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Millennium: 2nd millennium
1275 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1275
Ab urbe condita2028
Armenian calendar724
Assyrian calendar6025
Balinese saka calendar1196–1197
Bengali calendar682
Berber calendar2225
English Regnal yearEdw. 1 – 4 Edw. 1
Buddhist calendar1819
Burmese calendar637
Byzantine calendar6783–6784
Chinese calendar甲戌年 (Wood Dog)
3972 or 3765
    — to —
乙亥年 (Wood Pig)
3973 or 3766
Coptic calendar991–992
Discordian calendar2441
Ethiopian calendar1267–1268
Hebrew calendar5035–5036
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1331–1332
 - Shaka Samvat1196–1197
 - Kali Yuga4375–4376
Holocene calendar11275
Igbo calendar275–276
Iranian calendar653–654
Islamic calendar673–674
Japanese calendarBun'ei 12 / Kenji 1
Javanese calendar1185–1186
Julian calendar1275
Korean calendar3608
Minguo calendar637 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−193
Thai solar calendar1817–1818
Tibetan calendar阳木狗年
(male Wood-Dog)
1401 or 1020 or 248
    — to —
(female Wood-Pig)
1402 or 1021 or 249
Mosaic of Marco Polo (c. 1254–1324)
Travels of Marco Polo (1271–1295)

Year 1275 (MCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]

  • Battle of Neopatras: Emperor Michael VIII (Palaiologos) assembles a Byzantine expeditionary force (some 30,000 men), mostly mercenaries from Bulgaria, Serbia and the Sultanate of Rum. He places these forces under his own brother, John Palaiologos, and General Alexios Kaballarios. Michael sends them against Thessaly, and is supported by the Byzantine navy led by Admiral Alexios Doukas Philanthropenos, who is ordered to attack the Latin principalities and prevent them from aiding John I (Angelos), ruler of Thessaly. John is caught by surprise by the rapid advance of the Byzantine forces and is bottled up with a garrison in his capital of Neopatras, which the Byzantines proceed to lay siege. John manages to escape: he climbs down the walls of the fortress with a rope and walks through the Byzantine lines. After 3 days, John reaches Thebes, where he requests the aid of John I de la Roche, duke of Athens. He receives some 500 horsemen with whom he returns to Neopatras. Meanwhile, the Byzantine forces have been weakened, with several detachments sent off to capture other forts or plunder the region. The Byzantines panic under the sudden attack of a smaller but disciplined Latin force and breaks completely when a Cuman contingent switches sides. Despite John's attempt to rally his forces, they flee and scatter.[1]
  • Battle of Demetrias: Michael VIII (Palaiologos) sends a Byzantine fleet led by Alexios Philanthropenos, to harass the Latin coasts. A joint Latin fleet composed of Lombard and Venetian vessels from Negroponte (Euboea) and Venetian-held Crete, is variously given at 30 to 60 ships. The Latin fleet under Admiral Guglielmo II da Verona gets the Byzantines by surprise and their attack is so effective that they almost win. Their ships, on which high wooden towers have been erected, have the advantage, and many Byzantine seamen and soldiers are killed or drowned. Just as victory seem theirs, Greek reinforcements arrive, led by John I (Angelos). His arrival boosts the Byzantines' morale, and John's men, ferried on board the ships by small boats, begin to replenish their casualties and turn the tide. The Latin casualties are heavy, which also include Guglielmo. By nightfall, all but two Latin ships have been captured.[2]




  • Marinid forces take the city of Algiers, at that time independent.[8]


  • March – Mongol forces (some 200,000 men) under Bayan of the Baarin (Hundred Eyes) defeat a Chinese army of 130,000 men led by the Song chancellor Jia Sidao on the Yangtze River. Sidao sends an emissary to Bayan to discuss a truce, but he declines to negotiate. Dowager Empress Xie Daoqing strips Sidao of his rank and titles, and is later on her orders executed by one of his own guards, as he is sent to exile in Fujian.[9]
  • The 21-year-old Marco Polo together with his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo Polo, arrives at Kublai Khan's opulent summer palace at Shangdu (or Xanadu), after a 4-year journey. They present the "Great Khan" sacred oil from Jerusalem and papal letters of Pope Gregory X. Kublai takes Marco into his royal court and appoints him as a 'special envoy' (possibly as a tax collector).[10]
  • The mountain fortress Alamut Castle (Eagle's Nest) is temporarily recaptured from the Mongols by a Nizari force under Shams al-Din Muhammad.[11][12]
  • April – The Japanese era Bun'ei ends and the Kenji era begins during the reign of the 8-year-old Emperor Go-Uda (until 1278).

By topic[edit]

Art and Science[edit]







  1. ^ Fine, John Van Antwerp (1987). The Late medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, p. 188. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4.
  2. ^ Geanakoplos, Deno John (1959). Emperor Michael Palaeologus and the West, 1258–1282: A Study in byzantine-Latin Relations, p. 284. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. OCLC 1011763434.
  3. ^ Joseph F. O'Callaghan (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the battle for the Strait, p. 65. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
  4. ^ Joseph F. O'Callaghan (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the battle for the Strait, pp. 67–68. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
  5. ^ Joseph F. O'Callaghan (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the battle for the Strait, p. 69. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
  6. ^ "Notes on Individual Earthquakes". British Geological Survey. Archived from the original on November 19, 2007. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  7. ^ Musson, Roger (July 9, 2015). "What Was the Largest British Earthquake?" (PDF). SECED Conference 2015: 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  8. ^ Meynier, Gilbert (2010). L'Algérie cœr du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte. p. 158. ISBN 978-2-7071-5231-2.
  9. ^ Tan Koon San (2014). Dynastic China: An Elementary History, p. 299. ISBN 978-983-9541-88-5.
  10. ^ Bergreen, Laurence (2007). Marco Polo: From Venice to Xanadu, pp. 340–41. ISBN 978-0-307-26769-6.
  11. ^ Wasserman, James (2001). The Templars and the Assassins: The Militia of Heaven, p. 115. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-59477-873-5.
  12. ^ Virani, Shafique N.; Virani, Assistant Professor Departments of Historical Studies and the Study of Religion Shafique N. (2007). The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, a Search for Salvation, p. 32. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-531173-0.
  13. ^ Zuijderduijn, Jaco (2009). Medieval Capital Markets. Markets for renten, state formation and private investment in Holland (1300-1550). Leiden/Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-17565-5.
  14. ^ Hywel Williams (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 147. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  15. ^ Jacques Gernet (1996). A History of Chinese Civilization, p. 376. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-49781-7.
  16. ^ Luxi, Postilla super Baruch, pp. xiii-xiv.