem title, for in the first edition of "Leaves Of Grass," the poem, "Song of Myself," was untitled. In the second edition, it was called "Poem Of Walt Whitman, An American" and I believe after that Whitman titled it "Song of Myself" and it has been known infamously as that ever since. Thanks for the help though. • Search using quotes --JimWae 04:47, 2005 Mar 31 (UTC): "song of myself" whitman ## world war 1 i need help finding specific information on how world war 1 affected the lives of the american people during and the after effects The Wikipedia article titled "Aftermath of World War One" would be a good place to start; its relativley detailed- [6] --RileyMcLeod 05:26, Mar 31, 2005 (UTC) ## roger phrase Hi, Someone asked me about the origination of communication phrase "roger". I always associated this with "yes" or "I read you correctly", but I was unable to explain where did this phrase come form. Can you help me with this? Thanks, Vic According to dictionary.com, it comes from the phonetic alphabet "roger" for the letter R, meaning "received". RickK 08:00, Mar 31, 2005 (UTC) See also phonetic alphabet, with emphasis on the military/police section. -- Brhaspati (talkcontribs) 17:36, 2005 Mar 31 (UTC) ## Radiometric Dating I know that in radiometric dating, there's a certain point where something too old will no longer be accurate when its age is measured. What if something is too "young"? Would using radiometric dating also result in hideous inaccuracies? I thought of this because someone claimed that all of this dating buisness was bunk because certain "people" from somewhere unspecified once took "newly formed rocks" to "university professionals" at an unknown period of time who proceeded to name the rocks as millions of years old. Any ideas? • You might be interested in reading Radiometric dating. As for the rocks. In geology, newly formed is a relative phrase because rock formation is such a long process, so nothing wrong there. Since the method uses the halflife of elements for its measurements, I suspect that measuring anything that's younger than the elements' halflife would be useless. Mgm|(talk) 08:44, Mar 31, 2005 (UTC) • Yeah, there definitely is a "too young" threshold, and I think Mgm is on the right track. I don't know enough about radiometric dating to say anything for sure. I wouldn't pay too much attention to that story, though. It sounds like something that a creationist would say, which kills its scientific credibility. Things creationists have said about physics (which I do know pretty well) are often laughably wrong, so I feel safe assuming that the rest of what they say is wrong too. Isomorphic 00:03, 2 Apr 2005 (UTC) • Don't be so smug in writing things off as laughably wrong. Many scientific notions that are today foundations of generally accepted theory were, in their day, derided as hogwash. And conversely, according to my current physics professor, a famous physicist of the mid-20th century said that the curveball doesn't actually curve, and that it's just an optical illusion. • So. Radiometric dating. Radiometric dating is not exact; there's a slew of sources of error throughout the process, from the formation of the material onward. So radiometric dates, like any experimental measurement, have some uncertainty. As far as I understand it, this uncertainty is less for younger specimens, but it never becomes zero. If the uncertainty is much less than the measured age, say, 5%, the radiometric date can be considered reliable. If it gets into the tens of percent, or even greater than one, the measurement isn't going to tell you very much. --Smack (talk) 06:34, 2 Apr 2005 (UTC) • What do they mean by newly formed rocks? Freshly cooled lava from a volcano? If the dating was by say the uranium-lead method, you'd get the age of the rock before it was melted to lava, since that process would scarcely affect the uranium-lead ratio. ## Flash and MySql I am a student designer and I m interested in learning some basics bout saving and retrieving data from a MySql to a Flsh program, just to be able to make few collaborative web experiments (think www.tenbyten.org for instance). Searching on the internet I could only find or complicated explntions of how to mount web server with flsh support or little flash games with Mysql s secondary gadget for high scores. Do any of you have good suggestion of a ready made fla source that does the simple job of saving and reding back information? Thanks a lot--Alexandre Van de Sande 13:44, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) ## Scare quotes in British English According to Quotation mark, speech quotes are normally single ('blah') in British English instead of the double quotes found in Americal English ("blah"). It doesn't mention whether there is a difference (single/double) when using scare quotes, however, and uses both. Is there a set rule? Thanks! — Asbestos | Talk 13:54, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) What are scare quotes? ike9898 15:36, Mar 31, 2005 (UTC) If you're not quoting someone, but want to suggest something is dubious, you can use quotation marks; compare these two: Of course, some academics feel otherwise, and say that the plays were clearly written by Bacon. Of course, some "academics" feel otherwise, and say that the plays were clearly written by Bacon. At least, that's how I understand the term - quotation used to imply you don't trust the word, that some other people may use it but personally you wouldn't. Shimgray 16:21, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) I think UKians tend to use double quotes in these circumstances in unquoted text. It is logical to use single quotes when quoting within dialogue which is itself demarcated by double quotes: He said, "Of course, some 'academics' feel otherwise, and say that the plays were clearly written by Bacon." Of course, some "academics" feel otherwise, and say that the plays were clearly written by Bacon. The relevant hand gesture in the UK, when saying the first of the two lines, is to gesture double quotes with the index and middle fingers of each hand, suggesting a predisposition towards double quotes. So perhaps the answer is, double quotes except where this would cause ambiguity in a nested sentence. --Tagishsimon (talk) Thanks — also for the info on the hand-gestures, which had been in the back of my mind (I figured it would look silly to make "air quotes" using just one finger on each hand...). — Asbestos | Talk 17:37, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) Oh, I don't know making air quotes with two fingers (or four depending on how you're counting) seems equally silly. It just happens to be an acceptably silly way to do something.--CVaneg 18:29, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) The use of air quotes is unusual in the UK. Most Brits would recognise the gesture, however. --Theo (Talk) 19:39, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) ## Not sure what this anon was asking, but thought I would separate it out iwassending onebosseto maurice kenolandthe postofficemaurry avenuenovember11/1/2004to haiti gonaives but my father h es nerver receive tell me what happing aboutthe bosseiwasfour paper fromand the post office but the bosse hesnervercoming please answer my question (translation attempt) "I was sending a bosse (?) to my father, Maurice Kenol in Gonaives, Haiti, but he never received it. I sent the bosse on 2004, November 11. What should I do?" Incomprehensible details: Maurry Avenue (Google suggests this is probably actually Maury Avenue), "i was four paper from and the post office". ## Killing programs in Unix I'm in a computer lab working on a paper. The computer I was just on has frozen and none of the usual ^Q or ctrl-alt-backspace type commands will unfreeze it: doubly so as it's frozen behind a password-protected screensaver. I've now logged on to another computer, and am able to ssh into the frozen one, but can't remember how to call up the list of open programs, nor how to kill programs if I could see what was running. I'm no good with Unix... If I could just kill the openoffice program that I was using to write my paper I'd be ok, as then I could open it up here without getting conflicts. "xkill ooffice" requires some option in the command which I'm not sure about, and I'm not sure xkill would be the best thing anyway - I'm not sure if it might cause more damage. I really have no idea about these commands. I've been searching web help pages, but nothing yet, so I thought I'd throw this out here as it's a bit of an emergency... Any help much appreciated, — Asbestos | Talk 20:33, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) • I've tried using 'ps -e' to see the running programs, and the only programs with the word "office" in them were two called soffice.bin. I did 'xkill #PID' on them, and was able to kill one but the other gives me the message "Operation not permitted." I tried logging into openoffice on this computer to see if I had succeeded in killing it on that one, but I still get a conflict warning. Is there something else I should do, or should I just ignore the conflict? — Asbestos | Talk 20:52, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) • Well, a lot of fuss for nothing, I suppose. I was never able to find ooffice running on the other computer, not using 'ps -ef' or any use of 'grep' or anything. Finally I figured I'd ignore the conflict message, opened ooffice, opened my file (which fortunately I had saved just before the freeze) and there it is, just as I left it. No harm done, I guess. Any comments on how to get rid of the frozen screensaver on the other computer and/or log myself out would by appreciated, but it's no longer an emergency. Thanks, — Asbestos | Talk 21:03, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) • Processes in unix exist in an inheritance heirarchy. A complex session like your X window session contains lots of programs, spawned in order by some behind-the-scenes process. If you kill -9 that process, all its children (your OO session, terminals, screensaver, crashed whatnots) will all die too. So if you find that process and kill it (and you will be able to kill it: you started it) then the whole session will crumple up and vanish, and you'll end up back at the login screen. Now, finding the process depends on which kind of unix or unix-a-like you're using, and how the distribution was set up. In your ps -ef listing, there should be something called xsession, x-session-manager, dtsession, xinit, xstart. If you find it, kill it, and any process that sounds like it has to do with X and starts or manages stuff. Eventually you'll hit the right one and the job is done (be careful not to zap your ssh session or the shell that decends from it). An alternative method of finding this guys is to use /usr/proc/bin/ptree (on solaris) or pstree (on some linux (here's a perl pstree implementation, although I've not tried this specific one). These show the process tree as a cute little ascii tree - making it easy to find the "trunk" of your session. You can think of this as a decapitation attack; hopefully your target won't be found months later, hiding in a hole with a snickers bar. -- John Fader (talk | contribs) 21:22, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) • Hmmm. The only X command I can see is .../bin/X, but that seems to have been started by root and I can't kill it. None of the programs that are listed as being ones I created have anything to do with X. There are a number of kdeinit programs, but I've killed off several of them and it doesn't seem to do anything. I'll probably just end up killing everything that says it was created by me, with the exception of the ones that I think were stated from this ssh session, and we'll see if that solves anything. — Asbestos | Talk 21:46, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) • Killed 'em all. No programs left that were created by me. Computer just as frozen as before. Possibly I'll just leave this for lab tech in the morning... — Asbestos | Talk 21:50, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) • Yeah, there's not much you can do. The nice thing to know is that your Xsession is gone - you can be confident that at 3am it's not going to become magically unstuck, leaving the first person to touch it with a working login session in your name. -- John Fader (talk | contribs) 22:05, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) • Alright then, thanks a lot. Now let's see if we can't get this paper magically finished by midnight... — Asbestos | Talk 22:14, 31 Mar 2005 (UTC) • One thing you can do, to ensure that all programs running by you are killed, is kill -9 -1 which will kill with the uncatchable signal 9 (SIGKILL) all processes (process group -1) and will therefore only kill processes you have permission to kill (ie your processes) -- WhiteDragon 15:06, 13 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## Maximum survivable body temperature Me and my friend was having an argument the other day about how much fever one could have and surviving. The article on Thermoregulation (which is a redirect from Body temperature) says that 45°C, but surely that is a little high. Can you really survive a fever of, say, 43°C? And what is the maximum recorded body temperature in a living person (and that survived, obviously)? Gkhan 22:17, Mar 31, 2005 (UTC) • I can't be entirely sure. I was too sick at the time to remember clearly, but I think I had a fever of 43°C and as you can see I survived it. Mgm|(talk) 07:42, Apr 1, 2005 (UTC) • See also hyperthermia. A core body temperature of 41°C is potentially fatal; as the temperature rises, the risk of death increases. Note that this threshold is variable (as Mgm's case seems to demonstrate), and also depends on how long the high temperature is maintained. -- FP 09:37, Apr 1, 2005 (UTC) ## West This or That I am doing a research on places that begin or end with the words WEST or WESTERN, that are not located in the U.S.A or United Kingdom and that was formed before 1930 and still have the names WEST or WESTERN in the words and I need at least 12 of those words places. Please help me? 1. Western Sahara 2. West Rand --Jcw69 06:24, 1 Apr 2005 (UTC) 3. Westland (district), New Zealand -- FP 09:40, Apr 1, 2005 (UTC) The place to start looking is Special:Allpages/West and similar pages. A quick search finds many pages that meet your criteria, at least insofar as I interpret them, e.g. Western Australia, West-Friesland, West Indies, West Kurdufan, West Ice Shelf, West Prussia, West Zealand County, Westbank, British Columbia, etc etc. Gdr 12:21, 2005 Apr 1 (UTC) ## Male/female ratios US metro areas Is there a way to find out demographic data about US metro areas that describes the populations based on male/female ratios, percentage of single people, and population. Certain areas are reported to have a higher percentage of unmarried women (New York, D.C.), while others have more men (San Jose/Silicon Valley). Is there a listing that lists these ratios in the context of metro area population? The basic question: which are the 10 or 20 largest metro areas with the highest ratios of females to males and vice versa? Well, we do have a list of United States metropolitan areas but I don't think demographic data is available for the overall area in general, although if you were inclined you could get it for each city in the area. Incidentally, since your question references male/female ratios and single people, I assume the question is about the difficulty of dating. One thing to take into consideration is the age of the population you're looking at. I know love is blind and knows no boundaries, but chances are every person has an age range that they probably won't date outside of. So you would also have to consider age distribution. Also, chances are metropolitan areas like San Francisco and New York will have a higher number of homosexuals further skewing data. --CVaneg 15:26, 1 Apr 2005 (UTC) That would skew the absolute numbers, although it would skew the ratio only if the number of gay men is not proportional to the number of lesbians. -- Jmabel | Talk 23:08, Apr 1, 2005 (UTC) If you're talking about dating difficulty, one important number would be "percentage of the total population that's available to a given person". Percentage of the population that's homosexual would factor into that, even if gays and lesbians were distributed identically. Gays and lesbians would find it hard to date in an area with no significant gay community, and straight people might find it a bit harder to date in areas where the gay population is high. Just ask any woman who's complained that "all the cute guys are gay". :-) Isomorphic 23:47, 1 Apr 2005 (UTC) Some of the data you are looking for can be found on at the following link: Other reports at the US Census Bereau 2000 Census website should be helpful with the other aspects of your question. This report has more complete information that what I copied below. Also, it has a very interesting map of the country with areas color coded by male/female ratio. • For places with 100,000 or more in population, the top 10 places for male/female ration are: • (These are locations with an excess of males) Salinas, CA 113.7 Ft. Lauderdale, FL 110.0 Paradise, NV 109.1 Santa Ana, CA 107.7 Tempe, AZ 106.9 Wichita Falls, TX 106.2 Sunnyvale, CA 106.0 Austin, TX 105.8 Costa Mesa, CA 105.0 Oxnard, CA 104.6 • (These are locations with an excess of females) Gary, IN 84.6 Birmingham, AL 85.7 Philadelphia, PA 86.8 Jackson, MS 86.9 Richmond, VA 87.1 Pembroke Pines, FL 87.3 Shreveport, LA 87.4 Baltimore, MD 87.4 Mobile, AL 87.8 New Orleans, LA 88.2 Kenj0418 05:59, Apr 2, 2005 (UTC) ## West Again Thank you for some of those words that begin with WEST or WESTERN, but I forgot to mention that they couldn't be in English speaking countries and they still had to been called that particular something with WEST or WESTERN. Please forgive me for not mentioning this in the first comment earlier. Thank you again. • Now I think about it, your best bet is probably to use a world gazetteer - the definitive (but, alas, hard-copy) one is the Columbia-Lippincott World Gazetteer, if memory serves, which a decent-sized library should have in its reference collection. A large gazetteer will list, basically, huge numbers of geographical placenames, ordered alphabetically. Just go to "West" and start noting all the entries outside English-speaking countries... Shimgray 23:54, 1 Apr 2005 (UTC) • A quick hit-and-run to put in a quick word for "Westphalia"/"Westfalen". - Nunh-huh 00:10, 2 Apr 2005 (UTC) • The Western Isles. Well, it's a historically gaelic area, so you could argue it's not English-speaking :-) - more seriously, Western Sahara? There's a couple of places called Westhausen in Germany, too. Shimgray 00:20, 2 Apr 2005 (UTC) Quite a few countries are english-speaking. I think this google search will net you success, though. site:wikipedia.org intitle:west|western -"united states" -UK -"united kingdom" -US -USA -Canada -Australia --Alterego 07:44, Apr 9, 2005 (UTC) ## Where does MySQL server go? When MySQL server goes away, where does it go, exactly? Taco Deposit | Talk-o to Taco 18:54, Apr 1, 2005 (UTC) Vegas. It's got a gambling problem. -- Cyrius| 19:06, 1 Apr 2005 (UTC) MyAMI. It's cooped up in the server room normally, and needs to get a little sun. Kenj0418 06:05, Apr 2, 2005 (UTC) ## Cold symptoms and intestinal symptoms: one disease or separate? First of all, yes I've read all the disclaimers and I know Wikipedia is not a reliable source for medical advice blah blah blah... Is there any disease out there that causes symptoms highly similar to the common cold and gastroenteritis simultaneously? Or is it just more likely that I'm unlucky enough to be multiply infected? moink 22:34, 1 Apr 2005 (UTC) Or, should I blame the ibuprofen, which I took for the cold symptoms before getting intestinal symptoms? moink 23:02, 1 Apr 2005 (UTC) IANAD or anything - but could it be a form of influenza? --Pidgeot (t) (c) (e) 23:18, 1 Apr 2005 (UTC) From what I know, the flu doesn't cause intestinal symptoms. moink 23:24, 1 Apr 2005 (UTC) There are some viruses, in the Adenoviridae family I think, that can sometimes infiltrate both the gastrointestinal and respiratory system, thus creating both types of symptoms (most often in succession i.e. first the GI symptoms then the URI symptoms). However, since this is a not-so-common event, I believe that you have two infections running simultaneously. It isn't such an "unlucky" event: a lot of people have the common cold at this time of year and some of them are bound to catch another infection on top. In any case, one viral infection causing GI and URI symptoms or two simultaneous infections have no fundamental differences in their treatment. I couldn't find any GI adverse effects caused by ibuprofen. You should drink a lot of fluids if vomitting or having diarrhea and supress your fever using NSAIDs. If you see the symptoms worsening (high fever, excessive fluid loss), contact your doctor, it could be a non-viral cause. And... this is not a medical advice, wikipedia is not a reliable source for that, blah blah blah! --Antono 00:50, 2 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## Could Private Firms do the World Bank's Job? It appears to my untrained eye that private firms could do the bulk of the work that the World Bank does. Is there some reason why having nations for shareholders is better for the Bank's work than having private owners would be? If not, what about post-WWII history led people to decide that the private sector couldn't pay for the rebuilding of Europe? Or perhaps that idea never crossed their minds? --Ryguasu 00:53, 2 Apr 2005 (UTC) Well, I am not an economist in any sense of the word, but my understanding is that private banks and institutional investors already hold foreign debt through purchase of bonds like treasury bonds in the US. Presumably the world bank comes in at a point where countries would have to offer bonds at such ridiculous rates in order to attract investment that they would be mired in debt for the foreseable future. Of course, many people argue that this happens under the world bank anyway, so maybe it doesn't matter. The presumption of the World Bank is, that by getting countries on their feet sooner, they more quickly become contributing members of the international community, and benefit everyone by consuming and producing more goods. This is similar to the principle used in establishing many welfare programs. --CVaneg 03:41, 2 Apr 2005 (UTC) That sounds like a reasonable analysis, though it leaves me with this (new?) question: Assuming (perhaps unreasonably) that market for lending to poor governments is relatively competative, then shouldn't private banks be offering rates not too far above those required for them to just break even? If so, how can the World Bank provide significantly better rates without folding? --Ryguasu 12:58, 2 Apr 2005 (UTC) Well now we're really into areas that I have absolutely no right speaking authoritatively on, but since no one else is attempting to answer this question, I'll give it a crack. If I had to guess, the difference is that a for-profit corporation does not just have an obligation to make a profit, but to maximize profit. This cuts two ways. First of all even if they could make money on a certain venture, a private venture will most likely only persue those markets that seem the most lucrative. Secondly, even if they do enter the third world debt market banks could theoretically fund projects that while lucrative, would actually be counter to a given nations best interest. I believe some people blame the current third world debt crisis on previous dealings of private instituations and corrupt dictatorships and kleptocracies. The World Bank on the other hand is only under the obligation to try and lose as little money as possible while providing the most productive funding worldwide. Of course, some people argue that this is equally damaging, but just in other ways. Regardless, in theory, the World Bank could operate at a loss for as long as the member nations were willing to cover the difference. this Well, that's my US$.02 on the matter, and even considering the weak dollar, US$.02 is probably an overcharge. Hopefully someone else who is actually educated in international finance will step up to the plate and point out all the mistakes I've made. --CVaneg 01:51, 3 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## Who named the Oscars Margaret Herrick article says : Academy President Bette Davis claimed that she invented the name Oscars to refer to the Academy Awards. Is there an article or references to her, I found a page each on Bette Davis (actress) and Betty Davis (singer), but neither of them happen to be the academy president. Jay 12:08, 2 Apr 2005 (UTC) Re the statement in the Margaret Herrick article, which I wrote, about naming the Oscar: Bette Davis the actress was the ninth president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, serving October to December 1941, when she resigned. I have added a sentence to this effect to her article. Davis also received two Oscars, for Dangerous (1935) and Jezebel (1938), bracketing Luise Rainer's back-to-back awards. PedanticallySpeaking 14:30, Apr 2, 2005 (UTC) ## What are the main arguments against the Veil of Ignorance thought experiment? I've been skimming A Theory of Justice, and finding that I have several objections to the idea that the Veil of ignorance is a valid tool for making arguments about what is or isn't just. Since Wikipedia isn't designed to be host my personal rants, though, I'm wondering if there are any widely promoted arguments against using the Veil. If so, could some of them please get mentioned in the Veil article? --Ryguasu 12:50, 2 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## Diet Coke Diet Coke's current ad campaign has spots with Adrien Brody and Kate Beckinsale. The latest ad, called "Sparkle", features a blonde roller-skating to Paul Oakenfeld and Shifty's song "Starry Eyed Surprise". (It can be viewed here.) The blonde seems familiar and since the previous spots included celebs, I wonder if she is an actor too. Anyone know who she is? PedanticallySpeaking 14:19, Apr 2, 2005 (UTC) I have no idea, but you could try emailing them and asking them. If the person answering the email doesn't know, the ad agency that produced the ad would. Try and find out what agency that is and either call or email them directly perhaps. I think you could fairly easily google or look in trade magazines to find out who the ad agency is that does most of diet coke's ads or the current ones. - Taxman 22:26, Apr 12, 2005 (UTC) The agency is Foote, Cone, and Belding. (See [http://www.adweek.com/aw/creative/best_spots_04/040614_05.jsp here), but when I've contacted companies about ads in the past, they have not replied. PedanticallySpeaking 17:12, Apr 14, 2005 (UTC) Well try is your best bet. If no response, try to find out if they handled the modeling themselves and/or perhaps who the modeling agency involved was. They would be much more likely to want to tell you about who the model is, for promotional reasons. - Taxman 23:12, Apr 14, 2005 (UTC) ## Oh! West Again thanks, but I need to know when those places that have WEST or WESTERN in the words were formed and they had to have formed before 1930. The words with WEST or WESTERN you'll typed that were formed maybe during 1930 or after were also fine, I might need to know the year they were formed too. Again those particular places have to still be call that name today in 2005. Please help me again? Thank you'll for your help. • Again, the best I can suggest is to hit a library and find a hefty gazetteer; Columbia-Lippincott tends to have at least some dates, I think. A major city library should have it in a reference section, or a decent academic library. Shimgray 18:58, 2 Apr 2005 (UTC) • Exactly when they were formed? That's not going be possible for all or most of the suggested towns in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium because it's so early that there are no written records of that. Typically, the best you can do is "the oldest known reference to such-and-such dates from the year 989". Would that be good enough? ## The Numbers Look Who and where did the look of the Arabic Numbers 0-9 we uses now originate? Arabic numerals is quite informative, although a little confusing; basically, this form of the Arabic numerals originated in Al-Andalus, about a thousand years back, what is now Spain and Portugal, and then filtered into Europe. Modern Arabic is quite different, with the notable exception of "9" - 1 and 0 are much the same, but 9 is the only "complex" numeral to have stayed constant. Shimgray 19:05, 2 Apr 2005 (UTC) One of the links from Arabic numerals seemed even more useful: [7]. Skip the top section, though, it's a bizarre joke before the actual serious and informative explanation. moink 22:42, 3 Apr 2005 (UTC) Okay I've removed the bizarre joke (Laputan Logic):: ## The Enchantment (poem) In Eric Ambler's The Light of Day, Mr Simpson describes a poem, The Enchantment. Where can I get hold of a copy?--anon • I'm not sure it's even a real poem. Byron's poetry is well represented on the Web, but I can't find anything that sounds like this at all. Is it perhaps fictional? --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 01:28, 5 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## how to increase the melanin in skin? I have read your articals on melanin in the skin. It explains all about what it is and how it affects your skin, but never have i ever come across an article that gives advice on how to increase the melanin in your skin. I am extreamly pale and have trouble going on holiday in hot places. By increasing the melanin, my skin would tan and I would find sunny places more tolorant, with less irritation. • There's only one bit of advise I can give. Protect your skin with a strong sunscreen, and don't expose it to the sun too long. Increasing your melanin levels may or may not heigthen your sun toleration, but the sun is still bad for your skin. - Mgm|(talk) 21:42, Apr 3, 2005 (UTC) • You can increase the melanin and coloring of your skin by having your adrenals removed. Rather unfavorable trade-off, on the whole. Presumably, injections of MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone) would do the same thing more safely, but no biotech company has decided the market is big enough to warrant synthesizing it. alteripse 00:03, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) John Howard Griffin apparently used oxsoralen, a drug used to treat vitiligo, to darken his skin so as to appear black. [8] --FOo 13:43, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) • PT-141 is an analog of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) that activates the melanocortin receptors MC3-R and MC4-R. It indeed causes tanning but has some side-effects... Cacycle 13:23, 6 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## magpie could somebody tell me how long magpies can live for thanks dingle Do you mean the corvids, or, for instance, the Australian magpie? --Robert Merkel 23:36, 5 Apr 2005 (UTC) I would like to know about the european magpie really. The reason being that we have one with one leg in our garden.Thanks. According to this page, the European magpie can live up to 20 years. --Robert Merkel 03:31, 8 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## West Something I had a question about atleast 12 places in this world that are not English speaking places and that were formed or named WEST or WESTERN something before 1930 and is still called that in 2005. I tried other websites, the library, and this particular book in the library I think called Columbia Gazzette something ( which one of the people on this site suggested) and I still couldn't find that information about those places. Do anybody know some websites or other practical ways I could get this information? For the years I just really need to know the decade when they were called that. Thank you to all who help me so far, I really appreciate that. Can't you just check each locality on wikipedia or google once you have a list of names? The previous answers have given you at least a dozen to try. Lisiate 02:31, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) If all you're interested in is confirming that these places existed in 1930 and had the same name (minor spelling changes aside), then you could try locating old maps. Much to my surprise, these are available on the internet, e.g. [9] here. For example, Westzaan in 1869. 82.210.118.145 08:27, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## Soda Lime My daughter has a science project which requires soda lime. Where can it be purchased? That would depend on where you are located. Try to Google for the term (possibly with your country in the search also), then look in the ads on the right for one in your country/region. Here is one I found in the US: [www.ScienceLab.com|ScienceLab.com]. Kenj0418 23:26, Apr 3, 2005 (UTC) ## Matthias Ringmann I would like to know who is Matthias Ringmann and was he some kind of author? don't see Matthias Ringmann (which doesn't exist) but do see de:Matthias Ringmann and work out a translation of it. 62.253.64.17 17:20, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) On the contrary, DO see Matthias Ringmann; I have written it today, in response to your question. He was a German schoolmaster, poet and cartographer who died in 1511. He is credited with naming America although his reason for this was mistaken. --Theo (Talk) 19:20, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## Anodes and cathodes These terms are hopelessly confusing: In a Galvanic cell, the anode is where the anions flow to. It develops a negative charge, and is the positive terminal of the battery. Right? —Josh Lee 21:57, Apr 3, 2005 (UTC) Whenever something is separated into electrical polarities, the positive end or moiety is called the an- and the negative the cat-. Anions and anodes are positively charged, and cations and cathodes are negatively charged. Anabolism is positive metabolic balance (net building and retention), and catabolism is negative (net breakdown and loss). If you are more of a humanities kinda guy, think Anabasis and catabasis (Xenophon and Dante, respectively--- the march upcountry or the downward descent). The corresponding Greek prepositions are ana and kata, upwards and downwards. alteripse 23:59, 3 Apr 2005 (UTC) No, no! Unfortunately (for the sake of understanding) this is a matter of definition, not etymology. The anode is the electrode of an electrochemical cell at which oxidation occurs, and thus it will be positively charged in an electrolytic cell, and negatively charged in a galvanic cell. Anions, the ions which are attracted to the anode, are charged accordingly. Thus in most instances, when one is speaking of anions, they are negatively charged. - Nunh-huh 00:13, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) I think you are right about the anodes. Anions are always negatively charged, and cations always positively, and I confess the Greek came more easily to me than the electrochemistry. I shot from my etymologic hip. Sorry. alteripse 00:46, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) Okay...thanks for the answers. So in a diagram of a Galvanic cell, where should the + and − signs go? That is, which terminal is positive and which terminal is negative? —Josh Lee 01:09, Apr 4, 2005 (UTC) From this page: Anode is negatively charged and facilitates the oxidation part of the process. The reduction takes place at the positively charged kathode. The electrons move from the anode to the kathode. Mgm|(talk) 07:42, Apr 4, 2005 (UTC) ## Word games in languages that are not written phonetically? In English, we have all sorts of word games such as crosswords, Boogle, and word search that seem like they wouldn't work with a language like Chinese. Have the Chinese found ways to adapt any of these games? Do they have games using their written word symbols that don't have equivalent games in English? (I don't think Mah Jong counts). ike9898 01:54, Apr 4, 2005 (UTC) The world was created in 4004 BC. Before the English colonization of North America and the epidemic growth of Sunday papers, Chinese people, with their newly developed opposable thumbs, had been bipedally wondering around creating puzzles. -- Toytoy 03:29, Apr 5, 2005 (UTC) • You might want to check out Lion-Eating Poet in the Stone Den -- it's a form pretty much unique to Chinese, I think, and it's utterly evil (though it might work in a language like Sumerian or ancient Egyptian as well). The concept is somewhat the inverse of the lipogram. (Unfortunately I don't know Chinese so I don't know how to compose something like that...) Haikupoet 01:59, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) Shī Shì shí shī shǐ is not a word game that you can parcipate. It's more like a palindrome (e.g. "A Man, a plan, a canal - Panama!"). Most English speakers cannot create a single palindrome, nor can one who speaks Chinese write something as interesting as Shī Shì shí shī shǐ. Games are easy. Playing poker is a game. Building a house of cards is ... a torture. To me, constrained writing is not a game. In Chinese language, there has been several thousand years's history of word games. The most frequently played game is, possibly, word puzzle. You can easily break up a Chinese character into multiple parts. Example: "一口咬掉牛尾巴" (Bite the bull's tail off.) Answer: "告". Reasoning: The catch-all character for bull, cow, and bovine in Chinese is "牛" (níu). And the charcater for mouth is "口" (). The character "告" (gào; meaning: tell or v. as Brown v. Board of Education) looks exactly like a bull's tail biten off by a mouth. I have seen a website where the same batch of people are talking about investment at day and doing puzzles at night. That's word game. The Chinese word puzzle has been in a fully-developed form for over 1000 years. People are still creating new puzzles every minute. There's even a festival devoted for puzzles (15th day of the 1st month; lunar calendar). In contrast, crossword is a 20th century invention. Crossword games are symmetrical. It is easier to create a crossword game in a language that has a fairly limited set of alphabets. So far I haven't seen a Chinese "crossword game" that is both symmetrical and without too many black squares. -- Toytoy 02:44, Apr 5, 2005 (UTC) As you can see in the above example, the clues are all related with the shape of the words. There are other types of puzzles where clues are indden in a character's sound or other attributes. These twisted and skewed inner logics sometimes must be made explicit or the puzzle will never be solved. Frequently seen types of reasoning include "秋千格", "下楼格", "徐妃格", "解铃格", "嵌腰格", "解带格", "素腰格" and "粉底格" etc. ("格" means "rule"; these jargon names are also cryptic to the untrained). You say "blah ... blah ... blah ... (the puzzle itself)" and then tell your listener which rule to use. In a nutshell, you create puzzles using every conceivable clue. These rules are generalized deductive reasoning rules specially created over the past 1000 years for puzzles. You may see them as the syllogism or other similar logical rules created for a wacky world of word puzzles. -- Toytoy 03:07, Apr 5, 2005 (UTC) These are the tip of an iceberg. There are countless other forms of word games. As for the Japanese and Korean, they also have their own word games. One type of word game highly popular in Japan can be simplified like this: Player A: "Dog!", player B: "Girl!", player A: "Lizard!" The alphabet "D" is used again, player A loses. There are 46 Japanese sounds currently in use today. There are also other language-specific rules. -- Toytoy 03:29, Apr 5, 2005 (UTC) I can't answer your question, but I would like to point out an error in it. As far as I understand, 'phonetic' refers to spellings where a letter is pronounced the same way regardless of its context (ex. Spanish or Russian, as opposed to English or French). What you're looking for is languages that write with logograms rather than alphabetic or syllabaric (?) characters. --Smack (talk) 05:07, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## Papal name "Urban" Why is "Urban" a popular papal name? I understand "Paul," "John," "Pius," "Innocent," "Gregory," "John Paul," etc., but "Urban"?Neutralitytalk 02:20, Apr 4, 2005 (UTC) Just to make it inconvenient for history students!--83.138.189.74 06:09, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) The first Pope Urban (reigned 222-230) did not choose the name. It was given to him at birth by his father, who was named Pontianus according to the Liber Pontificalis. Pope Urban VII (who reigned just 13 days in 1590) chose the name "that he might not forget the urbanity which he wished to show to everyone". --Theo (Talk) 07:49, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) Or are they just urban legends? 62.253.64.17 17:29, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) Ah, thank you. That makes sense. Neutralitytalk 23:01, Apr 4, 2005 (UTC) Are you responding to the urban legends thing? OR are you being sarcastic? That doesn't make any sense. Leonardo 23:55, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) I was responding to Theo. See urbanity. Neutralitytalk 05:06, Apr 10, 2005 (UTC) ## SSN If the social security numser begins with 009, what that means? You have a licence to kill. enjoy. 62.253.64.17 17:09, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) No, that's wrong. 007 is licence to kill, 008 licence to maim. With 009 all you can do is give out chinese burns. -- John Fader (talk | contribs) 17:26, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) It means it was issued in Vermont. --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 17:16, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) Jpgordon is correct - the first three digits of a social security number indicate the region where it was issued. →Raul654 17:33, Apr 4, 2005 (UTC) See this page from the Social Security Administration for the full list. --CVaneg 19:02, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) Hmm...I can't find 117 in there... Ilγαηερ (Tαlκ) 02:46, 6 Apr 2005 (UTC) 050-134 New York --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 02:53, 6 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## little dark men do you know anything of an ancient myth about little dark men the vikings called scralines or skralines? Skræling. (Not a ton there.) Frencheigh 22:17, 4 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## your first time... Out of purely "scientific curiosity" how old were you when you lost your virginity? What gender are you? What year? Post anonymously if you wish. It is interesting because most people seem to think that as the years go on, the age gets younger and younger, but I think those of generations of old were just at the same place as kids today, just perhaps they waited until marriage, whereas today...well...fill in the blanks. (PS: I don't mean to be inappropriate, sorry if I offended anyone.) I don't think many people on Wikipedia have lost theirs yet! Back door 03:33, 5 Apr 2005 (UTC) 16 and still virgin and proud of it...yes im not another one of those teenage statistics ...Take that Society!HAHAHAHA!! Necromancer223 10:39, 5 Apr 2005 14 and still virgin and proud of it...yes im not another one of those teenage statistics ...Take that Society!HAHAHAHA!! ugen64 03:50, 5 Apr 2005 (UTC) Actually, virgin or not, you're still a statistic; it's just a matter of which column your checkmark falls in. :P IceKarma 03:54, 2005 Apr 5 (UTC) 13 with a gerbil. Aren't you glad you asked? --SPUI (talk) 03:53, 5 Apr 2005 (UTC) Congradulations - that is quite probably the most disturbing thing ever said on this page. →Raul654 07:35, Apr 5, 2005 (UTC) 12, with Phoebe Cates, in a cabana at a private pool in Southern California... Oh wait, you mean non-imaginary sex, don't you? --Diderot 07:42, 5 Apr 2005 (UTC) This is not an appropriately phrased question for the Reference desk. At best, you'll get a small number of responses from which you will not be able to draw any significant conclusions. The appropriate question is something like: Where can I find statistics about average age of loss of virginity over time?-gadfium 03:55, 5 Apr 2005 (UTC) Well, perhaps I will be the first to give a serious response. 18, in 1996, with a university boyfriend, and I am female. I am defining "losing virginity" as having coitus, though there are other definitions. moink 15:43, 5 Apr 2005 (UTC) In case you want another serious response... 17, in 2004, and I'm male. Nightstallion 19:12, 5 Apr 2005 (UTC) 21 (last week), shit it was late in life --Wonderfool t(c)e) 13:11, 14 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## Streptococcus pneumoniae I have a 3month old boy which had a severe infection in the back of his ear . It was just like a big lump, we didnt know what it was and the doctors told me it was a Tumor. Come to find out it was a Otomastoiditis (severe ear infection) the infection was streptococcus pneumoniae. He has a low white blood cell count and they think something is wrong with his Immune System. He goes for weekly lab work to see hows his blood work is doing. It is so confusing on why or where he got this concidering he had no signs of being sick, nofevers and he ate fine, just until the lump occured and then we took him to the doctors but no one new until we took him to the Childrens Hosipital. Finally after a CT scan they had found out what it was. I'm writtin this in to relations of a woman in Oaklahoma. If u have any answers please E-mail me at tkaffitz@yahoo.com A severe streptococcal infection in a young boy will make doctors wonder if there is a primary immunodeficiiency that interferes with the body's ability to handle encapsulated organisms, such as the X-linked disease Bruton's agammaglobulinemia—though repeated infections (rather than just one) will make them suspect this problem more. This is something they will want to test for, and you can ask the boy's doctors [1] if they have found any abnormalities in his immune system [2] what those abnormailites are, [3] what can be done about them, and [4] if they are genetic in origin. But it's only his doctors who can get that information for you... there's not much Wikipedia can help you with, though once you find out what (if any) problem has been diagnosed we may be able to point youtowards further information on it. - Nunh-huh 07:56, 5 Apr 2005 (UTC) I've e-mailed the person copying the above reply and telling that his doctors should know better. -- Sundar (talk · contribs) 08:07, Apr 5, 2005 (UTC) ## Firecrest Picture I am not very sophisiticated in computers etc and do not know how to deal precisely with my question. I am the president of a writers' circle and within that circle we have formed a tiny 8-member writing 'club'which we have named 'Firecrest Writing Club'. In our parent writers' circle we have a website and we hope to establish a page for the Firecrest WC. We would like to use a picture of the little bird on our page and wondered if it is possible to use your absolutely exquisite photograph. Is that possible? We don't have large funds etc (simply budget via subscriptions) but we would of course acknowledge everything as required otherwise. I should be most grateful for an answer. I don't know if it is appropriate to leave my email address? In any case it is - pam(dot)fraser01(at)ukonline(dot)co(dot)uk Any help and advice would be much appreciated. Pamela Fraser. If you mean Image:Firecrest93.JPG, it's in the public domain, so you can use it for anything you like. -- John Fader (talk | contribs) 11:56, 5 Apr 2005 (UTC) Just to expand a little, the pic is freely available for anyone to use, how and where they like. You are even free to alter it in any way you like. There's no need to acknowledge the source of the pic on your website, unless you wish to. The same rules (or lack of rules!) applies to any pic on Wikipedia that states that it's Public Domain. PS: Pam, it's not advisable to publish your e-mail like that so I've disguised it a little so that spam harvesters are less likely to pick it up. Good luck with the Firecrest WC - Adrian Pingstone 12:42, 5 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## History of Aquaman My request is very modest:i wish someone update Aquaman's article,as he had been drastically changed in the last two years and his article does not reflect that. I suggest you use this bio for information : http://www.comixfan.com/xfan/forums/archive/index.php/t-27035.html Thank you for your suggestion. When you feel an article needs improvement, please feel free to make those changes. Wikipedia is a wiki, so anyone can edit almost any article by simply following the edit this page link at the top. The Wikipedia community encourages you to be bold in updating pages. Don't worry too much about making honest mistakes — they're likely to be found and corrected quickly. If you're not sure how editing works, check out how to edit a page, or use the sandbox to try out your editing skills. New contributors are always welcome. You don't even need to log in (although there are many reasons why you might want to). JRM 13:38, 2005 Apr 5 (UTC) ## Morocco What is the cheapest way of getting to Morocco from Brittany, in France? Are there any cheap airlines that do this? The coach ticket costs €240, but I'm sure theres a better way to get there. Maybe i should be asking wikitravel--Wonderfool t(c)e) 12:23, 5 Apr 2005 (UTC) • Well, besides hitchhiking... I imagine you could save some money by finding your best bargain deal to southern Spain, then taking the ferry. -- Jmabel | Talk 00:14, Apr 6, 2005 (UTC) • Take the ferry from Gibraltar to Tangiers. It's about$50 round trip. No idea about the trip from Brittany to Gibraltar, though --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 14:37, 6 Apr 2005 (UTC)
• I have no idea about getting to Spain from France, but from my travels in Spain, the buses seemed the cheapest way to get around. Who knows how many bus transfers you will have to make, but you can check with the tourism departments and they can likely get you bus information in Enlgish and other languages. It is possible that a bunch of bus tickets could add up to more than other ways of going but you could probably find fares online. Here is Spain's travel info site and does have some info on the bus stations, I didn't find ticket prices, but you might be able to. You'll probably want to get through France to Pamplona, then from there to Andalucia, where there are a few cities that have ferries to Africa. Algeciras and Tarifa do for sure. Sounds like bus and ferry would take well over a day, so if your time is valuable, the flight doesn't sound too expensive. - Taxman 01:47, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)

## Info on getting permission to use Louie Armstrong's song"What a Wonderful World"

ţ I am tryng to get infomation on how to permission to use a song by Louie Armstrong. Who would I get in touch with? Who would I contact?Any help would be appreciated. J.Widmer

I can help only a bit: the answer depends on [1] who you are, and [2] how you intend to use the song. The rights to the song (ASCAP Title Code: 530148877) are secured through ASCAP (see ASCAP FAQs) for writers Robert Thiele and George David Weiss; their publishers and administrators are:
  ABILENE MUSIC INC   % THE SONGWRITERS GUILD    1500 HARBOR BLVD    WEEHAWKEN , NJ, 07087   Tel. (201) 867-7603


 QUARTET MUSIC INC    % WINDSWEPT HOLDINGS LLC    ATTN: KAREN RODRIGUEZ    9320 WILSHIRE BLVD, SUITE 200    BEVERLY HILLS , CA, 90212   Tel. (310) 550-1500


 RANGE ROAD MUSIC INC    C/O CARLIN AMERICA INC    126 E 38TH STREET    NEW YORK , NY, 10016   Tel. (212) 779-7977


It sounds like you might be intending to use Louis Armstrong's RECORDING of the song rather than the song proper; how much this will cost you depends again on [1] who you are [2] where and how you're using it. In some venues, the right to play such a recording is secured through an ASCAP license that covers all ASCAP music; but since you're probably not a caberet or a theatre, the rights are probably obtainable from the record company (should be on the label of the record).

But a call or e-mail to ASCAP might be the best way to go - they should certainly be able to tell you where to go for what you want. ASCAP contacts the one you want is PROBABLY Playback@ascap.com - Nunh-huh 21:51, 5 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## what city is wiki published in

If you are trying to cite Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing Wikipedia]. If it's curiosity, the master database server and most web/squid servers are located in Tampa, Florida, and there's some Squid cache servers in France that get their content from Tampa. 119 23:04, 5 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Windows file copy

I want to from drive a: to drive b: all and only those files on a; that do not exist on b:. Those that exist on b: I do not want to re-copy. How do I do this?

Nasty hack (there's surely a better way):
     b:
attrib +r /s
xcopy a:\ /c
attrib -r /s


Ick, that's horrid. -- John Fader (talk | contribs) 00:36, 6 Apr 2005 (UTC)
• That's disgusting. And I'm not sure I'd trust it -- xcopy has a zillion switches and you usually need at least one or two to make it work right anyway. I'd suggest getting the freeware XXCOPY, which has a switch /BB to do exactly that. --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 03:13, 6 Apr 2005 (UTC)
If your DOS version supports FOR and IF EXIST, this should work:
for %i in (a:\*) do if not EXIST b:\%i copy a:\%i b:\%i


--Pidgeot (t) (c) (e) 15:39, 6 Apr 2005 (UTC)
• Won't work if you have any subdirectories, will it? --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 18:55, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)
No, it wouldn't - but you could make a batch file and modify it slightly:
@for /r a:\ %%i in (*) do if not EXIST b:%%i @md b:%%~pi
@for /r a:\ %%i in (*) do if not EXIST b:%%i @copy a:%%~pnxi b:%%~pnxi


This will create an exact copy of the directory tree of a:\ in b:\ (with no output) and copy all non-existing files.
If you're working with varying source and destination directories, you can create this instead:
@for /r "a:\%1\" %%i in (*) do if not EXIST "b:\%2%%~pi" @md "b:\%2%%~pfi"
@for /r "a:\%1\" %%i in (*) do if not EXIST "b:\%2%%~pnxi" @copy "a:\%%~pnxi" "b:\%2%%~pnxi"


and call with the following syntax (assuming filename docopy.bat):
docopy [sourcedir] [destinationdir]


which copies sourcedir into destinationdir (so "docopy documents backup" will copy a:\documents\*.* to b:\backup\documents\*.*)
All you need to take care of is to put your parameters in quotes if they are blank (not needed if you call without any parameters) the second parameter) or if there's a space in the path name.
If you also need varying drives, change %1 and %2 to %3 and %4, and replace a: with %1: and b: with %2:. The syntax will then be:
docopy sourcedrive destinationdrive [sourcedir] [destinationdir]


This could look like this:
@echo off
if %1=="" goto error
if %2=="" goto error
for /r "%1:\%3\" %%i in (*) do if not EXIST "b:\%2%%~pi" md "%2:\%4%%~pfi"
for /r "%1:\%3\" %%i in (*) do if not EXIST "b:\%2%%~pnxi" copy "%1:\%%~pnxi" "%2:\%4%%~pnxi"
goto end
:error
echo Usage: %0 docopy sourcedrive destinationdrive [sourcedir] [destinationdir]
:end

If your DOS version supports it, you may be able to remove :end and use goto :EOF instead. Check "help goto".
I can't guarantee that this will work on your DOS version - since I don't know if it supports FOR - but it will work on XP. If you want to check, do a "help for" and see if you get any output and can match the usage shown to the usage here.
You can leave out the @'s if you place "@echo off" at the top of the batch file, although this method saves space. --Pidgeot (t) (c) (e) 21:03, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Iran Provinces

Sorry, this isn't a question. I'm doing a powerpoint presentation on Iran and have been all over your pages(thank you very much) and I notices not much info on some provinces..one particularly is Bushshr... It is also spelled Boushehr and there is a pretty good site called www.itto.org They have a few more details on some of the other provinces. thought you'd like to know. I may go back and add stuff in the future, but first the powerpoiint project. Your site is marvelous. sarah

## Turkey and the fez

An article in The Economist noted that Ataturk, as part of his secularization campaign, banned the fez, the brimless hats Shriners wear. Are fezes still banned in Turkey? PedanticallySpeaking 16:17, Apr 6, 2005 (UTC)

Are those little tiny cars banned too? Taco Deposit | Talk-o to Taco 21:42, Apr 6, 2005 (UTC)

What? Turks can't see That '70s Show? RickK 05:45, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)

## Turkey and scientific names

The newsmagazine The Week reported that the Turkish environmental ministry had decided to rename three species of animals because their scientific names referred to Kurdistan and Armenia. These names, the ministry said, "were given names against Turkey's unity" by foreigners with "ill-intent". So the fox Vulpes vulpes kurdistanica is to be V. vulpes, the sheep Ovis armeniana is to be O. orientalis, and the deer Capreolus capreolus aremenius is to be C. capreolus capreolus. But as scientific names are governed by international bodies of scientists rather than governments, does Turkey's action have any standing? PedanticallySpeaking 16:31, Apr 6, 2005 (UTC)

• It does if you are trying to publish in Turkey! Or do business there. Which means that Encarta, which is sold as a product, probably has to comply with this, but we don't. -- Jmabel | Talk 06:37, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)
• Yeah I'd assume it is akin to the fact that in your household you can say that a cat is now called a tac. You may be successful there if your household members share your views, or not if not. But you likely won't convince many other people to change what they call it. Doesn't prevent you from doing it though. - Taxman 15:01, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)

## John Jacob Astor

Hello evryone. I'm a new user and came here to get information for a report. Thank you ADMINS it's really helpful. I was wondering if anyone had any ideas on a paper on John Jacob Astor. I've already started but I want more resources. Thanks.

-Aszmadeus

## Excel

I have a list of reports I need to write, and a column with the due dates. I want a function that compares the due date to todays date, and lists all the reports that are due in less than 7 days. How do I do this?

Try this:
=IF([due_date_cell]-7>=NOW();"Due soon";"")


Change >= to > if you don't want those due in exactly seven days.
To only see the marked dates, you can use filtering or sorting. --Pidgeot (t) (c) (e) 20:04, 6 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Kant's Socialism

Does anyone know of any sources adressing theories of Immanuel Kant's sympathetic tendancies toward socialism, or theses on his philosophy founding the origins of socialism?

Thanks...

Linden, van der, H. Kantian Ethics and Socialism (Cambridge, MA: Hackett, 1988) ISBN 0872200272 --Theo (Talk) 21:46, 6 Apr 2005 (UTC)

heh.. thats actually the book that gave me the idea... nething else?

Well, I'm way out of my depth here, but I found "But that is not to say that there is no coherent argument by means of which Kant's philosophy of right can be connected with the principle of the welfare state." That's from p. 357 of an article by Wolfgang Kersting in The Cambridge Companion to Kant (ISBN 0-521-36768-9). (A footnote refers to texts by Volker Gerhardt and Kersting himself.) Of course, that does not begin to imply that Kant himself actually sympathized with socialism (avant la lettre). Or maybe by socialism you meant communism? In that case I didn't even say anything. 82.210.117.6 08:35, 9 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Pope John Paul II

Was the Pope's body embalmed?

Louise

:It would pretty much have to be given that he's been lying in state for the past several days. This Seems to confirm it. If you think about it, it does make sense. Decomposition sets in relatively quickly, and various organisms, bacteria, and the like would make an unembalmed body rather unpleasant to say the least. --CVaneg 23:02, 6 Apr 2005 (UTC)

That will teach me not to research specifics before answering a question. --CVaneg 14:57, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)
According to the Vatican he was not.[10] Something to do with his personal beliefs, he did not want his body embalmed. The source is an embalmer whose family has embalmed the popes for the last couple hundred years. He was not called. - Taxman 00:57, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)
Although his body was apparently not embalmed, it was "prepared for display". It is not clear exactly what this preparation entailed. It has also been reported on the TV that the Pope's body is "not decaying" despite being on display for days; some have claimed that this is a sign of the Pope's holiness. (Personally I think that is wishful thinking.) -- FP 01:20, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)

## Water potable without treatment

How common is it now that one can find water which is potable without having been treated? What are the characteristics that are common to such sources? Thanks. 119 03:43, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)

How long is a piece of string? Seriously, you're going to have to be more specific as to what you mean by "potable" and "treated", and what part of the world you're seeking answers for. Generally, though, the best-quality water is collected from uninhabited (and preferably completely closed-off to human) forest catchments. For example, Melbourne's water supply, collected mostly from closed-off catchments of the Yarra River and Thompson River, would probably be safe even without treatment. Even in these cases, however, in the Western world such sources are usually chlorinated "just in case" and flouridated to reduce the incidence of tooth decay (or to dump industrial waste if you believe the loony conspiracy theorists). --Robert Merkel 04:46, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Potable is defined as water suitable for drinking on Water. 'Without having been treated meaning' that water can be used straight from a river or lake. If the question is overly broad, then I just don't know where to start: my point of comparison is that where I live, and it's by no means industrial, it'd be foolish to drink water from a river or lake, it's so polluted. 119 05:16, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Even non-polluted rivers and streams in California aren't safe to drink without treatment, because of giardia. RickK 05:48, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)

• See Water purification. Generally speaking, potable water in 'the wild' will come from underground springs or mountain streams. The more the water is moving, and the closer it is to its source, the safer it will be. Of course, the quality of the soil will affect the water quality. --bainer 07:02, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Twenty years ago, I would drink with gusto from a stream in remote areas of New Zealand. More recently, I've been discouraged from doing so by a friend who works for the Department of Conservation because of the dangers of giardia. Another friend, who tramps regularly, says the dangers are overrated and she drinks from streams regularly. I suspect it comes down to how good your immune system is.-gadfium 08:11, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)

• Untreated water being potable is quite uncommon these days. If you wish to try some untreated water, I guess you'd be best off in the Arctic as I saw in a recent viewing of Serious Arctic. Mgm|(talk) 08:23, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)
I think that the scarcity of potable water is a consequence not only of the increasing pollution and contamination of the planet but also of the reduction in humans' natural immunity. People who live with very little technology are probably just immune to all of the bugs native to their local water supplies. --Smack (talk) 05:12, 8 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## How many cells in the human body?

What is a rough approximation of the number of cells in an average human body? Please include how you derived this number. References to credible external sources are preferred. Jawed 06:43, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)

http://ask.yahoo.com/ask/20020625.html →Raul654 06:53, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)
See also: Bacteria in the human body. "Overall, there are about ten times as many bacteria as human cells in the body, 1 quadrillion (1015) versus 100 trillion (1014), with bacterial cells being much smaller than human cells." David Sneek 07:14, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## A question for fizzicists

In the creation of Club soda Carbon Dioxide is dissolved into water to alter the pH and texture of a drink, and hence its taste. The effect happens naturally in yeast fermentation and carbon was used as the first articifial soda was created accidentally by putting some water over fermenting beer. Recently, however, after tasting a particularly foul carbonated drink, I was led to wonder: Why is Carbon Dioxide still used, considering it leaves an unpleasent taste? I can't think of any reason a tasteless inert gas like nitrogen could not be used. Does anyone know?

• From Nitrogen: "Nitrogen is the largest single component of the Earth's atmosphere (78.1% by volume, 75.5% by weight) and is acquired for industrial purposes by the fractional distillation of liquid air." I guess it's simply easier to produce carbon dioxide and that's why it's used. Liquid air isn't exactly easy to come by. Mgm|(talk) 08:27, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)
Nope, Nitrogen gas is rediculously cheap, espescially if it isn't highly purified. Liquid nitrogen isn't too expensive, but you wouldn't need liquid nitrogen. Does anyone know if there is a big difference between the solubility of CO2 and N2 in water? ike9898 14:09, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)
Notably, Guinness contains introduced nitrogen gas. I can't tell you for sure why nobody else does, but what I'm seeing hints at it being harder to work with. -- Cyrius| 12:30, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Perhaps then the answer is inertia or maybe beverage companies are worried about making the next New Coke. After all, that was a product that was researched and market tested so as to improve its taste, but when it came down to it, people preferred the original version. Considering another example, as a non-aussie, I'm all for making Vegemite fit for human consumption, but I imagine that changing the taste would probably put off the majority of people who eat it now. --CVaneg 14:51, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)

A solution of carbon dioxide in water forms weak carbonic acid which gives a sour taste to the drink. Some people find the acid makes a pleasant contrast to the sweetness of the sugar in a soda. Dissolved nitrogen doesn't form an acid (you need nitrogen dioxide if you want to make nitric acid). Guinness have four reasons for using nitrogen: (1) nitrogen is less soluble in liquids, creates smaller bubbles, hence a creamier, longer-lasting head; (2) nitrogen changes the flavour less than carbon dioxide; (3) nitrogen foams less, hence less wasted spillage; (4) they can kill the yeast as the beer leaves the brewery and put the bubbles into it when it is dispensed, using pressurized nitrogen. This means that the beer keep for longer. However, Guinness is far from the only "nitrogen beer"; lots of brewers have a "nitro-keg" product, often marketed as "smooth" (a code-name for "tasteless"). Gdr 16:35, 2005 Apr 7 (UTC)

You can dissolve way more CO2 in water than N2 because of the CO2 equilibrium with carbonic acid. You can prepare N2 saturated water simply by letting it stand on air for a while - air is essentially N2. No fizzing... Cacycle 23:13, 8 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Announcement of new pope selection

Okay, I've read that normally the appearace of white smoke coming from a specific chimney in the Vatican signals that the new pope has been selected. Now the news keeps reporting that this time bells will also be rung 'to eliminate confusion over the color of the smoke'. Can someone explain what they mean by this ?? ike9898 14:13, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)

I believe there have been occasions when white smoke against a very white cloudy sky has appeared dark, and dark smoke against very dark grey clouds has appeared white. From pictures I've seen it looks to me like what emerges from the chimney is not a great billowing cloud of smoke but quite a modest plume from a little chimney at a fair distance from the crowd. That said, the chances are that it will be quite obvious what colour we're looking at unless the sky is particularly light or dark. Have a look also at this, which says:
In the evening, disappointment was replaced by consternation when more smoke appeared. At first it was white, indicating a new pope had been elected. But then it appeared black, suggesting failure. And when it finally turned grey, our confusion was total. It was only after the official announcement, and a smiling Luciani emerged onto the balcony of the Basilica, that we could be sure it was all over. The cardinals had elected a pope in a single day.
It seems they can have difficulty getting the smoke to come out the colour they want. — Trilobite (Talk) 14:43, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Thereby demonstrating that religion is neither magic nor practical. --Tagishsimon (talk)

## British Political Lingo

C-SPAN last night ran Tuesday's edition of the BBC's Newsnight. The host spoke to three of their election consultants, one from each of the Tories, Labour, and the LibDems, all of them former staffers for their parties. One of them talked about a scenario where the Tories get a lot of "D voters" but not so many "A voters". What are "A voters", "B voters", and so forth? PedanticallySpeaking 15:14, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)

A, B, C1, C2, D, E. refers to social class, it is usually used for analysing voting habits and is also used in advertising for targetting campaigns to one particular group.
• A upper class
• B middle class
• C1 upper working class
• C2 lower working class
• D/E: temporarily or permanently unemployed
Jooler 15:25, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Indeed, although I think the marketing people have relabelled these categories somewhat over the last few decades, to reflect ongoing demographic shifts. While "upper class" used to truly mean the aristocracy and the landed gentry, it mostly just means "rich people" now. Equally I believe D includes people in less than full time employment and low-skill pieceworkers. I can't readily find a wikipedia article about this, which is a shame: marketers, pollsters, and all kinds of social analysist regularly refer to this system for classifying social groups. -- John Fader (talk | contribs) 15:41, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)
I got stuck in some kind of strange double recursion edit conflict. Here's my answer anyway:
I would say it's most likely to refer to this system of classifying people by their job or income, used internally in marketing and political consultancy and other such fields. This scenario would make sense I suppose, because in this election campaign issues like immigration and asylum, as well as Gypsies (perennial easy targets for right-wing politicians), are being exploited by the Conservatives to a greater extent than in the past. The healthy state of the economy since Labour came to power in 1997, combined with memories of how mismanaged it was under the Tories, mean it's now difficult for them to attack Labour on economic issues, so they go for the sort of things that concern the right-wing tabloid press. This would I think tend to attract lower-income voters who would in the past have voted Labour, as the party of the working class, but now see papers like the Sun and the Daily Mail screaming that immigration is out of control, violent crime out of control, etc, and turn to the Conservatives for a 'tough approach'. Meanwhile Labour has moved a long way to the political centre from the days when the top rate of tax you could be paying was as high as 98%, and those on higher incomes (the "A voters") are more inclined to trust Labour not to tax them to death. Others may disagree with my political analysis of course, but I think it's likely that the letters do refer to those categories I mentioned. — Trilobite (Talk) 15:44, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)

And here is my edit conflicted contribution:

Strictly speaking, they are socio-economic classes. I think the Chartered Institute of Marketing defines them occupationally:

• A Higher managerial/administrative/professional
• B Median managerial/administrative/professional
• C1 Junior managerial/administrative/professional, supervisory or clerical
• C2 Skilled manual
• D Semi-skilled and unskilled manual
• E Casual labourers, state pensioners, the unemployed

I also recall some analysts defining them in terms of disposable income. --Theo (Talk) 15:47, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Impressment of Sailors in Modern Law

During the War of 1812, one of the disputes between the United States and Britain was the latter's practice of impressing men into the Royal Navy off of American ships. What laws currently in force in Britain, the U.S., or other countries authorize or ban this practice? Do any international conventions address this subject? PedanticallySpeaking 16:24, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)

• Impressment (other than in the form of military conscription) hasn't been used in the UK since the Napoleonic Wars. I think the right to impress still formally exists in the UK, but I'm not sure. Anyone have any legal details? (The Aubrey-Maturin novels, and associated books, contain a lot of material about impressment.) --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 17:07, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)
• The impressment article leads to the site here that says the right of impressment has never been repealed in Britain. But I wonder if anyone has specific citations of law. PedanticallySpeaking 17:21, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)

There are a couple of issues here. Impressment is a form of conscription and surely will be remain legal as long as the latter does. Of course, the changed nature of the merchant navy and naval warface since 1812 means that it's certainly no longer practical of effective. The Royal Navy didn't resort to it in either World War.

The stopping of United States ships by the Royal Navy on the high seas was resolved by the Treaty of Ghent in 1814. However, during warfare the forcible boarding of supposedly neutral ships is commonplace in the imposition of a blockade. The law of blockade, insofar as it exists, was established by the Treaty of Paris (1856) and the Declaration of London (1910). After World War II neither side wanted to examine the issue too closely as both were guilty of infringement. See [11]. Gdr 17:29, 2005 Apr 7 (UTC)

It would be illegal if it violated the European Convention on Human Rights, whether it remains on the statute books because a test case isn't brought. Dunc| 17:48, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Indeed. But note that the ECHR specifically allows conscription for military service or in emergency (article 4.3). Gdr 18:06, 2005 Apr 7 (UTC)

## scientist who suffered from mental illness

Name a scientist (the more well known the better) who suffered from a form of mental illness, (apart from Charles Darwin) Dunc| 17:54, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Well John Forbes Nash springs to mind, but he was more of a mathematician than a scientist --CVaneg 18:17, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Also, Nikola Tesla exhibited symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder and apparently kept the activation switch for his death ray in his hotel room. --CVaneg 18:41, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Mathematicians are all nuts. All of them. No exceptions. Scientists, however... Well, speaking of Tesla, I'd say Oliver Heaviside was also a couple beers short of a sixpack. But, he was mostly into math. I've always thought Herman Kahn was a good candidate for a rubber room, but I'm not sure he qualifies as a scientist. If drunks count, the list gets longer. But on the whole, while scientists are probably disproportionately dysfunctional in many ways, they don't seem to go off their rockers more than the population as a whole. --Diderot 18:52, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)

To add on to Diderot's comment, there has been a semi-popular, if not well researched, theory that Asperger's Syndrome ocurs with greater frequency in geeks, engineers, and other technically minded folk. Wired magazine wrote an article on it titled The Geek Syndrome of course Wired is probably more interested in circulation numbers than scientific rigor, so take it with a very large grain of salt. --CVaneg 20:08, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)
AS is not a mental illness (but the "geeks & AS" idea is well entrenched among professionals). On the other hand, AFAIK, depression is considered a mental illness. Guettarda 20:22, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Considering that it is in the DSM-IV, doesn't that make it, by definition, a mental illness? --CVaneg 21:46, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)
homosexuality used to be in the DSM, too --Alterego 07:25, Apr 9, 2005 (UTC)

Well, Isaac Newton had a thing about virginity (his) ... RickK 21:01, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)

Newton certainly suffered from some illness; it was probably mercury poisoning from his chemistry experiments.

## Christians

How many people (or what % of world population) are Chrisitians of one variety or another? For the purposes of this question, please be inclusive, i.e. include Mormons, Jews for Jesus, ect. ike9898 17:55, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)

Well, looking at a couple of different references [12] [13] [14]. The number is pegged at about 33% world wide, this seems to be in basic agreement with our article on Christianity which puts the number at 2.2 billion. --CVaneg 18:11, 7 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Thanks. I had looked at the Christian article, but I hadn't thought to look at Christianity. ike9898 22:10, Apr 7, 2005 (UTC)
It of course also depends on how you count people who are of a Christian culture, have been baptized, but do not believe in God or believe in non-Christian gods. For instance, in some European countries such as France, statistics show discrepancies between "official" counts of Catholics and polls on how much of the population believes in God. There seems to be a tendency of some churches of counting as "faithful" anybody who has been baptized in that church, even though that person hardly ever attends such services and does not believe in the teachings of that church... David.Monniaux 06:49, 13 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Meat Certification

I was having some goat the other day, and it made me wonder what sort of process is involved when a restaurant or butcher wants to sell meat that is typically not eaten by most people. Goat is actually a bad example since plenty of people eat it, but what if someone wanted to start selling rat meat? Is there just some general USDA standard for any meat that is meant for human consumption? --CVaneg 00:41, 8 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Well, to give you an idea of how rigorous the federal standard isn't, consider "downers" (cows so sick they can't walk). USDA only banned downers from the human foodchain in December 2003 [15]. Maybe I'm old fashioned, but "too sick to walk" and "edible" don't seem to sit well together. That said, take a read of smokie, and see if you'd fancy a "smiley" any better. Pass the tofu, vicar. -- John Fader (talk | contribs) 00:56, 8 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Many downer cows simply have leg injuries. I don't think it is so preposterous that these animals be eaten, rather than wasted. ike9898 20:58, Apr 8, 2005 (UTC)

If you want to sell rat meat, the appropriate USDA standard says you have to keep the level of hot dog feces to less than 43 ppm. alteripse 02:19, 8 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Meat business is usually an interstate-commerce issue (unless you kill your cow and sell it to your neighbor), it is supposed to be governed by the Federal Meat Inspection Act (http://www.fda.gov/opacom/laws/meat.htm). I guess the law only says "cattle, sheep, swine, goats, horses, mules, and other equines" would be inspected. As to rat meat, I don't know if the federal government would like to inspect it. Possibly not. -- Toytoy 15:46, Apr 8, 2005 (UTC)

There used to be a restaurant in Washington, DC (might still be there, for all I know) on Pennsylvania, Avenue only a few blocks from the White House, that sold stuff like lion meat and rhino. I always wondered if it was inspected, but never had the ... um ... intestinal fortitude ... to try it.  :) RickK 22:32, Apr 8, 2005 (UTC)

You might try asking someone at [16]. -- Jmabel | Talk 06:25, Apr 9, 2005 (UTC)

That restaurant is only 11 years old! How I wish that the Teddy Bear president could have been a customer! Ha! (When I was a kid, I had eaten some washed earthworms. No lions, no rhinos. Just some earthworms freshly and locally harvested. Errrrrgh!) -- Toytoy 16:26, Apr 9, 2005 (UTC)

Just a side remark: you should make it apparent whether you're asking a question for a specific locale (here, the US) or whether you're asking generalities of meat certification processes worldwide, or in "first world" countries. David.Monniaux 06:46, 13 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Louisiana Bayou Snakes

What kind, if any, poisonous snakes are there in the Louisiana Bayou? And exactly how poisonous are they? If a man were to be bitten, would a simple antivenom save his life? (Obviously, he'd probably still have to get medical help, right?)

• Hehe, i have an image in my head now of a guy who's just been bitten by a snake, and scrambled towards his computer to ask this question. And he's waiting for an answer. and will soon die
Well, if you or your friend are still there and not convulsing on the floor, you may want to take a look at the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries web site, in particular this page on local snakes. To answer the second part of your question, I would recommend seeing a doctor after getting bitten by any wild animal, just to be on the safe side. Also, if you've already killed the animal, it's not a bad idea to bring it with you for identification purposes, although I wouldn't necessarily recommend trying to capture or kill a live animal that has already demonstrated a willingness to attack humans. --CVaneg 19:00, 8 Apr 2005 (UTC)
To summarize, there are four major groups of venomous snake in North America: rattlesnakes, copperheads, cottonmouths, and coral snakes. Representatives of all four can be found in Louisiana. In, on, and around the bayous, the primary threat is the cottonmouth, or water moccasin. Unlike most snakes, it is highly aggressive and has been known to actively approach and attack people.
None of the North American snakes are so poisonous that an otherwise healthy individual cannot survive their bite with prompt medical attention, including antivenin administration if necessary. The standard treatment for North American pit viper bites is apparently antivenin (crotalidae) polyvalent (ACP). Coral snakes require their own antivenin, but coral snake bites are quite rare. ACP has a high incidence of allergic reaction and should be administered under doctor supervision. -- Cyrius| 14:10, 9 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## battle cries of the Crusades

I'm trying to find battle cries that were used during the crusades. So far, from a websearch, I've come up with the obvious "Deus lo veult", "St. George!" (English knights), "Non nobis, Domine!" (Templars) and possibly "Pro Fide!" (Knights Hospitaller). On the Islamic side, the only obvious cry I can find would be "Allahu akbar". dab () 12:14, 8 Apr 2005 (UTC)

At the Battle of Dorylaeum, there was "if it pleases God, today we will all become rich" - not really a "battle cry", but a motivation anyway. "Deus le vult" was mostly during the First Crusade, probably not afterwards. I suspect later battles may have focused on the True Cross as a rallying point. This is a really good question...I would suggest you look in some of the chronicles, they probably mention battle cries sometimes. Adam Bishop 03:49, 9 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Maths

Why is it that 1 + 1 = 2???

'two' is the name we give to the number that we get when we add one plus one. DJ Clayworth 16:55, 8 Apr 2005 (UTC)
In any base other than Base two. RickK 22:34, Apr 8, 2005 (UTC)
You're forgetting base one (1 + 1 = 11). --CVaneg 23:18, 8 Apr 2005 (UTC)

"Freedom is the power to say that 2 + 2 = 4. Granted that, all else follows." --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 02:31, 9 Apr 2005 (UTC)

See Peano axioms Samw 03:30, 9 Apr 2005 (UTC)

I was talking with a friend of mine (PhD student in math at Carnegie Mellon) and he mentioned that just to prove 1+1=2 requires a full page. Basically, you use certain axioms to prove set theory, and from set theory you can build arithmetic, and from arithmetic you get 1+1=2. →Raul654 03:39, Apr 9, 2005 (UTC)

This is completely true. From what I understand, you first define "zero" to be the lack of anything, then define "one" to be its successor. Now prove that "one" (the successor of zero) when added to itself gives the "successor of the successor of zero". (I forget how "addition" is defined). This is explained well by Douglas Hofstadter in Gödel, Escher, Bach. -- Brhaspati\talk/contribs 06:39, 2005 Apr 9 (UTC)
You'll need more than just a page. From memory, the Principia Mathematica had something like 230 or so pages to establish results needed such that 1+1=2 follows. Dysprosia 07:11, 13 Apr 2005 (UTC)

If you really want a good answer to this you need to spend the next six months of your life learning a first-order language such that you can read some of the stuff on metamath.org. The author of that site edits wikipedia pretty substantially, actually --Alterego 07:23, Apr 9, 2005 (UTC)

Also, the proof needed to establish that 1 + 1 = 2 depends completely on the system you're proving it in, of course. From a practical stance, 1 + 1 = 2 can be considered a given: you are taught in school that 1 + 1 = 2 as an axiom, and similarly for all additions of numbers less than 10: the addition table of elementary arithmetic. "Why" in this case boils down to "because it just is"—but only because we choose not to break down the concepts further. More subtle is the fact that 1 + 1 = 3 is false, as this is something you're not explicitly taught—you just "know" that any given addition has only one outcome (in most formal systems, it is not assumed that addition is a proper function, so proof is required of this too). The above editors are quite right, though: to get a full appreciation of what it means to simply say that "one plus one equals two" on various levels, a good study of formal mathematics is required, as well as a dose of cognitive psychology (especially knowledge representation), and if you're up for it, some philosophy as well. JRM 21:21, 2005 Apr 12 (UTC)

the "number of pages required to prove 1+1=2" is not a meaningful measure. It depends entirely on from where you start. E.g., if the proof is in, say, English, you need an English grammar before you are even able to understand the words of the proof. There can also be an arbitrary amount of text about the meaning of 'number', 'one', etc. The straightforward axiomatic approach does fit on one page, of course. But to "really" understand anything at all, you'd need to understand the Universe itself first, which is beyond anybody's capabilities (oh, except religious fundamentalists, of course). dab () 09:31, 13 Apr 2005 (UTC)

A meaningful measure of what, actually? Not of "understanding", no. But we were only talking about proofs, and those measures are quite meaningful—though obviously they cannot be compared out of context, and need to include the proof systems as well.
Even limiting ourselves to understanding, your argument is an old chestnut: in order to "really" understand anything at all, you must first understand everything. But this is begging the question and just shows you that "real" understanding is a meaningless concept, as is, by extension, "real" meaning. By that argument, I might argue that "really" understanding anything in English is impossible, because in order to do so, I need an English grammar, and a complete description of English vocabulary... But of course I'd need a language other than English to write them in, which I cannot "really" understand either for the same reason... and so on. That it doesn't work this way is evident from the simple fact that we're communicating in English, whether we are "really" understanding each other or not: there is no infinite regression, because somewhere, at a sufficiently deep level, we simply have the means to acquire language without explicit instructions on how to do so (or, if you like, our brains simply behave as if such instructions were embedded in them). So while it is quite true that there is no absolute meaning, and likewise no absolute measure of understanding, it does not follow that there are no approximations of such measures solely in terms of human cognition (or even, more boldly, generalized intelligence), which is arguably all we're interested in here.
It still holds that "number of pages needed for a proof" is not a very meaningful measure of the level of understanding needed for a statement, phrased in these terms, because it all depends on how complex our proof system is in this sense, and how straightforward our proof. Your original statement, as I understand it, is true in intent but not valid taken to its logical conclusion. JRM 22:58, 2005 Apr 13 (UTC)

## Science

Why is it that we feel pain, physically???

• It's our body's warning system to prevent us getting hurt (for biological explanation, see nervous system). Mgm|(talk) 16:58, Apr 8, 2005 (UTC)
• MGM is correct - pain receptors (nociceptors) fire signals into the nervous system telling our brain that something is wrong. And what's more is that we have nociceptors for specific sensations - heat, cold, and physical deformation (pulling or pushing of flesh). →Raul654 22:42, Apr 8, 2005 (UTC)

We feel pain because of the release of the neurotransmitter Substance P --Alterego 07:17, Apr 9, 2005 (UTC)

Oddly, pain is usually good for you.

• when you damage yourself, pain alerts you to the damage
• pain is an unpleasent sensation.
• When you put a load on the damaged area, you feel more pain, thus warning you to Not Do That.
• People don't like unpleasent sensations, so pain teaches you not to make the same mistake that leads to the damage again

Interestingly pain often occurs *after* you have already acted reflexively.

Pain makes humans superior to most machines including robots, which will blithly rip themselves apart when damaged, because they are oblivious to the danger.

Some forms of leprosy kill off pain sense in the skin, and people with the disease will often be grossly disfigured, because they will be unable to tell if they're injured, and will continue putting unwise loads on damaged limbs.

Kim Bruning 16:54, 12 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Science

Why is the zebra black and white???

• No they're not, they're really white and black. Mgm|(talk) 16:51, Apr 8, 2005 (UTC)
• Essentially because those of their ancestors who looked more like today's zebras were more successful than whatever most of them used to look like. For more specific reasons see the article on zebra, which gives a very brief account of some theories. For more detail, try a search engine and I'm sure you'll find something. — Trilobite (Talk) 17:43, 8 Apr 2005 (UTC)
see melanin, evolution, natural selection. Dunc| 11:36, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## building parallel site to rejoin Wikipedia later - how to best structure...?

Greetings,

I am a Wikipedia _novice_ and have encountered a community of scientists and other parties interested in a revolutionary methodology of sustainability. Though they are open to the concept of a Wiki, we are trying to increase accountability and make the process less intimidating, so would rather build our own and then add the contents to Wikipedia after they have been groomed / are meaningful in size: "I don't see anything on the Wiki about that yet, Frank..."

The site is zeriwiki.org and I am trying to setup the initial structure to provide for easy transition later on; I realize that the value (globally) is in getting the content to the most people. That said, I am planning to do a hunk of work later today, trying to copy the structure of wikipedia so that the transfer of data / links will be easier when we get to it.

Rest assured there will be comments to indicate this methodology and intent as well as our appreciation for wikipedia and links to your site, the GFDL, etc...

I appreciate any suggestions you might have.

Thanks, Justin

One of the most important things is your bottom line license agreement. Better pick one that allows others to use/modify your contents. As a contributor, I can always declare my words are licensed to people under very loose and liberal terms. However, the system level license agreement is a must if you want your contents used by others. -- Toytoy 15:01, Apr 8, 2005 (UTC)
You may also want to make sure your wiki-users aren't only writing pages for which we've already got adequate Wikipedia entries. Otherwise moving things to Wikipedia won't be easy. Perhaps try your hand at the list of requested science articles. Also, don't forget to copy the history of the article if you ever get to moving things here, so we know who's worked on them. Mgm|(talk) 16:56, Apr 8, 2005 (UTC)
Yes! Doing a good merge of two articles on the same subject is difficult, especially if the articles are long. And, it always makes sense to avoid dulication of efforts..... ike9898 18:45, Apr 8, 2005 (UTC)
If you intend to integrate content into wikipedia later, you need to write with that in mind. In particular:
• Content has to be licenced under a wikipedia compatible licence (essentially GFDL or something laxer, like cc-by-sa or BSD)
• As wikipedia doesn't take content that can't be verified from reliable independent sources (in particular, see Wikipedia:No original research), this makes writing about revolutionary scientific work next to impossible in wikipedia (this is deliberate: wikipedia trades being off the cutting edge for keeping out the legions of pseudoscientific nutballs).
Using a wiki for collaborative editing is a great idea, but I think targetting wikipedia as a final repository will severly cramp the contributions you and your colleages make. -- John Fader (talk | contribs) 17:08, 8 Apr 2005 (UTC)
For text, copyleft is not enough--it must be specifically licensed under the GFDL. 119 23:44, 8 Apr 2005 (UTC)

I'd definitely advise against developing independent versions and trying to merge them. Merging two articles on the same topic is one of the most difficult things I've ever done on Wikipedia; if the two versions are significantly different, it's almost easier to write a new article from scratch, incorporating the existing content. Even then, you're left with a cut-and-paste writing style that requires some polishing before reading smoothly.

Perhaps you could work within Wikipedia: create temporary subpages on the articles you want to work with, and do the heavy revisions there. Wikipedia already has accountability in the revision history; anonymous contributions can always be reworked by a more experienced editor with a username, and as long as you're careful with references and avoid the prevalent weasel-wordiness, you can create a solid article. The trouble is, if contributions are made to the main article during that time, you'll have to find a way to merge them in.

You can see why this isn't topic isn't discussed much. In the end, I think the best content is created using the normal Wikipedia edit process. But I wish you luck in your search for a solution. -- Wapcaplet 00:55, 9 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Marshall Law

What is Marshall Law? I don't understand the reference and how it is used?

Martial Law is when a military authority takes over management of an area usually controlled by civil authority. Usually this means that the military abridges certain rights (imposes curfew, holds military tribunals, etc.) in the interest of establishing order. --CVaneg 20:20, 8 Apr 2005 (UTC)
I think that there was a comic book title that had the spelling the used in the question. In that case it was the main character's name, but it also obviously suggested a state of martial law. ike9898 20:51, Apr 8, 2005 (UTC)
Marshal Law is a superhero comic book series created by Pat Mills and Kevin O'Neill for Epic Comics. --Theo (Talk) 21:34, 8 Apr 2005 (UTC)
I added a disambiguation notice to the top of Marshal Law pointing at martial law. I've seen this mistake made before elsewhere. -- Cyrius| 14:16, 9 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Probabilty question that needs an answer...

I was hoping the incredibly smart people of Wikipedia could help me with a simple ath probability question:

There's a mother who has 3 children what are the chances that atleast 2 of her children are girls? And what's th probability that at most 2 are boys?

This is all assuming that the chances of either having a boy or girl are 1/2. Oh, and it'd be apprecited if you gave the answer as a fraction.

k, thx. ^_^

• Loath as I am to do your homework for you, I'll show it to you as a simple combinatorial problem. Three children can be FFF, FFM, FMF, FMM, MFF, MFM, MMF, or MMM. Of those, how many have 2 or more Fs? --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 02:06, 9 Apr 2005 (UTC)
• See factorial. Neutralitytalk 06:35, Apr 9, 2005 (UTC)

## Hemline economy indicator

There's a hypothesis that the economy of a country is correlated to the hemline currently popular in women's clothing. Advocates for this hypothesis usually quote something like "Display silk stockings when rich, hide absence of silk stockings when poor" or "High hemlines -> good social life -> good sales of cosmetics and accessories -> indicates good spending power -> good economy". Has there been any serious (preferably peer-reviewed) research on such economic indicators? Are there other indicators like this involving clothing and lifestyle? -- Brhaspati\talk/contribs 06:59, 2005 Apr 9 (UTC)

Montgomery claims to have traced the relationship between hemlines and economic growth back about 200 years. When skirts are short, everyone is giddy and willing to take risks. "These cycles of excitation and quiescence are predictable," Montgomery declares. "It all relates to the electromagnetic field." Got that? The beauty of this indicator is that it enables economy watchers to thumb through women's catalogs at work.
--Alterego 07:10, Apr 9, 2005 (UTC)
PS, there is actually a lot out there, particularly in EBSCO. The above article was just the first thing I ran into. --Alterego 07:13, Apr 9, 2005 (UTC)

Thanks. Now I know it's not an urban legend (though the strength of the correlation seems to have been questioned by some economists). -- Brhaspati\talk/contribs 01:37, 2005 Apr 11 (UTC)

## test on networking

You're going to have to ask a question. -- Cyrius| 19:21, 9 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Why a green flame from this lighter?

I have a lighter which produces a green flame. I was told that the green color has something to do with copper. How does this work? (I'm in a chemistry course so it is OK to explain in terms of chemical reactions.) --User:Juuitchan

Basically, all substances give off a specific spectrum when heated; when they burn, or are in a flame, this means a lot of heat. (The exact spectrum is due to unique properties of the molecules; electron bands &c.). Copper salts produce blue-green flames; it can vary quite a bit depending on the rest of the compound.
Testing substances like this by burning them is the "flame test", which you may have run across; I remember it being quite good fun in my school chemistry classes... :-) Shimgray 19:02, 9 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Your lighter probably has copper in the flame, yes. Not chemical reaction. It's quantum physics. *VERY* complicated. In simple terms, the flame you see from a lighter are small particles of random stuff that get caught in the hot air from the combustion reaction. Being hot, they radiate out their energy as light.
How do they do that? A simplified explanation: Now, each atom of these particles consist of electrons in orbits around a nucleus. Orbits are not the same as planetary orbits in a large number of ways - one of them being that only certain, specific orbits work. Copper, then, has it's orbits filled up a different way to the orbits in atoms of other elements. When it has lots of energy, an electron in the outermost orbit can jump up a few levels. But it's not stable like this, so eventually it drops back down again, getting rid of this energy with a couple of photons. Since different elements have different such transitions, they radiate photons of different energies. The energy of a photon is expressed in it's frequency - ie. it's colour.
I bet there's an article on WP about this somewhere.--Fangz 19:09, 9 Apr 2005 (UTC)
All such articles seem to be stubs. --Theo (Talk) 22:30, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC)
This information is indeed remarkably inaccessible. Between Bohr model, electron configuration, spontaneous emission and quantum you can get some understanding, but it's not easy. Questions like these could help us cover our material better. JRM 20:52, 2005 Apr 12 (UTC)
You are seeing line emission from particles of hot metal within the flame. Which colours you see will depend on which emission lines are activated, which depends on the chemical element and what temperature it is at. The colours in fireworks work on the same principle. I think light#Light sources and emission spectrum get you there, although could be better. Perhaps we need a list of colours of elements in a flame (sodium, yellow; potassium, purple; copper, green). -- ALoan (Talk) 10:21, 13 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Ok, I've added Flame test. Someone help me expand it, please?--Fangz 16:26, 14 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Wondering about a music video

I remember seeing a music video awhile back for a late 90s/early 2000s techno song. It involved a camera panning across a set of train tracks (for the entire video) with railroad structures, buildings, trees, lakes and other scenery periodically passing by. What was remarkable about the video was that each piece of scenery seemed to represent an aural element of the song, and that the same pieces repeatedly came into view with the same timing and quantity of the element they represented. Do you know what I'm getting at? Does anyone know the name of the video and the artist? Thanks. -rlwelch

I vaguely remember seeing something along these lines by The Chemical Brothers --Alterego 01:34, Apr 10, 2005 (UTC)
I've found it. It's called "Star Guitar" . Thanks for the tip. -rlwelch 04:58, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Web of music

This is random, but there was this site I used to go to to find new interesting bands, made in the form of a self-organising map. You typed in the name of a band (or maybe did it straight from the address bar), and this web would appear, placing closely-related bands near to each other. You could click on any band, and the map would then re-form centered around that band. The site also had similar sections for books and films, as I recall.
Any clues as to what I'm talking about? Any links appreciated. — Asbestos | Talk 01:17, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC)

liveplasma, formerly musicplasma --Alterego 01:32, Apr 10, 2005 (UTC)
Hmmm... interesting, That's not the site I had in mind — the one I remember didn't have graphics quite as fancy, and formed itself more like an elastic web — but it seems quite similar. Thanks! — Asbestos | Talk 13:08, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Did you perhaps mean Music-Map? Mindspillage (spill yours?) 22:06, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Yes! Excellent, thank you very much. — Asbestos | Talk 23:08, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## autolink keywords in html

i'm trying to create a keyword autolink file that will replace keywords throughout my webpage with hyperlinks. soo.

if i wrote in my website

ayumi hamasaki releases new album my story, utada hikaru realeses exodus 04

i could specify ayumi hamasaki as a keyword, and when someone views the html file, it would link ayumi hamasaki to a page about ayumi hamasaki.

it would look similar to what wikipedia does, were it looks for keywords and hyperlinks them.. i would like to know how to do this.. thanks

Junpei

Wikipedia doesn't do this automatically. Both on Wikipedia and on your own website this needs to be done manually. Wikipedia only provides an easier way to do this: You can just use brackets as in "[[Ayumi Hamasaki]]" here, instead of the more clumsy HTML standard
"<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayumi_Hamasaki">Ayumi Hamasaki</a>".
Sebastian 03:36, 2005 Apr 10 (UTC)

thnx Sebastian, what if php was used, such as applying preg_replace for an array, this is some php, however since it's merealy replacing certain things on urls so far in the $txt var string. but obviously i cannot put everything in strings.. it would be too inconvienent to re-name my website to php, considering i would have to edit the .htaccess file to do a re-direct, i'd also probably lose search engine rankings, currently i recieve several million hits a month. <?php$txt = ' avex.com ayumi hamasaki releases new album my story, utada hikaru realeses exodus 04'; $txt = preg_replace( '/(http|ftp)+(s)?:(//)((w|.)+)(/)?(S+)?/i', '<a href="">4</a>',$txt ); echo $txt; ?> also i would have to write all my strings and then echo them, this would make it much more difficult to edit and update here is similar to replace words in a string <?php$string = 'avex.com ayumi hamasaki releases new album my story, utada hikaru realeses exodus 04.'; $patterns[0] = '/ayumi hamasaki/';$patterns[1] = '/utada hikaru/'; $replacements[1] = 'artist 1';$replacements[0] = 'artist 2'; echo preg_replace($patterns,$replacements, $string); ?> i'm assuming you can also specify$replacements[1] = '<a href=/"www.ayumi.com/" target=/"_blank/">ayumi hamasaki</a>'; or rather u don't even need the excape slashes because i'm using single quotes

any idea how to apply this too all text in a website? or even make an array of keywords in an external document?

ps, i have studied html, php and mysql though i forget most of php and mysql it and i'm them studying again in college though just beggining again. still this problem is boggling, i know amazon.com has some solution as they autolink author's i believe

Junpei

You can set up an Apache handler to have all your .HTMLs run through the PHP parser... add the following to your .htaccess:
AddHandler application/x-httpd-php .html
AddHandler application/x-httpd-php .htm

You could have a global variables file that you use a php require_once() on for each page, and then do whatever from there. I'm using several requires on my website to get the stylesheet and XHTML declarations in without having to manually declare the doctype each time. Alphax τεχ 05:39, 14 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## naruto

can you please tell me what website i can go to see naked pictures of naruto???

---Sasuke1990Sasuke

You're too young to see Naruto's "Orioke no jutsu". Ask again in 2008.145.60.221.2 08:07, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC)
けるける！！ 駄目。。不潔である。。。 :( don't asking again in 2008. Junpei

## Andrea Dworkin: dead or alive?

A newly registered contributor has edited Andrea Dworkin and April 9 to indicate that Dworkin died on that date of this year. Someone mentioned on the talk page that there don't seem to be any news articles etc to back this up. Does anyone have any information on this? Thanks. moink 10:32, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC)

I can't seem to find anything, either. My suggestion would be to leave the death-date off until you have something to pin it to; better out of date for a couple of days than wildly inaccurate. Shimgray 11:21, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC)
User:Viajero added it back in, after a revert; I've left a note on his talk page asking for a source. Meelar (talk) 17:36, Apr 10, 2005 (UTC)
Seems to me that if she'd died it would be in the newspapers, I think this is misinformation. -- Jmabel | Talk 20:01, Apr 10, 2005 (UTC)
It is not breaking news at The Guardian newspaper web-site and I cannot imagine anywhere more likely to feature this story were it true. --Theo (Talk) 22:35, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC)
She's definitely dead now. Dunc| 19:30, 12 Apr 2005 (UTC)

### Getting confirmation

I've been trying to find out by tracking sources. It's on the blogs now, but in each case the blog references e-mails rather than either first-person accounts or traditional media. Either she's dead and her agent both hasn't sent out a press release and hasn't been called by anyone in the traditional media, so only a few e-mail accounts have gotten out, or she's not dead and word is not travelling faster than the rumour. I'm not sure at this point which is more plausible. I'd heard that she was ill, but Dworkin's not the kind of person to get all mediatised about it.

There's an interesting story here, but either its about how rumours can propagate on the web, or it's about some very strange media behaviour. I just can't tell which.

She's represented by the Elaine Markson Literary Agency at +1 212 243-8480. In four or five hours, somebody should call and get a confirmation if possible. It's what the mainstream press is supposed to do in this situation, we ought to do the same. --Diderot 07:58, 11 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Obit in The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/12/arts/12dworkin.html PedanticallySpeaking 17:17, Apr 14, 2005 (UTC)

## charles marriage

Would a polite english gentleman/madam explain me about all the fuss going on on the island? Wasn´t the anglican church founded so the king could divorce? So why, some centuries later, the prince´s second marriage is a scandal? --Alexandre Van de Sande 14:43, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC)

• You might wanna read about Edward VIII of the United Kingdom →Raul654 14:48, Apr 10, 2005 (UTC)
• And Abdication Crisis of Edward VIII in particular. →Raul654 14:50, Apr 10, 2005 (UTC)
• Relavant quote -- many have argued that the problem for Edward was that as King he was also Supreme Governor of the Church of England, which did not allow divorced persons to remarry in church while a former spouse was still living, →Raul654 14:51, Apr 10, 2005 (UTC)
• You might not expect what you ask for if you go looking for a "polite English madam", but I digress. Note also that Camilla's former husband is still alive; the Church has a problem with him being around, not with Charles per se. Shimgray 14:54, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC)
As a polite English gentlemen myself I can say for certain I don't know a single person who cares, so reports of a fuss on the island are greatly exaggerated. Also, it couldn't really be said to be a scandal. A far greater scandal occurred when Charles was married to Diana and it became known that he was having an affair with Camilla. The feeling now among the minority of the population who care about these things seems to range from a kind of resigned acceptance that the foul temptress herself is now married to the heir to the throne, to a hope that Charles and Camilla will at last be happy together after all the twists and turns that have led to their eventual marriage. But please don't get the impression that we are all sitting round discussing the latest royal scandal as if it were a matter of life and death. It passes most people by as far as I can tell. At most it is a kind of soap opera that people are peripherally aware of. The royal family has certainly provided drama and entertainment for those who take any notice, but there is no great fuss as far as I can see. Unless of course you consult the tabloid newspapers, but then they never have quite been able to grasp reality. — Trilobite (Talk) 15:03, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Here in provincial East Anglia, the topic has cropped up daily among office workers, pub drinkers and (I am told) church congregations. The most widely held view appears to be one of mild goodwill. Some Anglicans are concerned about a divorcee remarrying whilst the spouse is alive. Others see the church as hypocritical for blessing a union that it would not officiate. My living (Roman Catholic) ex-spouse proved to be no impediement to my remarriage in an Anglican church, however, so the matter is clearly confused and confusing. And the foundation of the Anglican church as a mechanism to facilitate Henry VIII of England's divorce is a huge oversimplification. --Theo (Talk) 22:54, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Desimplifying only slightly, what Henry failed to get from the Pope was an annullment, not a divorce. DJ Clayworth 17:06, 11 Apr 2005 (UTC)

In fact the Anglican church is one of the few churches that still obeys Matt 5:31,32 You can't get two church marriages unless your spouse dies. That's why Charles is only legally marrying Camilla (she's divorced). The Anglican church didn't split off so people in general could have divorces, but so that Henry VIII would be head of the church, which happened to enable him to grant himself an annullment, loot monasteries, etc. --Jbaber

George I divorced his wife too (before he became King in England) and somehow the C of E survived that. ;) PedanticallySpeaking 14:53, Apr 21, 2005 (UTC)

## Digital signature

How can I get a digital signature or DSA/RSA public key? I've read the relevant articles, but are there any links to free programs that can do it for you? Thanks.

GNU Privacy Guard. -- John Fader (talk | contribs) 22:50, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Thank you.

## Herpes

A few questions:

1. The Herpes simplex virus article says that the prevalence of herpes simplex in the US is about 30%. This site says it's between 50-90%. Which is right?
2. With regard to transmission, is it the virus or the symptoms that spread? By this I mean, if two people have had had herpes at some point in their lives and one has an outbreak, is there any further risk of transmission between the two? Is there second person likely to get an outbreak from contact with the first?
3. Does it make any difference where transmission occurs? Is kissing more likely to cause an outbreak around the lips, or are outbreaks independent of any of that?
4. Related, is oral sex from a man with herpes around the lips likely to transmit genital herpes to a woman?

Thanks for any help. --anon.

Well, I can't really answer all of your questions, but here's my understanding:
1. Our article actually says that incidences of herpes rose by about 30% between 1976 and 1994. It it gives the overall incidence of HSV-2 (genital herpes) at around 21.9%. This does not put it at odds with the site you referrenced as its 50-90% statistic refers to the prevelance of HSV-1 (oral herpes).
4. According to our article, herpes is a local infection. Therefore it is possible to transmit HSV-1 (oral herpes) to another person's genitals through oral sex. Conversely it is possible to trasmit HSV-2 (genital herpes) to another person's mouth through oral sex. Note, though, that these are different viruses. HSV-1 will not become HSV-2 upon infection of the genitals, it just happens to be that HSV-1 is referred to as oral herpes and HSV-2 is referred to as genital herpes because those are the areas that tend to be the most infected.
Well, that's about all I could suss out of my own brain and the articles you referred to. Hopefully, someone else should be able to help out with the rest. --CVaneg 00:52, 11 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Thanks for that. Anyone know anything abiout question 2 above?
Yes. New outbreaks can definitely be caused by reinfection spread by oral/genital, oral/oral, or genital/genital contact. - Nunh-huh 23:34, 12 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## aliens

Assuming aliens exist in other worlds, why is it that people always assume that they are smarter and more advanced than we humans are?

Because a science fiction story about dumb, unadventurous and rather retarded aliens wouldn't be very exciting, and wouldn't sell well. Notable exceptions are Bruce Sterling's excellent short story The Swarm ("in the long term, intelligence is not a survival characteristic") and Niven and Pournelle's Footfall. And the killer space yoghurt in The Andromeda Strain wasn't exactly Einstein either. -- John Fader (talk | contribs) 01:19, 11 Apr 2005 (UTC)
You forgot to mention the alien species in the Ender's Game books - the piggies and the descolada aliens are definitely less advanced (while Jane, who is arguably another alien species, is more advanced). →Raul654 10:48, Apr 12, 2005 (UTC)
It's not clear to me that they do. Aliens who vist earth are usually assumed to be more advanced because they'd have to be to make interstellar journeys.
That assumption is, however, pure anthropocentrism. In practice, mainstream audiences want to read stories about roughly human things fighting other roughly human things, and as we can't fly to other stars its incumbent on the author to make his fictous alens more advanced so they can do so. Deeply non-human creatures (killer space yohurt clinging to rocks, wispy probability creatures that travel via singularities, malevolent xray memes that infect hapless radioastronomers' brains) can all do so, and in a ways no more unlikely than caucasian bipeds from sagitarius flying around in metal spaceships at warp factor seven. But you can't identify with the space yoghurt, and you can't understand the motivation of the propability wisp. The travails of an anaerobic mildew in its quest to grow on some Oort Cloud object inevitably lack the trajedy, comedy, romance and adventure that mainstream readers demand in stories. -- John Fader (talk | contribs) 17:33, 11 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Some postulate that viruses are aliens who arrived here via meteorites. viruses may be more advanced for survival through space travel, but are less advanced in other ways. Kingturtle 04:58, 11 Apr 2005 (UTC)
As John said above, with stories based in current times, since we are not able to travel much beyond our own planet, then the aliens usually must be at least advanced enough to make it here. (So that makes them more advanced than us.
For stories not based in our present, it is possible to have us be the more advanced species. For example, there are numerous Star Trek episodes that feature Federation ships, usually led by humans, observing or interacting with less advanced species. Although, usually the bad guys are almost equally matched with us -- I guess that makes for better drama.
Because the thought of a race dumber than us is too horrific to contemplate? DJ Clayworth 17:02, 11 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Because most SF customers are dumb. It's harsh but true.

Imagine that you're really a spaceman of the twenty-some century, what would you do? You probably still have to calculate your orbit very carefully and spend years if not much longer to travel to anywhere not too far away from the sun. Life sucks in space. Space sucks.

Chances are you still have to obey most natural laws known in the 20th century.

Even if you do find something alive in space, it will either be not interesting ("Mom! It's a jazz-singing germ!") or it will not communicate with us at all (Do you really know your dog?). Even if we may speak to each other, it will not be any helpful. You don't know about wildlives. People living by the Amazon River don't know about stock option. Interspecies communication is just pointless.

To write a Star Trek story, you have to make your aliens speak English, eat human foods, breath earth air, stand roughly as tall and share most basic U.S.-centric values. Kligons, Romulans, Borgs, ... They are all miserable U.S. actors with funny latex noses and ears. They are cardboard earthlings. These stories are for lowly educated losers. To me, a duck makes a much more convincing alien.

Trust me, a bunch of monkeys have their own internal politics. You don't care about their lives. They don't care about yours. So are earthlings and aliens.

A more realistic story would involve with boring issues. What if they don't want to trade with us? What if they are living in another time scale? What if we cannot explain to them the differences between a door and a window? What if their meat taste better than beef? What if they just want to order plastic bottle caps from us? How do they pay us? What if they speak to your shadow? A truly convincing story will be more like a field observation of bugs. SF movies are for dumb people who don't even have a life. Most of their audiences cannot even speak a foreign language let alone see beyond 10000 light years. So what do you expect? -- Toytoy 13:04, Apr 12, 2005 (UTC)

A science-fiction story involving aliens is not foremost a work of astrobiology or a realistic speculation on alien life. It is foremost a story; a tale; a narrative. If it is incomprehensible or boring, then it will fail as a story, even if it succeeds as a speculation.
Sf is not so different from any other genre of writing. You have to have engaging characters or scenarios in order to tell a story, and in order to convey a message. This is as true if your characters are from Zeta Reticuli as much as if they are from Brooklyn. (Most sf movies, on the other hand, are simply action movies with fancier special effects. They are showcases for explosions, tits, tense last-second defusings of bombs, fistfights and gunfights. They just put the explosions in space (with sound), paint the tits green, and call the guns "blasters".)
Nobody knows what space aliens would be like. Therefore, they make an excellent element of mystery or difference, much in the same way that people once told tales of mysterious lands inhabited by lotus-eaters, Amazons, or immortals. Star Trek, for instance, has always used alien species for social allegory, the differences in species standing in for differences in human society -- nation, class, gender, social organization, personality type.
Why does a Klingon or a Narn have two eyes, two legs, and stand about six feet tall? It isn't because Roddenberry or Straczynski are trying to tell us that real space aliens will have these attributes. It is because that's what works in the narrative. Of course there are no Klingons running around the galaxy -- if there are other forms of intelligent life, they're as likely to look like starfish as to look like humans. You err in believing that the audience thinks there are Klingons or anything resembling them. But likewise there never were any Amazon women or cyclopes in the ancient world -- that doesn't damage their interest in the narratives of myths and epics.
(For what it's worth, by the way, your use of insults such as "lowly educated losers" and "dumb people who don't even have a life" to describe your fellows is not permitted on Wikipedia. Please read the Wikipedia:No personal attacks policy and learn to deal with people of different interests in a civil manner around here. If you're looking for a flamewar, Usenet is down the hall.) --FOo 14:24, 12 Apr 2005 (UTC)

You might be interested in digging up a copy of Cohen & Stewart's What Does a Martian Look Like?; a book-length discussion of fictional aliens, and some attempts to baseline the science behind them. I believe it goes into the "technological" aspects at some point, as well. Shimgray 18:39, 12 Apr 2005 (UTC)

I'd dispute that people "always" assume that. Nevertheless, aliens in UFOs would have to be smarter than us because we (apparently?) don't know how to do the same. Dysprosia 07:07, 13 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## your Spetznatz page

I tried editing this page myself, but it listed the Russian and IPA translation in code.

The IPA listing for Spetsnaz

(Войска специального назначения - спецназ/Voiska spetsialnogo naznacheniya - spetsnaz, /ʃpecnaz/ in IPA)

is incorrect. Specifically the ending for the adjective "special." even though it has the -ого endng, it is pronounced as if the г was a B instead, which produces a sound similar to the English letter v. The listing then, should read like this:

Spetsnaz (Войска специального назначения - спецназ/Voiska spetsialnovo naznacheniya - spetsnaz, /ʃpecnaz/ in IPA)

Thank you for your time and attention.

This is a question of transcription verses transliteration. The name is correctly transliterated - the Roman alphabet version corresponds to the Cyrillic spelling of the Russian version. --Diderot 10:18, 11 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Warning messages to innocent people

Though I have only used Wikipedia once I have recived about 5 new messages saying that I have placed nonsense on pages that I dont even know about. I have done nothing yet I get 5 messages thretning to block me and throw me out! Innocent people who find this site on places like ask jeves and google, usually have no intention to vandalize this site but as soon as they come back to get somemore information they are threatened and called a vandal for no reason what-so-ever! Send threatning messages to the people who do the crimes, not people who come here once to learn about something.

- A displeased and threatened user

Sorry about that. It's not you, but someone sharing your IP address (not a lot you can do about that, except not use AOL). Consider getting a login, with a cookie to log you in every time, and you won't get these type of messages. Dunc| 08:54, 11 Apr 2005 (UTC)
• Yep, Dunc is right. Unless you sign in there's no way for us to distiguish you from the abusive user. A login would solve your problem. Mgm|(talk) 09:30, Apr 11, 2005 (UTC)
This is a problem that needs to be sorted out. I have a signin but I still get blocked or warning messages because most of Southern Africa's internet goes through a proxy (SAIX) and it is this IP adrress not mine that gets blocked or warnings ect. --Jcw69 11:13, 11 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Would you be so kind as to leave me the exact IP addresses of those South African proxies? We have a list of proxies for major providers, which we use in order not to block networks such as AOL's for one single user. David.Monniaux 06:34, 13 Apr 2005 (UTC)
If you have a named account you shouldn't be getting messages on your named talk page, except about things you have actually done. DJ Clayworth 13:50, 13 Apr 2005 (UTC)

This discussion should really be at the Village Pump. -- FP 14:16, Apr 13, 2005 (UTC)

## osmosis and diffusion

can you please tell me the differences between osmosis and diffusion???

## Psychology study, repeat an action N times to establish new habit

Someone told me about a psychology-type study where the subjects were given some new physical motion/activity to perform. The study concluded that if a person repeated the action 30 times (60 times?) then most people would absorb the action as a habit, rather than have to consciously think when they did the action. Unfortunately, the person cannot find any URL or such that I could quote it and reference it. Anyone have any URL's to articles that discuss this aspect of learning a new habit? Name of researchers who did this? anything? Thanks. FuelWagon 22:13, 11 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Some googling turned up this at MIT, which might prove interesting. It seems to be fairly standard - if you do something simple and mechanical a lot, you begin to do it without thinking. (I've been working on a library front desk in the last short while - I've begun to note that a lot of the processing work now requires a lot less thinking than before). Perhaps this on "habit" might be helpful, as well. Shimgray 22:26, 11 Apr 2005 (UTC)

In the Connectionist model of the cognition, controlled processing (the analog to serial processing) occurs when we perform an unfamiliar task. As performance on this task increases and it becomes easier, we will begin to use automatic processing (the analog to parallel processing). Patting your head would be considered automatic processing, as would rubbing your belly (these things are both very easy to do alone, and you can just as easily do something else easy at the same time, such as chewing gum). However, patting your head and rubbing your belly at the same time would require controlled processing, at least until you became good at it and could nearly do it without paying any attention to it. Then it would be automatic processing ;) --Alterego 17:58, Apr 12, 2005 (UTC)

## How does the brain turn images,wordds etc into memories?

I need to know How the brain turns words,images,sounds etc into data and stores it into the brain for later recall. I have a science project on short term and long term memory due tommorrow and I have always trusted Wikipedia to be there when I need help and extra information.

Light and sound are transduced (transduced means converted from one form of energy into another) into electrical signals by the rods and cones in your eyes, and the cilia in your ears. These signals (action potentials) are transmitted along afferent neurons into the brain. The brain then stores it -- nobody really knows exactly how, but the best theory is that short term memories are stored in chemical form, and the long term memories are stored by reshaping the brain (in particular, changing how certain neurons in the brain connect to each other). →Raul654 22:40, Apr 11, 2005 (UTC)
Warning: (hopefully helpful) physiological jargon follows. True, no one knows exactly how memories are stored, but most research points to long-term potentiation (LTP). What's certain is that memories are stored not in neurons themselves, but in the connections (or synapses) between neurons. According to LTP, memories more or less form by a game of tug-of-war between postsynaptic protein kinases and phosphatases. Strong input to the postsynaptic cell excites kinases, which tend to make temporary changes to the cell, like increasing the sensitivity of postsynaptic receptors to the neurotransmitters released by the presynaptic cell. (That's but one example; there are lots of other kinase-related changes that can enhance memory.) By increasing the sensitivity of these receptors, the postsynaptic cell will now respond more readily to presynaptic input, and the synapse between the cells has strengthened. (This is learning at the synaptic level.) If the strong input ceases, the kinase activity will remain only for a short while; eventually, the strength of the synapse will return to its prior state (i.e. before it received the strong input). This is the basis of short-term memory. On the other hand, if the strong input continues, the kinases eventually travel to the cell nucleus and promote the synthesis of so-called plasticity-related proteins. These proteins travel back to the synapse, making long-lasting changes to its structure and function that strengthens the communication between pre- and postsynaptic cells. These long-lasting changes are the foundation of long-term memory. I hope that helps. --David Iberri | Talk 23:41, Apr 11, 2005 (UTC)

It is helpful to think of the cognitive processes as active and not passive. A large part of recall involves constructing details based on semantic cues and what you know at the current time (e.g., the accuracy of long term memory is effected by what has recently happened. This is known as retroactive interference). In Diberri's excellent summary of the physiologiy, you see that we have observed a large majority of the phenomenon that that occur inside the brain to encode memory. A key point that your science project should touch on is what we don't know: that is, how these physical mechanisms give rise to attention and consciousness. --Alterego 17:48, Apr 12, 2005 (UTC)

## How does aging affect short term memory?

I've been wondering why the elderly lose their short term memory or recall of it. Has it been proven how this happens? Is it a loss of chemicals needed? I have a science fair project on aging and short term memory and need to find this information. I couldnt find it any where else.

Here is a link I found on the National Library of Medicine (NLM) website:
It include an explaination of how memory works, and how aging changes things. It doesn't go into detail, but you probably find more info at the NLM site. Kenj0418 00:33, Apr 12, 2005 (UTC)

Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease are both related to memory loss. In general memory loss in the elderly will be due to deterioration of the limbic system and the restructuring of memories in the brain. For example, as you enter late-life stages it becomes easier to recall memories from adolescence, while your short-term memory will be less sharp than it used to be. You may be interested in our article on Nootropics as well. --Alterego 17:32, Apr 12, 2005 (UTC)

What was the question again? Adam 03:13, 19 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## What is the national dean's list?

I received a mail from them today, and I am not sure if it is a hoax or any sort. It would be nice to have an article about it as well. -- Taku 00:31, Apr 12, 2005 (UTC)

IMHO, based on info from when I was in school a while back, the National Dean's List, Who's Who among _____, and similar awards are pointless, but mostly harmless. From what I can tell, the main purpose seems to be to get your to by a book or other product from them listing you as winning the award. You used to be able to accept the award without buying anything or paying them anything. I see no harm in this (they already have your name and address anyway), but I wouldn't provide any information that you wouldn't want publicly available. As someone looking at resumes, I wouldn't place any value (positive or negative) or someone listing one of these awards, but your mileage may vary. Kenj0418 00:43, Apr 12, 2005 (UTC)
Several universities I applied to had Do not include Who's Who at the top of the Awards section of their applications --Jbaber
Had you paid by check in US$, it would be your responsibility to ensure that the school received the appropriate amount in sterling at the time that the check cleared. The clearing bank will also charge fees consisting of a fixed element and a proprotional element for the conversion. For this reason, many UK organisations require cheques used to settle transactions to be drawn upon a UK-based bank. I guess that fee arises from the school's desire to recover the credit card company's charges, but this is mere speculation. In your position, I would tell the school that I understood that I had already settled in full and ask for an explanation of the extra charges. [This is not advice] --Theo (Talk) 12:09, 14 Apr 2005 (UTC) As far as I can tell, Theo's analysis is correct if the transaction was handled as a "sale" (where they charge you a specific amount, and you pay that amount). In my experience, however, schools have running accounts for students, and what you pay is deducted from what you owe. In this case, the school will receive from you the converted value, and again their policy on conversion rates (and fees) would come into play. Of course, all of this is just one non-professional's opinion. -Rholton 14:00, Apr 14, 2005 (UTC) [This is not legal advice either - please speak to your lawyer] The answer is likely to depend on: • how you paid (cheque/cash/credit card) and when • how much you were due to pay, in which currency, and when • most importantly, the terms of the relevant contracts (between you and the school, and you and your bank and/or credit card provider as appropriate) The discrepancy could arise, for example, from the school seeking to pass on its bank or credit card fees to you, or from the school not converting your dollars into sterling until some time after you had paid or at a different rate than you had expected, or a simple mistake. The best approach, as Theo says, is probably going to be for you to explain that you thought you had already paid in full (a receipt from the school for your payment would be excellent) and to ask for an explanation of the discrepancy. At the least, some explanation of them asking for a further payment some six months later seems to be called for.-- ALoan (Talk) 14:35, 14 Apr 2005 (UTC) Thanks very much for your replies. I've emailed the school and explained my stance, they said they'd get back to me. We'll see what happens... Thanks, --anon. ## PROPHET'S BIRTHDAY I have checked thoroughly ecnough on the above subject in arabic but couldn't find it, which kept me amaze! The question is I want to know how the prophets birthday start, its origin, and according to Islamic Legal scholars, is it permissible or not, a bid'a? If possible, could you bring the picture of the person who started the maulud nabiy and from whom does the originator pick the birthday from? Presumably this is the prophet Muhammad, who was born c. 570. Exact dates of his birth are probably guesses, but made up by a scholar to have a day to mark the event, e.g. Jesus probably wasn't born on 25 December. The date for Muhammad is 20 April 570, or 571. Dunc| 16:58, 14 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## Chemical reaction type 2NaHCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) --> 2CO2(g) + H2O(l) + 2NaCl(aq) What kind of chemical reaction type is this? Neutralitytalk 13:45, Apr 14, 2005 (UTC) Well, it looks like an old-fashioned CO2 fire extinguisher. -- Toytoy 14:09, Apr 14, 2005 (UTC) Sodium bicarbonate is a peculiar animal; won't the NaHCO3(s) dissolve into Na+ (aq) and HCO3− (aq) anyway; if so, isn't this really: 2Na+ (aq) + HCO3− (aq) + 2H+ (aq) + Cl− (aq) → 2CO2(g) + H2O(l) + 2Na+ (aq) + Cl− (aq) or HCO3− (aq) + 2H+ (aq) → 2CO2(g) + H2O(l) In any event, I'm not convinced that those reaction types are mutually exclusive - isn't this is redox and neutralization (in fact, isn't neutralization a form of redox? Acids are generally reducing and alkalis are generally oxidising, no?). -- ALoan (Talk) 14:18, 14 Apr 2005 (UTC) (Edit conflict) Acid-base reaction (neutralization), but technically it's a redox reaction. Alphax τεχ 14:31, 14 Apr 2005 (UTC) This is not a redox reaction since the starting materials, and products both have the same oxidation state. (Since there are no intermediates, we don't have to worry about whether they change oxidation state.) This is just an acid-base reaction as stated above. ~K 15:02, 14 Apr 2005 (UTC) 2NaHCO3(s) → Na+ + HCO3- (solvation) 2HCl(aq) means 2H+ + 2Cl- (solvolysis) HCO3- + H+H2CO3 (protonation) H2CO3 + H+ → H3CO3+ (protonation) → H2O + CO2 + H+ (beta-elimination reaction) As you can see, there is no oxidation or reduction step. If you count the atoms in your equation you see that there is something wrong. The correct equation is: NaHCO3 + HCl → CO2 + H2O + NaCl Cacycle 12:37, 15 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## Saturday Night Live There was a skit where either Charlie Sheen or Emilio Estevez was part of a gameshow to identify the type of nerd he and others were. What was the name of the gameshow and and when did it air? PedanticallySpeaking 17:24, Apr 14, 2005 (UTC) Emilio Estevez played the host of a game show in the 18th episode of the 19th series broadcast April 16 1994. I do not know the nature of the game show parodied in this episode. --Theo (Talk) 17:41, 14 Apr 2005 (UTC) From memory, the show was entitled Geek, Dweeb or Spaz. Taco Deposit | Talk-o to Taco 17:55, Apr 14, 2005 (UTC) Confirmation: See [21] Taco Deposit | Talk-o to Taco 17:55, Apr 14, 2005 (UTC) Thanks, folks! An exact reply in under a half hour! PedanticallySpeaking 19:05, Apr 14, 2005 (UTC) ## Why is it a spelling "bee"? We don't really have these in the UK, at least not that I know of. But why are they called spelling bees? --bodnotbod 21:10, Apr 14, 2005 (UTC) Apparently unknown[22]. The phrase quilting bee is also known in the US, though probably decreasing since not so many people quilt these days. My hunch was the "busy as a bee" notion of industriousness—this makes sense for a quilting bee, and the meaning could have transfered to spelling bees, despite their not being such a productive effort. -- Coneslayer 21:16, 2005 Apr 14 (UTC) In the U.S., another definition for "bee" is a "gathering of people for a specific purpose". Zzyzx11 | Talk 21:19, 14 Apr 2005 (UTC) The most often explanation for this definition is that people gather for a specific purpose just like bees in a hive. But scholars think that the word evolved from the English word, bene. [23] Zzyzx11 | Talk 21:26, 14 Apr 2005 (UTC) Thanks all. Does this mean this question needs a special resolved box put around it? --bodnotbod 03:30, Apr 15, 2005 (UTC) I'm guessing that working bee comes from bene as well... you want something like User:Alphax/thread top and User:Alphax/thread bottom? Alphax τεχ 06:04, 15 Apr 2005 (UTC) The word bene or been that's "been" mentioned above is etymologically related to the word boon, as in "profit, advantage." --Gelu Ignisque ## Freezing Light How does a Bose-Einstein condensate slow down, or freeze light passing through it?--Fangz 00:47, 15 Apr 2005 (UTC) my university website has a really neat, almost childlike explanation here. even a physics ignorant doofus like myself can understand it =) (bouncy balls included) --Alterego 01:37, Apr 15, 2005 (UTC) I have worked with BECs, but not on slow light. I do not know at what level you want or need an answer, so I will provide with a brief 'verbal cartoon' and some keywords for further searching and some links. Light slows down in (for our purposes) all materials, each material has a index of refraction n>1 that is the factor by which light slows down. The index n can depend on the frequency or polarization of the light. So normal glass may have n=1.5 so light travels at 1/1.5 = 2/3 the speed of light of vacuum when in the glass. The index n in a BEC is not normally very special, the atomic density is far less than solid materials. But the index at the probe frequency can be affected by additional pump lasers at other frequencies that alter the state of the atoms in the BEC. This pumped BEC can have a very very large index of refraction for the probe beam, which will travel very slowly. This effect is only extreme for a small range of frequencies. If the pump beam is switched off, then the atoms can actually absorb the probe light, and since the BEC is very orderly (i.e. coherent, in a quantum sense) This absorbtion can be reversed by re-applying the pump lasers and the frozen light pulse can be re-emitted, with little degredation. The keywords are EIT: Electromagnetically induced transparency, Slow light and Frozen light One of the actual experiments http://www.europhysicsnews.com/full/26/article1/article1.html A less technical write-up: http://curie.umd.umich.edu/Phys/classes/p150/archive/goodfor/BEC.htm You don't need a BEC: http://focus.aps.org/story/v3/st37 You don't need EIT, either: http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/7/7/9/1 -- Answer by Chris Kuklewicz (not a member of wikipedia) Yet. moink 01:56, 15 Apr 2005 (UTC) :) Many thanks! Hmm... is this stuff in Wikipedia?--Fangz 11:45, 15 Apr 2005 (UTC) Light#Refraction When light passes through a transparent substance, such as air, water or glass, its speed is reduced, and it suffers refraction. The reduction of the speed of light in a denser material can be indicated by the refractive index, n ... '; Refractive index At the microscale an electromagnetic wave is slowed in a material because the electric field creates a disturbance in the charges of each atom (primarily the electrons) proportional to the permittivity. This oscillation of charges itself causes the radiation of an electromagnetic wave that is slightly out-of-phase with the original. The sum of the two waves creates a wave with the same frequency but shorter wavelength than the original, leading to a slowing in the wave's travel. Speed of light#Light-slowing experiments ...certain materials have an exceptionally high refractive index: in particular, the optical density of a Bose-Einstein condensate can be very high. In 1999, a team of scientists led by Lene Hau were able to slow the speed of a light beam to about 17 metres per second, and, in 2001, they were able to momentarily stop a beam. Bose-Einstein condensate Bose-Einstein condensates can be made to have an extremely high gradient in the optical densities, resulting in extremely low measured speed of light within it; some condensates have slowed beams of light down to mere meters per second, speeds which can be exceeded by a human on a bicycle. HTH -- ALoan (Talk) 12:53, 15 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## Hungarian translation I just uploaded Image:Azertis.jpg. It's a propaganda poster for the World War II-era Arrow Cross Party in Hungary. What does "azértis" mean? I made the rough guess of "shield", judging from the actual artwork. DO'Иeil 03:01, Apr 15, 2005 (UTC) Not sure, but shield links to "Pajzs" on hu.wikipedia. User:Sicboy is in the edit history for that page, and might well be able to help you - he seems to be a Hungarian speaker. Shimgray 12:52, 16 Apr 2005 (UTC) A dictitionary search in an online dictionary[24] says that "azért" means "therefore". Maybe it could be realted to that. I don't know any Magyar. Jeltz talk 18:46, 16 Apr 2005 (UTC) The same dictionary defines "is" as "also". So it's more likely the phrase is "azért is". After reading the article and looking at the picture, I'd guess that the general gist of the poster was something like (We were freed from bondage by the Nazis) Therefore we must also (stand beside them in order to preserve our freedom). --CVaneg 20:38, 16 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## pancreas necrosis An acquaintance of mine's cat was diagnosed with pancreatitis with a necrosis effect. I'm curious as to the possible causes and consequences of such an illness. (Currently, the cat eats a little...) David.Monniaux 07:34, 15 Apr 2005 (UTC) Nearly all pancreatitis will produce some measure of necrosis; obviously the more there is, the worse off the animal is. My experience is limited to dogs and people, but here are some links with information. [25], [26]. My impression is that in animals it can be quite severe (t killed one of my dogs) but the cited link does say that if the cat recovers, there is a "good chance" of a normal life thereafter. - Nunh-huh 07:42, 15 Apr 2005 (UTC) ## Lottery statistics I don't quite understand the statistics of the lottery (I've read the article). This site gives some of the math. It's aim is to explain why betting on the lottery is stupid. Down in the powerball section, the site shows that the probability of winner the powerball is 80 million to 1. A ticket costs a dollar and the amount you can win in a lump sum is 130 million. So if the odds were always 80 million to one, and I have the potential to win 130 million, isn't my mean expected utility higher? Why doesn't powerball lose money? Thanks, --anon • Perhaps because the odds to win are always the same, but most of the time the payoff is considerably lower than 80 million? --jpgordon∇∆∇∆ 15:00, 15 Apr 2005 (UTC) Calculating the expected utility of most lotteries is problematic, due in part because the jackpot prize is typically shared between everyone who matches the numbers for it. As the jackpot gets larger, more people will buy tickets and thus increase the probability that any winners have to share the prize. So even if the odds are always 80 million to one, the expected utility will fluctuate depending on the number of people buying tickets. --CVaneg 17:30, 15 Apr 2005 (UTC) To answer your second question, most lotteries are funded through a percentage of their previous ticket sales. Costs are usually divided up into three general categories, administration, prize payout, and profits. To give a concrete example, in California the precentages are 50% prize payout, 16% administration, and 34% profit (educational funding in this case). So if the Calfornia lottery was to get up to$100 million, that just means that something on the order of $200 million in tickets were sold since the last jackpot was won. (the math is a little fuzzier than this, taking into account non-jackpot prizes, and other factors which I'm sure I'm missing, but you get the idea) --CVaneg 18:02, 15 Apr 2005 (UTC) IIRC some people have tried to make money from jackpot lotteries by waiting for the prize to get sufficiently high, then buying huge numbers of tickets. To maximise your profits, you'd not only need to know the odds of winning and the payoffs, but have very good statistical models of how many people would buy each particular combination (so as to predict your winnings, and possibly only purchase tickets with a positive expectation depending on your exact plan). If many people people buy "quick pick" tickets (having their numbers randomly chosen by computer) would make this kind of attack more difficult (in fact, if I were organising the lottery, I'd be tempted to bias the selection of random-pick tickets as to try and counteract the biases in human selection; however, on second thought, this isn't a good idea because if that information became public everyone would buy random-pick tickets to maximise the potential payoff). Intuitively, the fact that lotteries are still run around the world, and most of the prizes appear to be won by amateurs, suggests that trying to beat the odds on a lottery is pretty damn difficult...--Robert Merkel 15:22, 16 Apr 2005 (UTC) Actually, I don't know that it would be all that difficult. Considering how many government run lotteries there are in the world, you probably construct a pretty good model of purchasing behavior relative to jackpot size, as these numbers should be a matter of public record. I would imagine that a significant number of them also keep track of the numbers picked for winning jackpots, so you could get an idea of the distribution of how people pick their numbers (chances are there's a marginal bulge towards the lower end: 1-31 repesenting special days, 1-12 representing special months, also probably a disinclination from picking numbers in sequence). I wouldn't be surprised if these various state run lotteries retain statisticians themselves to analyze these numbers and help maximize profit and calculate payout probabilities. The hard part in beating a lottery would be in coming up with a sizable enough investment (both in capital and labor) to make your models pay off in the long run. Considering the kinds of odds you're dealing with, and the likely razor thin advantage you could gain, you'd probably be better off sticking the money in a bank. Then again, people say the same thing about beating Vegas but that didn't stop someone from forming the MIT Blackjack Team. -- CVaneg 16:46, 16 Apr 2005 (UTC) After thinking about it for a bit, the best way to make money off the lottery would probably be to develop such a system, and then sell it to chumps for US$49.99 a pop --CVaneg 17:01, 16 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Thanks very much for your replies. Having looked in to it some more, I've discovered: 1) With the number of people buying lottery tickets for the 130 million powerball, you'd be expected to share about 65% of the prize with other winners, netting you only 40-odd million, making the 80 million to one odds rather worse. 2) The typical cash prize for powerball is about 17 million, so not so good. I guess it all makes sense after all. Thanks, --anon.

## Linking...?

I wondered if Wikipedia would like to link to my website from this page of information: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Whatlinkshere&target=Special_effect

Our Film & TV Special Effects company has a website that not only includes our portfolio, but also free behind the scenes articles showing exactly how we make certain items, such as a full size T-rex animatronic.

You can visit our site here: http://www.nimbacreations.com

Thanks for your time.

Guys, "What links here" only counts links within Wikipedia, no external links. You have many SFX images on your website. Maybe you can write something for us and license us some of your Cinefex-styled pictures or illustrations. You can then put the web information on these picture's pages (licensed by http://www.nimbacreations.com, ... blah ... blah ....) -- Toytoy 15:41, Apr 15, 2005 (UTC)

## Kung Fu Master

Can you please tell me who now owns the rights to the "Kung Fu Master" video arcade game, since Data East has gone bankrupt? My name is Daniel Zubiate and my email is zubidan@hotmail.com. Any help would be greatly appreciate. Thanks.

To quote from the Kung Fu Master article, which I have just written:
Data East Corporation, the Japanese parent company of Data East USA, Inc. got into financial difficulties in the early 1990s. In 1994 Data East USA was transferred to Sega in settlement of significant debts. Data East Corporation was declared bankrupt on June 25 2003.
Sega sold the pinball division of Data East USA to Stern Pinball of Melrose Park, Illinois but the fate of the Data East video arcade game licences is unclear. None of the Data East video arcade games are in production.
I will e-mail a copy of this to Daniel. --Theo (Talk) 19:29, 15 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## bc-ad

early in ad after christ i was told monks changed the calendar so that the birth of christ is 1-ad and befor christ the last year in BC is 1-bc.. where can i find more information on this. my hot mail is safe because i have aother main email so my hot email for msn is.. kbeethoven71@hotmail.com and its in the internet anyway

0 (year) is probably a good place to start -- CVaneg 20:09, 15 Apr 2005 (UTC)

• Thorpe • 13:39, 16 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Universities

What is the difference between a university and a college ?

See College -- Samw 15:32, 16 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## UK National Anthem

Are the king/queen of UK exempt from singing the UK's national anthem God Save the Queen/King? I didn't see QE2 recite the anthem during Prince Charles wedding. What about other royal members?  =Nichalp (talk · contribs)= 20:51, Apr 16, 2005 (UTC)

The monarch never sings the anthem - after all it is their personal anthem really, it just doubles up as a national anthem. The other members of the Royal Family are under strict instructions from Her Majesty always to sing it when played - as it would look bad form if they didn't (imagine what the tabloids could do with it!), jguk 21:12, 16 Apr 2005 (UTC)
It would be illogical for the queen to sing it - she is not "our queen" to herself! In any case I daresay she's heartily sick of the tune after having been on the throne for 53 years -- I was at a Buckingham Palace garden party in 1997 when I heard it played at least four times in two hours in her presence. -- Arwel 21:15, 16 Apr 2005 (UTC)
What about the royal we? Wouldn't that mean she's "our queen" to herself? ;) Gentgeen 23:14, 16 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## hypo, hyper, isotonic solutions

Can you give me examples of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions.

--165.21.154.113sakura1980

Please see: hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic.
END. -- Toytoy 12:20, Apr 17, 2005 (UTC)

Examples of solutions:

1. hypotonic: modified Butler's solution for maintenance fluid replacement
2. isotonic: normal saline
3. hypertonic: 3% saline (sometimes used for treatment of hyponatremia without dehydration) alteripse 03:58, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Longest word

What is the longest word in the world. Please give me the meaning of the word and examples of sentences to use the word.

See Longest word in English. -- FP 12:19, Apr 17, 2005 (UTC)

## UK - Prime Ministerial line of succession?

In the US, there is the United States presidential line of succession. Does the UK have something similar for Prime Minister of the United Kingdom?--212.100.250.216 12:38, 17 Apr 2005 (UTC)

No. If the PM resigns without asking for parliament to be dissolved, then the monarch asks someone else to form a goverment; there's no formal process for determining who, but a constitutional convention dictates that it's the leader of the "ruling" party (ie, the one with a governmental majority).
The parties have their own methods for selecting a leader; for fairly recent examples, see John Major, James Callaghan, and Alec Douglas-Home - and, of course, Winston Churchill. All were at some point made PM without a general election, selected by their own party.
There is a post of Deputy Prime Minister, currently John Prescott, but this is not like the US Vice-President in that it is the "next in line" - rather, it's a somewhat ill-defined job the purpose of which is to have someone identifiably senior to stand in if, say, the Prime Minister is on holiday, or indisposed for some reason. Shimgray 13:00, 17 Apr 2005 (UTC)
I should probably add - there often is someone "seen" as the clear successor (for most of the current goverment people have assumed Gordon Brown would become PM if Blair stood down), but this is very much informal and subject to change - Home was very much not the expected candidate, to the surprise of Rab Butler, and John Major was widely seen as a compromise choice. Shimgray 13:03, 17 Apr 2005 (UTC)
But the choice of Major, at least, followed the process above. Thatcher was succeeded by Major because Major had replaced her as leader, following a leadership election among Conservative MPs. Of course, he was the compromise candidate in that election, but he was the elected leader when he took over. -- GWO
At a theoretical level, lines of succession are important for Heads of State. The UK analog is therefore the monarch, for whom the line of succession is documented to an absurd degree. In practical terms whenever the question of "who's in charge if the President's shot?" comes up, the real question seems to be "who's got the bomb codes", suggesting that it's his role as Commander-in-Chief that's most critical minute-by-minute. In other democracies it's generally a Cabinet (made of of elected representatives) that acts in this role. In any event, the sudden loss of a Prime Minister might put a country's politics in turmoil, but key government operation (not to mention constitutional stability) would continue handily. Sharkford 17:02, 2005 Apr 18 (UTC)
The Pentagon has its own line of succession as to who is in charge of the military, a system that has no standing in law and ignores the Presidential Succession Act of 1947. PedanticallySpeaking 14:59, Apr 21, 2005 (UTC)

## Marilyn Monroe

Is it true that Marilyn Monroe had a threesome with Cass Chaplin and someone else? What was her relatoinship with Cass Chaplin and how/ why did it end?

Also, in reading about her, and watching this "made for tv movie" called Blonde it seems that everybody who worked wit her says almost in a bad way that she was too intense or something like that, as though it was an acting problem she had, which doesn't make much sense since she was such a good, successful actress. And no, the article on Marilyn Monroe does not answer any of these questions. Thanks very much.

Joyce Carol Oates describes Marilyn’s ménage-à-trois with Cass Chaplin, Jr. and Eddy Robinson, Jr. in her novel Blonde (New York: Ecco/HarperCollins, 2000 ISBN 006093493X), upon which the TV movie was based. It appears to be a fictional construct. --Theo (Talk) 11:36, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Dressing as a halfling paladin for cheap

I've been cast in a LARP based on Baldur's gate 2 as a halfling paladin, and looking around the web, the character is most likely Mazzy Fentan (a portrait and description). The portraits I've seen only show her face. I don't know what she wears on the rest of her body, and I've never played the computer game (or even Dungeons & Dragons). I don't want to go out and spend lots of money on fake armor, I can't sew, and I don't have huge amounts of time.

So could someone (probably different people for each) please tell me 1) what she wears and 2) how I can fake that, using only clothing in my closet or at my local Goodwill store, Claire's, and the dollar store. moink 00:41, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Well, the Baldur's Gate series allows you to customise the armour and equipment of all your characters, so I don't think there can be said to be an "official" outfit which is somehow identified with her. Anything warrior-like would probably do, in my opinion. But as the page you linked to says, the starting armour (what she's got when you first meet the character in the game) is simply chainmail. I'm afraid I have no idea how one would fake that, though. -- Vardion 04:43, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Thanks! I don't think I'm going to go for chainmail... too heavy and hard to find. I think on the top I may try to emulate a leather cuirass, something like this would be perfect, but this might be easier to achieve. In my closet, for other reasons, I do own two corsets, one black and one white. Do you think I do make something starting from there?
I still have no idea what to wear on the bottom. The many-skirts thing is adequately-halflingish, but not nearly warrior-like enough. moink 07:27, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)
It might well be possible to make something resembling the second one, although I personally wouldn't have any idea how to go about it. I suspect that the first one would, as you suggest, be quite difficult, unless you could find something similar to modify. As for the rest, I don't really have any suggestions, except to agree that a skirt is probably not the way to go. (From my memory, Mazzy Fentan was decidedly practical in outlook). Sorry I can't be of more assistance. -- Vardion 08:02, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)

On a possibly unrelated note, Mazzy's weapon of preference is the short bow (which she has maximum proficiency in). She also uses a short sword, being a paladin and all, but that's only for the rare occasions she has to enter melee. Though the game is such that you could stick full plate mail on Mazzy (and most players therefore undoubtedly will), she's primarily an archer, so leather armour works fine. Definitely no skirt, though. Mazzy is the "have at thee, knave" kind of no-nonsense paladin who wouldn't wear something as flimsy as that, halfling or not. Other trivia: she has a sister named Pala, she used to travel around with her own band of adventurers (all perished at the claws of a Shadow Dragon, I'm afraid) her goddess is Arvoreen [27] (who seems to be female only in the game), and she has a classy British wannabe accent. Oh, and if you meet a dark, handsome human ranger-type named Valygar, convince him that he should be your squire. He'll struggle a bit but give in eventually, if he's true to the role. :-) JRM 09:21, 2005 Apr 18 (UTC)

Cheap, comfortable chainmail for an informal LARP can be simulated by taking a wide mesh T-shirt (or a string vest) and spraying it silver. If you have the time and skill it is also possible to knit or crochet a fair approximation from silvery thread (sold in knitting shops). Knit the garment on needles as large as the desired links. Be warned that such armour is no protection against exuberant players with boffer weapons (nor against the missiles of outrageous fortune). --Theo (Talk) 17:56, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)

The current plan is to go to Goodwill and look for some sort of peasant shirt to wear my corset over, and maybe some brown or green or black capris for the bottom. Perhaps I will also look for a crocheted vest or similar shirt to spray-paint. Fortunately for me (a klutz), the MIT Assassins' guild (which does not yet have an article, but really should; perhaps I will fix that today) doesn't normally use boffer combat systems, relying instead on statistic-based systems, or if they do use boffers, they are just lengths of insulating foam (no wood or PVC core). moink 19:50, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## super nintendo shotgun

Do anyone remeber that game that came with super mario in the first supernintendo videogame? The one you shooted ducks?.. Well it was made to work with a special accesorie a nintendo shotgun. T]That gun amazes me to this day, how the hell did it worked? The gun was able to locate where you pointed it to the screen (of a normal television)!...--Alexandre Van de Sande 02:38, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)

I don't have a Nintendo. But you may check light pen for the clues. -- Toytoy 02:45, Apr 18, 2005 (UTC)
That's not exactly a new technology at all. The device you're talking about is a light gun; there was one with the Nintendo Entertainment System, called the Zapper, that was either orange or grey, depending on when you purchased it, the game that used it most effectively was Duck Hunt. The gun that was for the Super Nintendo was called the Super Scope. I don't remember what game it went with. Tim Rhymeless (Er...let's shimmy) 02:51, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)
In many packages, the Nintendo Entertainment System came with Super Mario Bros. and Duck Hunt. Zzyzx11 | Talk 05:10, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## List of countries that recognize State of Palestine

The article on State of Palestine mentions "about two-thirds of the world's countries recognize it today". Where can I find a list of countries that recognize it or have diplomatic relations with it (or a list of countries that don't recognize it or have diplomatic relations with it)? Are there any countries that maintain diplomatic relations with both Palestine and Israel as full and separate countries? -- Brhaspati\talk/contribs 03:14, 2005 Apr 18 (UTC)

I suspect one problem may be that a lot of countries grant Palestine some kind of recognition, but not in the same way that they recognise France or India; AIUI, most countries have some form of diplomatic involvement with Palestine but (especially in the West) fall short of granting it full recognition. (Look at its UN status for an example of this; priviledged over other observers, but not granted national membership). As such, a lot of numbers may well be quite vague, depending on where the compiler of the list draws the line. In other words, I've looked and I can't find one, so I'm waffling ;-) Shimgray 09:39, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Ah, spoke too soon... [28] "The following 94 countries have recognized the State of Palestine..." Shimgray 09:41, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Thanks! Since there are approximately 200 countries in the world, should State of Palestine be changed to read "about half of the world's countries" instead of "about two-thirds"? -- Brhaspati\talk/contribs 19:00, 2005 Apr 18 (UTC)

Unless I'm reading it incorrectly, 94 is closer to 100 than 200. Regardless, rather than dealing in vague fractions, since we have a number I would think that you should just say "About X countries recognize the State of Palestine" of course this discussion would be more appropriate on that page's talk page. --CVaneg 19:35, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)
I meant that 94 countries of about 200 total countries (or "about half") recognize the State of Palestine. That said, "About 94" is probably better than "About half". -- Brhaspati\talk/contribs 00:36, 2005 Apr 19 (UTC)

This is all based on a false premise (as is the article), because there is no "State of Palestine." The Palestinian Authority, the recognised representative of the Palestinian people, doesn't claim to be a state, and whatever the Palestinian National Council purported to do in 1988 has lapsed with the Oslo Accords and the establishment of the PA. Adam 03:02, 19 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## James Joyce's alternative for "meow"

James Joyce subsititued 'meow' (the noise a cat makes according to most English-speaking people) for something like 'meawmnrmrnmnr'. I read this in a Guardian article but I can't remember which one, and it wasn't on guardian.co.uk... does anybody know what the word is exactly? I couldn't find it at Onomatopoeia btw. Thanks

p.s. forgot to sign afterword 09:51, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Bloom's cat greets him in the morning with the sound 'Mrkgnao!”' but when he fails to feed her immediately she utters the sound 'Mrkrgnao!'. This converation occurs on page 57 of the first edition of Ulysses. --Theo (Talk) 20:03, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Photos of flowers

I made a few photographs of some plants/flowers, but have no idea how they are named. They were photographed in a hilly area of Romania. See them at the commons bogdan ʤjuʃkə | Talk 13:37, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Beautiful feminine female rap

I have, but only rarely as far as I can remember, heard beautiful feminine female rap. I mean that the lyrics were rapped by a woman with a feminine-sounding voice, and she did not seem to affect a "hip-hop" voice or "hip-hop" rhythm. Where can I get more of these? (Personally, I find the accent typically used by black performers to be unattractive. Also, I do not want gangsta rap, etc.) Also, why I'm at it, I wonder why women don't rap more. Some of them have such beautiful voices, why spoil them by the changes in pitch we call singing? Yet it is typically the men who rap and the women who sing. --Juuitchan

## Darwin and Muller

Charles Darwin corresponded with a German chap called Hermann Muller. I don't think this was Hermann Joseph Muller, since Darwin died in 1882 and Muller was born in 1890. So who was he? Dunc| 19:51, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Oh and not Hermann Müller (the German chancellor) either.Dunc| 20:25, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)

He was identified in this publication of a Darwin letter as "Heinrich Muller (1825-1896), the German naturalist". If so, more biog here (I spoke to the site owner, who says he's about to change his version of the page to point to my suggestion below. --Tagishsimon (talk)
However this suggests a Hermann Müller (1829-1883) and provides more info on him ... suggesting that the chromosone.com annotation is incorrect as to the date; and that every second German botanist was called Muller. --Tagishsimon (talk)
And the bottom line is, we have articles on neither of these Mullers. But I'd make a hash of it if I tried to do anything on them tonight. --Tagishsimon (talk)
Yes, coming to think of it, I know a German biologist called Muller! There was also Fritz Mueller who was a contemporary of Darwin. I think that needs to be dabbed. Dunc| 20:37, 19 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Hermann Müller dabbed --Tagishsimon (talk)

## General Leclerc - common name?

So, I've just gone and merged two articles on that great French military leader, General Leclerc. Or maybe Philippe Leclerc. Or Jacques-Philippe Leclerc. Or any one of about a thousand variants... it didn't help that he took a pseudonym, but I'm hopelessly confused as to what he was called before, after, or indeed during that period.

The article is currently at Philippe de Hauteclocque, which was one of the two merged articles, and (handily) also the name used on the French wikipedia (and they ought to know!)... I've read through the pages on naming conventions, which all mention that if there was a very common name, it should be used in preference. The thing is, I'm fairly stumped - should he be under some form of Leclerc? I'd never heard of the de Hauteclocque name until now, and it's almost always going to be redirected to.

So, two questions -

1) General reference - What was the guy's name, before and after the war? I vaguely remember that he already had "Leclerc" in his name somewhere, but the details I have here don't bear it out.
2) What would seem the most appropriate title for the page? I'm going to end up with a nice web of redirects and disambiguation anyway, since there's a Napoleonic-era General Leclerc...

Thanks all; it's not desperately important, but it is going to bug me. Shimgray 22:47, 18 Apr 2005 (UTC)

I'm not sure at what title the article should reside, but Leclerc was born Philippe de Hautecloque and changed his name to Leclerc when joining the Free French forces to spare his family in German-occupied France from repercussions - to the best of my knowledge, he more or less chose a name at random, and he would very probably not have chosen a name that was in some way connected to his family since that would have made the whole renaming issue rather ineffective.
I would guess that Jacques-Philippe Leclerc is the name he is most commonly known as, so probably the article should reside there, and P. de Hautecloque should be a redirect...but the end result is pretty much the same if the redirect points the other way :P -- Ferkelparade π 09:22, 19 Apr 2005 (UTC)

If a person had several names, the article should use the best-known. For example Caesar Augustus (not Gaius Octavius), George Orwell (not Eric Blair), Joseph Stalin (not Ioseb Jughashvili). So if the French general is best-known as Jacques-Philippe Leclerc then that's how the article should be named (I note that Encyclopedia Britannica uses this form). Gdr 18:01, 2005 Apr 19 (UTC)

Thanks all; I've incorporated the EB's name, and moved it to Jacques-Philippe Leclerc. (I hadn't realised he legally changed his name - but it'll be why I remember "Leclerc" being in his formal name). Shimgray 18:07, 19 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## copyright

I have acquired a set of Illustrated London News from 1916, full of photos and illustrations which would be very useful for many Wikipedia articles. Could someone advise me of their copyright status? Adam 02:58, 19 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Well, most copyrighted images that are posted on Wikipedia are done under the claim of fair use, so chances are you could get by on that. If not, you'd have to wait until the copyright expired and the work entered the public domain, my mind is a bit fuzzy right now, though, so you'll have to read the article yourself to determine if that has already happend. --CVaneg 03:16, 19 Apr 2005 (UTC)

These works were published in Britain, I am located in Australia, and Wikipedia is based in the US. Whose copyright law applies? Adam 03:57, 19 Apr 2005 (UTC)

http://www.gutenberg.org/howto/copyright-howto
Works first published before January 1, 1923 with proper copyright notice entered the public domain no later than 75 years from the date copyright was first secured. Hence, all works whose copyrights were secured before 1923 are now in the public domain, regardless of where they were published.
I think any issue from 1916-1922 is in the PD. -- Toytoy 03:59, Apr 19, 2005 (UTC)

Thanks very much. Adam 05:21, 19 Apr 2005 (UTC)

In the UK copyright subsists until 70 years after the death of the creator. It is most unlikely that photographs published 1916-1922 are out of copyright. See what the UK patent office has to say about it. --Theo (Talk) 08:27, 19 Apr 2005 (UTC)

• What does British copyright law say about "fair use"?
• Given that neither I nor Wikipedia are located in Britain, what applicability does Britisn copyright law have to my placing these images at Wikipedia? Adam 08:37, 19 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Becareful, the life + 70 years rule is possibly not applicable to "works created before 1 January 1996" (see that UK Patent Office page). I don't have time to explain it step by step because copyright laws and copyright litigation, created by the Princess of Darkness himself, are extremely complex and evil (Berne Convention, personal jurisdiction, 1909 Copyright Act, 1978 Copyright Act, Sonny Bonno Act, ... blah ... blah ...). In a nut shell, Project Gutenberg's rules are all you need to know. Works published before January 1, 1923 are in the public domain. Please visit that page and read all the rules. -- Toytoy 08:49, Apr 19, 2005 (UTC)
The UK copyright law describes "fair dealing" that is tanatamount to "fair use". The "fair dealing" exception does not apply to photographs used in new reporting. I do not agree that Project Gutenberg's rules are all that you need to know. As I understand matters, they state the US position. Under the Berne Convention each signatory state (of which the US is one) agrees to respect the copyright laws of the others. So, UK copyright applies to works originated in the UK. The small class of works excluded from the current rules is a subset of those works created for which copyright had expired by 1 January 1996 and for which copyright would be revived. That is, in some special cases, the revived copyright has less stringent constraints than full copyright. Works published in the UK before January 1, 1923 may not be in the public domain and UK law does not deem it reasonable to assume that they are in the public domain. The law requires that reasonable steps are taken to identify the rights holders; for photographs published in the Illustrated London News, the best starting point for identifying the rights holders would be the Illustrated London News Group. I guess that ILNG held or holds the appropriate copyrights and I imagine that they will be happy to grant permission to use images from 1916.
Under Berne Convention, each member state can have a more draconian copyright law at home. However, you may not be able to use it easily.
Wikipedia has servers in Florida and France. The contributor is in Australia. The copyright owner may have a difficult time to establish personal jurisdiction in these two cases (Internet is a hot potato). If Wikipedia and the contributor do not show up and are punished by the British court, the plaintiff still cannot easily take the money if U.S. and Australian courts prefer not to enforce the decision.
If the copyright owner decides to file the lawsuit in the U.S., France or Australia, very likely the cause will be infringement occured in these states, therefore U.S., French or Australian copyright laws will be used. In the U.S., anything published before 1923 is in PD. In Australia, I guess they have a even less oppressive down there. I don't know anything about French laws, but the two defendants are very unlikely to show up in a French court. Anyway, if the U.K court finds itself having no personal jurisdiction over the two defendants, it will be difficult for the plaintiff to claim its British copyright overseas.
Copyright laws are just insane. If I were a company that has lots of pictures published 100 years ago, what should I do if people ask me to grant them a license for free? Shall I investigate the date of death of each photographer? If the photographer died less than 70 years ago, I'll ask them to pay me money. Otherwise, I'll let them use the pictures. It's ridiculous. If each day I receive 10 letters, I'll have to hire a full time private investigator and a copyright lawyer to do the free license job. Otherwise, I'll grant them the rights automatically to save my own costs.
Copyright is evil. It keeps everyone other than Mickey Mouse miserable. Neither Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler nor Mao Zedong could invent such a sinister mass destruction device. -- Toytoy 14:43, Apr 19, 2005 (UTC)
The law only requires one to make reasonable enquiries. ILNG can reasonably say "sorry, we do not have accessible records that far back." The law is then satisfied. --Theo (Talk) 15:55, 19 Apr 2005 (UTC)
The copyright law is evil because if you did not ask for a permission to use a picture taken 100 years ago, the copyright owner may get you if you're a fat sheep.
Most of the times, you may write a polite letter and ask nicely. Possibly they will let you use it. This is ridiculous. If I own a useless land somewhere in a desert, I don't want to be telephoned each time a backpacker wants to cross it. All the paper work is a waste of time. Since I do not want to keep an eye on that land, I'll just let everyone use it.
Copyright law created too many useless, needless and practically "abandoned" lands. However, if the backpacker happens to be Bill Gates, I could sue him at least theoretically. These useless lands can be mine fields. But if each one writes me an e-mail asking for a permission, it will also drive me crazy. OK, I can delete these boring e-mails. But this is not polite.
The life + 70 years rule is evil. The author might had already sold the rights to another party. It is meaningless to provide protection based on the author's life span. Anyway, Mickey Mouse is evil. -- Toytoy 16:37, Apr 19, 2005 (UTC)
Please note that the U.S. date of pre-1923 public domain only applies to works published in the U.S. If the Illustrated London News had a U.S. edition in 1916, hardly likely, you could publish pictures from it on Wikipedia in the public domain even if the same picture was still copyrighted in the UK. See [29] for more detail. Rmhermen 23:35, Apr 19, 2005 (UTC)

Thankyou all for your help. I will email ILN and ask their permission, and unless they forbid me to use the photos I will use them. I am now taking this page off my watchlist. Adam 00:09, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Leather Armour

I met a costume/set designer from yesteryear who claimed his workshop had invented the idea of leather armour (he said it was to reduce the expenses of making metal armour for the entire cast). He didn't deny that peoples before the Greeks or Romans may have worn leather as protection, but claims that neither Romans nor Greeks ever really used leather as armour (not counting, obviously clasps or other "accessories"), and that certainly it was never worn after them, particularly not the hardened leather of the kind that is so ubiquitous in D&D games and computer games.
Do anyone know to what extent leather armour was worn in the last two thousand years? Thanks, --anon

afaik, leather armour is assumed for antiquity, but it is difficult to assess how widespread it was, because all leather would have disintegrated. In the middle ages, padded/quilted textile armour (gambesons) was more common, but leather jerkins were worn also. What is positively known is that leather jerkins remained popular as body armour throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. What your costume designer probably meant was that he invented leather armour intended to look like metal plate armour (i.e. the leather parts simulate the arrangement of metal plates, even if that would be unnecessary with more flexible material). See also [30] for Indian/Silk Road leather armour. We seem to lack articles on most of these. Does anyone feel like importing that information? dab () 08:48, 19 Apr 2005 (UTC)
That hardened leather, btw, is called cuirbolli or cuir-bolli (which I think literally means "boiled leather"). Googling for it makes for gallons of D&D cruft, and [31], [32], wikibooks:Making Period Leather Armor, and [33] (which quotes a book reference). -- John Fader (talk | contribs) 20:54, 19 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## can you help me?

hi there im planning a trip and was wondering if you could tell me about the road that runs under The English Channel.

could you tell me from which cities it runs.... if you could please help me that would be wonderful thankyou

my email address is abbylou3005@hotmail.com

thank you very much for your time and help kimberly mackie

Hi Kimberley,
the chunnel connects Cheriton in England with Sangatte in France, although it is not properly a road tunnel, but a railway tunnel. The railway offers a vehicle shuttle service, although I seem to recall that it's one of the more expensive ways of crossing the channel (tradtiional ferries are still cheapest) -- Ferkelparade π 19:24, 19 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Quotes on Starbucks coffee cups

Where can I find a list? I have a list of the authors, and lots of comentry, but no list of the actual quotes used.

## Title of a stop-motion show

I wanna know the original (and also english, if the case) title of this stop-motion show featuring two brothers\friends that build crazy stuff.

Here's an image of them

Anyone can help me? Kieff | Talk 06:01, Apr 20, 2005 (UTC)

## Copyright

Given the present copyright laws, can I print a few paintings of an English painter who lived and painted almost 200 years ago? -anon.

It depends how you plan to reproduce the image. A photograph of a painting may be in copyright even when its subject is out of copyright. --Theo (Talk) 11:01, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)
1. What country are you in?
2. In which year did the die artist die? Dunc| 17:32, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)
U.S. law considers that simple photograph of a public domain painting cannot be copyrighted. Rmhermen 02:59, Apr 21, 2005 (UTC)

## Root mean square functions

What are the RMS functions for various waveforms as a function of the amplitudes? Eg. RMS of a sine wave is $\sqrt2$ of the amplitude. Alphax τεχ 08:40, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Well, two things first: the RMS value of a sine wave is $\frac1\sqrt2$ of the amplitude. Also note that "the" RMS value of a waveform depends on where it's centered — for the following I've assumed that the mean value of the wave is 0 (as is usually the case in this context). Using the continuous function formula at RMS, I get
• sawtooth ($f(x)=x$ on [-T/2,T/2] and $f(x+T)=f(x)$): $\frac1\sqrt3$ times the amplitude
• triangle ($f(x)=T/4-\left|x\right|$ on [-T/2,T/2] and $f(x+T)=f(x)$): also $\frac1\sqrt3$
• square ($f(x)=\operatorname{sgn}\ x$ on [-T/2,T/2] and $f(x+T)=f(x)$): 1 (since its value is always $\pm1$ times the amplitude
Those are the standard waveforms I know about -- if you want more you'll have to specify them! --Tardis 02:09, 30 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Thankyou! I knew square, and I figured sawtooth and triangle would be the same. (How much of this can be added to the RMS article?) Many thanks, Alphax τεχ 02:56, 30 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## RMS Climate Change Predictions?

Does anyone know of predictions of root-mean-squared deviations for various climate change models?

Why isn't RMS used more often? It seems to me that they would be a more accurate illustration of how much 'global warming' or other effects there is going to be - especially since predicted warming isn't uniform, thus letting parts of the Earth undergoing cooling cancel out heating in other places.--Fangz 19:16, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)

RMS tells you about the variation of something about zero. There's no real zero to use for climate, as far as I can think. And if you did choose a zero, all the RMS would tell you is by how much the (temperature?) varies about that point. I think you just want to do some sort of longish-term averaging. moink 19:26, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)
I dunno. Why not use today's temperature at that given point?
Eg. we have maps like [34] for a given moment in time. Shouldn't be too hard to square and mean stuff, and then present the data as a time series. The problem with taking a sum average is that it makes a 5 C drop in temperature someplace look like a good thing. Which it definitely isn't!--Fangz 20:26, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Ahhhh... you mean RMS in space rather than in time. I've always used RMS in the time sense, so I was a bit confused. moink 22:08, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Color of my sig

This is rather random, but does the "Talk" link on my sig look green to anyone else?

I usually work on my home computer, or one in the university labs, usually using Firefox, and my link looks grey, as it's supposed to. Today I'm in the library (in Edinburgh), using IE, and my link looks green (and a particularly ugly shade of fluorescent green at that). Have I been posting ugly green links next to my name?

The wiki code for my sig is [[User:Asbestos|Asbestos]] | [[User talk:Asbestos|<FONT COLOR="grey">Talk</FONT>]]. Why is it showing up green?

Thanks, — Asbestos | Talk 20:09, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Wait a minute! It's a British/US-English thing, innit?? <FONT COLOR="gray">makes my link grey on this computer. What? I thought HTML was universal. I don't need to change the spelling of "COLOR" to "COLOUR", do I? Isn't there any way to make a grey link grey, independent of the country that my computer is in? — Asbestos | Talk 20:13, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Hmmm, well I guess I could change me sig code to <FONT COLOR=#808080>. But can anyone explain why I see "grey" as grey on some computers here in Britain and green on others? Both have Windows XP, so should be up-to-date. Would the majority of British users see my regular sig as green or grey?
Asbestos | Talk 20:36, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)
I'm in Britain, and am using Firefox 1.0 on linux I see it as grey. Thryduulf 20:44, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Here's a quick theory (and no more than that) - the standard is "gray", unsurprisingly, on account of American dominance et cetera et cetera. Opera, Firefox, &c have a bit of code that tells them that "grey" is the same as "gray" is the same as "#808080"; however, IE only has the code to tell it "gray" is the same as "#808080". So, it chokes a bit when it sees "grey" - but it uses green, because it knows "green" is a standard value for the COLOR attribute. And "gre-" - well, what else can that be but green? Try changing it to, oh, <FONT COLOR="grep"> and seeing what IE does... Shimgray 20:48, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Some additional evidence for that theory is that my German version of IE6 also displays an ugly greenish tint, while firefox is okay - so it seems it's not just Brits who have to suffer -- Ferkelparade π 20:52, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)
Got it... sort of. IE-through-mediawiki renders "gray" as grey, "grey" and "grep" (and "gret") as a lurid green, and "green" as something more akin to a racing green. "blue" is rendered blue, but "blup" or "blur" red. Both "blat" and "blac", surprisingly, come out yellow, though "black" is normal. So I think it is interpreting tyops as colours, but I'm not sure how... Shimgray 20:57, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)
The standard is "gray"?? I guess that's my confusion. I figured it was "grey", but, looking into it, I realize my main confusion was over which spelling was from which part of the world. That's the problem with getting half your education in Britain and the other half in the US: you end up with rather schizophrenic spelling. Anyway, in the spirit of Wikipedian NPOV and transatlantic harmony, I'm changing my sig to [[User:Asbestos|Asbestos]] | [[User talk:Asbestos|<FONT COLOR=#808080>Talk</FONT>]].
Thanks! — Asbestos | Talk 08:08, 21 Apr 2005 (UTC)

## Russian characters on a parcel

A while back I came accross an article that contained a picture of a parcel with an address on it that was written in Russian but had actually been printed using extended latin characters (e.g. something like åÇì ÇäÇ ÚÖæÉ ÌÏíÏÉ æ íÇ ÑíÊ ÊÞÈáæäì). A problem of exactly this nature has occurred on a forum I read, and I want to link to the article as that provides an excellent explanation of what happened. My problem is that even after extensive searching through all the articles I can think of (e.g. UTF-8, Russian language, Cyrillic alphabet, character encoding, Mail, etc) I can't find the article. Can somebody point me in the right direction.

Thanks Thryduulf 20:19, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Mojibake. JRM 22:33, 2005 Apr 20 (UTC)

## American History

Are there any sources dealing with mentoring that were available for men such as Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and others to read? Related to this, is there a source for researching those men's thoughts on posterity, other than "Fame and the Founding Fathers?"--66.82.9.65 20:52, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)

• Could you try rewording that? I can't make head or tail of it. Are you asking about how they were educated, or how they functioned as mentors to others, or what? -- Jmabel | Talk 05:29, Apr 21, 2005 (UTC)

## Nazi Use of an old switching station in the old stripland of Central Use

I heard a story along time ago, which has come forward again.

I want to know if the story is true in all or part.

Suposedly, many of the railroad cars used to transport "captives" were concered so soiled and rife with disease, that they could not be used again. I heard just today that livestock cars provided better ventilation than box cars, according to a survivor. Often this disease process started with the sickness of young children and older adults - often with simple cases of diarrhea.

The rolling stock (and its contents) were abandoned in an orderly fashion at this worthless switching station. After awhile, the Nazis used ore cars, especially when they wanted to get rid of people. The cargo was unloaded with cranes and replaced with coal. This was a terrible place, from Hell - and it was destroyed by the Nazis late in the war to hide what had happened. I think many of the missing (a lot of them Russian soldiers and Poles) ended up here. It may be in that part of Poland, which once belonged to Germany.

It was rediscovered after certain documents were translated in the mid 1950s - and a trip was made to the area. It was old stripland, so entrance was not a problem at all, despite its presence behind the Iron Curtain. The area was radioactive to some degree. Our relations were bad with the Communist countries - Germany was our ally - it was a matter of letting sleeping dogs lie.

I heard this story as a child - and repeated it as an early teen - I got into terrible trouble over it. I actually did not understand what I was saying. Only since the memories have come back, have I understood it more.

Is there a place like this, that is not commonly known. There were workers there, who often deserted their duties.

## Precautionary Principle

Can anyone help me answer this question? How do scientists apply the precautionary principle to chemical exposure? How do they determine whether there is ever an "acceptable level" of risk?

You can start by visiting precautionary principle. Good luck with your homework. -- FP 02:50, Apr 21, 2005 (UTC)