From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the year 1849.
|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1810s 1820s 1830s – 1840s – 1850s 1860s 1870s|
|Years:||1846 1847 1848 – 1849 – 1850 1851 1852|
|1849 in topic:|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature – Music|
|Australia – Brazil - Canada – France – Germany – Mexico – Philippines – South Africa – United Kingdom – United States|
|Rail Transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial Governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2602|
|British Regnal year||12 Vict. 1 – 13 Vict. 1|
|Chinese calendar||戊申年 (Earth Monkey)
4545 or 4485
— to —
己酉年 (Earth Rooster)
4546 or 4486
|- Vikram Samvat||1905–1906|
|- Shaka Samvat||1771–1772|
|- Kali Yuga||4950–4951|
|Japanese calendar||Kaei 2
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||63 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2391–2392|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1849.|
- January 1 – France issues Ceres, the nation's first postage stamp.
- January 5 – The Austrian army led by Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz, enters in the Hungarian capitals, Buda and Pest. The Hungarian government and parliament flees to Debrecen.
- January 8 – Romanian armed groups massacre 600 unarmed Hungarian civilians at Nagyenyed.
- January 13 – Second Anglo-Sikh War – British forces retreat from the Battle of Tooele.
- January 21
- January 23 – Elizabeth Blackwell is awarded her M.D. by the Medical Institute of Geneva, New York, thus becoming the United States' first woman doctor.
- January 27 – The Fayetteville and Western Plank Road Company is incorporated to build a plank road from Fayetteville to Bethania, North Carolina.
- January 31 – A Russian army of 10 000 soldiers enters Transylvania, in order to help the Austrians to defeat the Hungarian forces led by Josef Bem.
- February 1 – Abolition of the Corn Laws by the United Kingdom's Importation Act 1846 comes fully into effect.
- February 4 – The Austrian army led by Anton Puchner defeats the Hungarians led by general Josef Bem in the battle of Vízakna.
- February 5 – The Hungarian revolutionary army led by Richard Guyon break through the pass of Branyiszkó, defeating the Austrian defenders.
- February 8 – The new Roman Republic is proclaimed.
- February 9 – Josef Bems Hungarian army defeats Anton Puchner in the battle of Piski.
- February 14 – In New York City, James Knox Polk becomes the first President of the United States to have his photograph taken.
- February 27 – The main Hungarian and Austrian armies meet in the Battle of Kápolna. The Austrians win the battle.
- February 28 – Regular steamboat service from the west to the east coast of the United States begins with the arrival of the SS California in San Francisco Bay. The California leaves New York Harbor on October 6, 1848, rounds Cape Horn at the tip of South America, and arrives at San Francisco after the 4-month, 21-day journey.
- March – The Frankfurt Parliament completes its drafting of a liberal constitution and elects Frederick William IV emperor of the new German national state.
- March 3
- The United States Department of the Interior is established, incorporating the Census Office, General Land Office, Office of Indian Affairs and Patent and Trademark Office.
- Minnesota becomes a United States territory.
- The United States Congress passes the Gold Coinage Act allowing the minting of gold coins.
- March 4
- (Sunday) Zachary Taylor refuses to be sworn in office on a Sabbath. Urban legend holds that David Rice Atchison, President pro tempore of the United States Senate is President de jure for a single day.
- The Habsburg emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria promulgate at Olomouc the March Constitution of Austria which abolished the April Laws promulgated by the Hungarian Batthyány-govern, and degraded Hungary to a simple Austrian province.
- March 5
- March 11 – The Hungarian army of Transylvania under general Josef Bem defeats the Russian-Austrian army at Nagyszeben, capturing the city which is headquarters of the Austrian general Anton Puchner. The most part of Transylvania is liberated from the Austrian rule. The Austrian and the Russian troops flee to Wallachia.
- March 28 – Four Christians are ordered burnt alive in Antananarivo, Madagascar, by Queen Ranavalona I, and 14 others are executed.
- March 29 – The United Kingdom annexes the Punjab.
- April 1
- After 10 days, the insurrection in Brescia is ended by Austrian troops.
- The Hungarian Revolutionary Army under the leadership of Arthur Görgey starts the victorious Spring Campaign, which leads to the liberation of much of Hungary from the Austrian forces.
- In the battle of Hatvan the Hungarian revolutionary army under the command of András Gáspár defeat the Austrians led by general Franz Schlik.
- April 2 – Revolutions of 1848 in the German states end in failure.
- April 4 – Hungarians under the generals György Klapka and János Damjanich defeat the Austrian-Croatian army led by Franz Schlik and Josip Jelačić at the battle of Tápióbicske.
- April 6 – The main Hungarian forces led by Arthur Görgey defeat at the Battle of Isaszeg the main imperial forces led by Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz, forcing them to retreat towards West.
- April 10 – The Hungarians led by János Damjanich defeat at Vác the Austrians led by Christian Götz, who dies after the battle due to his injuries.
- April 12 – Because of his series of defeats suffered from the Hungarian army, Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz is released from the supreme command of the Austrian forces in Hungary and replaced by Ludwig von Welden.
- April 14 – The Hungarian revolutionary parliament declares in Debrecen independence from the Habsburg Empire.
- April 19 – The Hungarian revolutionary army led by György Klapka and János Damjanich defeat at Nagysalló the Austrian army led by Lt. Gen. Ludwig von Wohlgemuth.
- April 21
- Great Famine (Ireland): 96 inmates of the overcrowded Ballinrobe Union Workhouse have died over the course of the preceding week from illness and other famine-related conditions, a record high.
- The Austrian government asks Russian help against the Hungarian revolution. The tsar Nicholas I of Russia, agrees to send troops against Hungary.
- April 22 – The first Kennedy arrived to America.
- April 25 – James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, the Governor General of Canada, signs the Rebellion Losses Bill, outraging Montreal's English population and triggering the Montreal Riots.
- April 26 – Battle of Komárom. The Hungarian forces relieve the city and castle with the same name from a long Austrian siege. The Austrian imperial forces and their Croatian, Romanian and Serbian allies are chased out from Hungary or near the borders of the country.
- April 27 – Giuseppe Garibaldi enters Rome to defend it from the French troops of General Charles Oudinot.
- May – The Second Carlist War ends in Spain.
- May 2 – A new independent Hungarian government, led by Bertalan Szemere, is formed. The head of state of Hungary becomes Lajos Kossuth as governor president.
- May 3
- May 9 – The May Uprising in Dresden is suppressed by the Kingdom of Saxony.
- May 10 – The Astor Place Riot takes place in Manhattan over a dispute between two Shakespearean actors. Over 20 people are killed.
- May 15 – Troops of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies take Palermo and crush the republican government of Sicily.
- May 17 – The St. Louis Fire starts when a steamboat catches fire and nearly burns down the entire city.
- May 21 – The Hungarian army led by Arthur Görgey capture the Castle of Buda, liberating the Hungarian capital city completely. The leader of the defending Austrian forces, general Heinrich Hentzi dies because of his injuries. The Hungarian govern moves back from Debrecen to Budapest.
- May 30 – Julius Jacob von Haynau replaces Ludwig von Welden in the leadership of the Austrian forces in Hungary, because of the failure of the latter to stop the advance of the Hungarian forces.
- June 5
- June 6 – Fort Worth, Texas, is founded.
- June 17 – The main Russian forces led by Ivan Paskevich cross the Hungarian border, and together with the Austrian troops led by Julius Jacob von Haynau start the final attack against the Hungarian revolution. Now the Hungarian revolutionary troops, numbering 173 000 soldiers, which even before the Russian attack were in inferiority regarding their numbers, and the quality of their weapons and war industry, faced a force of 370 000 Austro-Russian forces, and other tens of thousands of Croatian, Serbian and Romanian insurgents, who served the Habsburg imperial interests.
- June 20 – Russian troops under the command of Alexander von Lüders break in Transylvania and together with the Austrian forces start to operate against the Hungarian troops led by Józef Bem.
- June 21 – The Ruso-Austrian army led by Julius Jacob von Haynau defeats the Hungarians under the command of Arthur Görgey at Pered.
- June 28 – The Austrian army led by Julius Jacob von Haynau defeats the Hungarians led by Ernő Poeltenberg at Győr. The Hungarian army is forced to retreat towards Budapest.
- July 2 – The Hungarian army led by Arthur Görgey repulses the combined attack of the Austrian and Russian troops led by Julius Jacob von Haynau at the Battle of Komárom. During the battle Görgey suffers a heavy head injury, which prevents him from taking advantage of this success.
- July 3 – French troops occupy Rome; the Roman Republic surrenders.
- July 6 – Battle of Fredericia: the Danish Army beats the Prussian army at Fredericia, Jutland, thereby putting an end to the Prussian/Danish War until 1864.
- July 11 – The Hungarian army led by Arthur Görgey is defeated by the Austrians led by Julius Jacob von Haynau at the third Battle of Komárom.
- July 14
- July 17 – Undecided battle at Vác between Hungarians led by Arthur Görgey and the Russians led by Ivan Paskevich. The Russians are unsuccessful in destroying the Hungarian army, which retreats towards east.
- July 23 – The French scientist Hippolyte Fizeau measures the speed of light with an instrument placed on the Earth.
- July 28 – The Hungarian government led by Bertalan Szemere promulgates the Nationality Law which gave important rights to the nationalities of Hungary, like the right to use their mother tongue in school, church, army, court and administration. The Romanians are declared nation and not minority in Transylvania. The Jews receive equality thanks to the Emancipation Decree.
- July 31 – The Russian troops in Transylvania led by Alexander von Lüders crush the Hungarian forces under the lead of Józef Bem in the Battle of Segesvár. The Hungarian poet and revolutionary Sándor Petőfi is killed in the battle by the Russians.
- August 2 – The Russian main forces under Ivan Paskevich defeat the Hungarian army under József Nagysándor at Debrecen.
- August 3 – The Hungarian defenders of Komárom led by György Klapka destroy the besieging Austrian forces, liberating Győr and Székesfehérvár. But this victory comes too late to change the course of the military events in the eastern part of the country, where the Hungarian forces are about to crumble under the heavy Austro-Russian pressure.
- August 5 – The Austrian forces under the lead of Julius Jacob von Haynau defeat the Hungarian main forces under Henryk Dembiński in the Battle of Szőreg.
- August 9 – The main Ruso-Austrian forces led by Julius Jacob von Haynau win a decisive victory against the Hungarians led by Józef Bem in the Battle of Temesvár.
- August 11 – Lajos Kossuth and the Hungarian Government of Bertalan Szemere resign and give all powers to the hands of Arthur Görgey. After this Kossuth, the ministries and many military officers live Hungary and ask asylum in Turkey.
- August 13 – The main Hungarian army under the lead of Arthur Görgey capitulate before the Russian troops led by Theodor von Rüdiger at Világos. The end of the Hungarian revolution.
- August 28 – Venice (the Republic of San Marco) surrenders to Austrian troops after a 4-month siege.
- September 1 – The first segment of the Pennsylvania Railroad, from Lewistown to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, opens for service.
- October 4 – Komárom, the last bastion of the Hungarian revolution surrenders to the Austrian forces.
- October 6
- The 13 Martyrs of Arad are executed after the Hungarian War of Independence, in repression by the Austrian authorities led by Julius Jacob von Haynau. These martyrs were the generals of the Hungarian revolutionary army, who did not flee from Hungary after the suppression of the Hungarian revolution by the Russo-Austrian forces.
- Lajos Batthyány, the first Hungarian prime minister is executed by Austria in Pest.
- November – Austin College receives a charter in Huntsville, Texas.
- November 13 – The Constitution of California is ratified in a general election.
- November 16 – A Russian court sentences Fyodor Dostoyevsky to death for anti-government activities linked to a radical intellectual group, the Petrashevsky Circle. Facing a firing squad on December 23 the group members are reprieved at the last moment and exiled to the katorga prison camps in Siberia.
- The North Carolina General Assembly incorporates the North Carolina Railroad to complete a rail line from Goldsboro through Raleigh and Salisbury to Charlotte.
- Seven of the "best known" opium clippers go missing: Sylph, Coquette, Kelpie, Greyhound, Don Juan, Mischief, and Anna Eliza.
- January 9 – John Hartley, English tennis player, double winner of Wimbledon (d. 1935)
- January 14 – James Moore, winner of the first ever cycle race (d. 1935)
- January 18
- January 22 – August Strindberg, Swedish author, playwright, and painter (d. 1912)
- February 13 – Lord Randolph Churchill, British statesman (d. 1895)
- February 18 – Alexander Kielland, Norwegian author (d. 1906)
- February 19 – Giovanni Passannante, Italian anarchist (d. 1910)
- February 22 – Nikolay Yakovlevich Sonin, Russian mathematician (d. 1915)
- March 2 – Robert Means Thompson, American naval officer (d. 1930)
- March 7 – Luther Burbank, American biologist and botanist (d. 1926)
- March 19 – Alfred von Tirpitz, German admiral (d. 1930)
- April 6 – John William Waterhouse, Italian-born artist (d. 1917)
- April 20 – Nikolai Nebogatov, Russian admiral (d. 1922)
- April 21 – Oscar Hertwig, German zoologist (d. 1922)
- April 28 – Augusto Aubry, Italian admiral and politician (d. 1912)
- May 1 – Kamimura Hikonojō, Japanese admiral (d. 1916)
- May 3 – Bernhard von Bülow, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1929)
- May 19 – John Hubbard, American admiral (d. 1932)
- May 22 – Louis Perrier, member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1913)
- June 9 – Michael Ancher, Danish painter (d. 1927)
- July 22 – Emma Lazarus, American poet (d. 1887)
- July 29 – Max Nordau, Austrian author, philosopher, and Zionist leader (d. 1923)
- August 28 – Benjamin Godard, French composer (d. 1895)
- September 3 – Sarah Orne Jewett, American writer (d. 1909)
- September 11 – Edmund Poë, British admiral (d. 1921)
- September 14 – Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Russian researcher, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1936)
- September 21 – Maurice Barrymore, British-American stage actor and playwright, (d. 1905)
- October 28 – Oskar Enkvist, Russian admiral (d. 1912)
- November 24 – Frances Hodgson Burnett, English-American playwright and author (d. 1924)
- November 29 – John Ambrose Fleming, English electrical engineer and inventor (d. 1945)
- December 4 – Crazy Horse, Chief of the Oglala Sioux (d. 1877)
- December 5 – Eduard Seler, Prussian scholar and Mesoamericanist (d. 1922)
- December 6 – August von Mackensen, German field marshal (d. 1945)
- December 12 – William Kissam Vanderbilt, American railway magnate (d. 1920)
- December 20 – Raymond P. Rodgers, American admiral (d. 1925)
- December 25 – Nogi Maresuke, Japanese general (d. 1912)
- Emma Curtis Hopkins, American writer (d. 1929)
- Muhammad Abduh, Islamic reformer (d. 1905)
- Pavlos Karolidis, Greek historian (d. 1930)
- January 18 – Panoutsos Notaras, Greek politician (b. 1752)
- January 30 – Jonathan Alder, American settler (b. 1773)
- February 8 – France Prešeren, Slovenian poet (b. 1800)
- March 14 – King Willem II of the Netherlands (b. 1792)
- March 18 – Antonin Moine, French sculptor (b. 1796)
- March 20 – James Justinian Morier, British diplomat and author (b. 1780)
- April 11 – Pedro Ignacio de Castro Barros, Argentine statesman and priest (b. 1777)
- May 11
- May 22 – Maria Edgeworth, Irish novelist (b. 1767)
- May 25 – Benjamin D'Urban, British general and colonial administrator (b. 1777)
- May 28 – Anne Brontë, English author (b. 1820)
- June 10 – Thomas Robert Bugeaud, Marshal of France and duke of Isly (b. 1784)
- June 15 – James Knox Polk, 11th President of the United States (b. 1795)
- July 12 – Dolley Madison, First Lady of the United States (b. 1768)
- July 28 – King Charles Albert of Sardinia (b. 1798)
- July 31 – Sándor Petőfi, Hungarian poet (b. 1823)
- August 2 – Muhammad Ali of Egypt (b. 1769)
- September 4 – Friedrich Laun, German novelist (b. 1770)
- September 25 – Johann Strauss, Senior, Austrian composer (b. 1804)
- October 6 – Lajos Batthyány, Hungarian statesman, executed (b. 1807)
- October 7 – Edgar Allan Poe, American writer (b. 1809)
- October 17 – Frédéric Chopin, Polish-French musician and composer (b. 1810)
- October 22 – William Miller, American Baptist preacher (b. 1782)
- December 2 – Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen of William IV of the United Kingdom (b. 1792)
- Hungarian History: January 8, 1849 And the Genocide of the Hungarians of Nagyenyed
- "Plank Roads Chartered in North Carolina". North Carolina Business History. 2006. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- Egy évszázados per. A Görgey-kérdés tegnap és ma: The Görgey-Question Yesterday and Today
- Történelmi Szemle: Szász Zoltán A nemzetiségek és az 1848-as magyar forradalom
- "Railroads — prior to the Civil War". North Carolina Business History. 2006. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- Lubbock, Basil (1933). The Opium Clippers. Boston, MA: Charles E. Lauriat Co. p. 310.