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A contemporary monument to the
Battle of Lewes
, a crucial 1264 battle in the Second Barons' War in England.
1264 ( ) was a MCCLXIV leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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Toluid Civil War ends: Kublai Khan defeats his brother and pretender to the title of Khagan, or Khan of Khans, Ariq Boke, who surrenders to Kublai and is summarily imprisoned. He dies a year later under mysterious circumstances, possibly by poisoning, but the cause of death is still uncertain. However, this battle essentially marks the end of a unified Mongol Empire. Kublai Khan decides to move his capital, from
Shangdu in Inner Mongolia, to the Chinese city of Dadu (now Beijing). Kublai Khan publicly reprimands his own officers, for executing 2
Song Dynasty Chinese generals without trial or investigation. This act is one of many in order to enhance his reputation amongst the Chinese, to increase his legitimacy as a just ruler, and win over more defectors from the Southern Song. The
Japanese era Kōchō ends, and the Bun'ei era begins.
January 23 – King Louis IX of France issues the Mise of Amiens, a settlement between King Henry III of England and barons led by Simon de Montfort, heavily favouring the former, which leads to the Second Barons' War.
April – Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford leads a massacre of the Jews at Canterbury. Before
May – The Second Barons' War, a civil war in England, begins.
May 12– May 14 – Battle of Lewes, between Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester and King Henry III of England in Sussex. By the end of the battle, de Montfort's forces capture both King Henry and his son, future King Edward I, making de Montfort the "uncrowned king of England" for 15 months, before Edward escapes captivity and recaptures the throne.
June 18 – The Parliament of Ireland meets at Castledermot in County Kildare, the first definitely known meeting of this Irish legislature.
August 5 – Anti-Jewish riots break out in Arnstadt (modern-day Germany). In Spain, King
James I of Aragon reconquers the cities of Orihuela in Alicante and Elx in Valencia from the Moors, ending over 500 years of Islamic rule.
October 9 – King Alfonso X "the Wise" recaptures the town of Jerez de la Frontera, Spain from the Muslims. The
War of the Thuringian Succession ends. The state of
Hesse gains its independence from Thuringia, and becomes a free state of the Holy Roman Empire. In the
Peerage of England, the title Baron de Ros, the oldest continuously held peerage title in England, is created by writ of summons.
Sinucello della Rocca becomes lord of Corsica and rules the island, benefiting from the rivalry of Pisa and Genoa.  King
Boleslaus V of Poland promulgates legal protection for his Jewish subjects, including protection from the kidnapping and forcible baptism of Jewish children.
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