1849 in Australia
- Governor of New South Wales – Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy
- Governor of South Australia – Sir Henry Fox Young
- Governor of Tasmania – Sir William Denison
- Governor of Western Australia as a Crown Colony – Captain Charles Fitzgerald
- 26 January – The Australasian Anti-Transportation League is formed during a public meeting at Launceston, Tasmania; later branches were formed in Adelaide, Melbourne, Sydney, and Canterbury (New Zealand).
- 23 February – Public meeting in Perth calls for introduction of convicts to the help the colony's depressed economy, first consignment arrive in the following June.
- 18 January – Edmund Barton, first Prime Minister of Australia (died 1920)
- 11 February – Fred Bamford, politician (died 1934)
- 26 March – Edwin Evans, cricketer (died 1921)
- 27 July – Archibald Watson, surgeon (died 1940)
- 22 September – Alexander Forrest, explorer and politician (died 1901)
- 24 September – Justin Foxton, politician (died 1916)
- 5 November – John Lancelot Stirling, politician (died 1932)
- 2 December – Frank Allan, cricketer (died 1917)
- William Kidston
- Horace Lamb
- Hume Nisbet
- John Sulman
- Archibald Watson
- Currey, C. H. "Denison, Sir William Thomas (1804 – 1871)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Munday, Rosemary, ed. (1991). "How Australia Began: Significant Dates in Australian History". The Bulletin Australian Almanac & Book of Facts 1992. Sydney: Australian Consolidated Press. p. 3. ISSN 1038-054X.