|1914 by topic|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2667|
|Balinese saka calendar||1835–1836|
|British Regnal year||4 Geo. 5 – 5 Geo. 5|
|Chinese calendar||癸丑年 (Water Ox)|
4610 or 4550
— to —
甲寅年 (Wood Tiger)
4611 or 4551
|- Vikram Samvat||1970–1971|
|- Shaka Samvat||1835–1836|
|- Kali Yuga||5014–5015|
|Japanese calendar||Taishō 3|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 13 days|
|Minguo calendar||ROC 3|
|Thai solar calendar||2456–2457|
2040 or 1659 or 887
— to —
2041 or 1660 or 888
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1914.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: 1914|
1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1914th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 914th year of the 2nd millennium, the 14th year of the 20th century, and the 5th year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1914, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
This year saw the beginning of what became known as World War I, after Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austrian throne was assassinated by Serbian nationalist Gavrillo Princip. It also saw the first airline to provide scheduled regular commercial passenger services with heavier-than-air aircraft, with the St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line.
- January 1 – The St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line in the United States starts services between St. Petersburg and Tampa, Florida, becoming the first airline to provide scheduled regular commercial passenger services with heavier-than-air aircraft, with Tony Jannus (the first federally-licensed pilot) conveying passengers in a Benoist XIV flying boat. Abram C. Pheil, mayor of St. Petersburg, is the first airline passenger, and over 3,000 people witness the first departure.
- January 5 – Ford Motor Company announces an eight-hour workday, and a daily wage of $5.
- January 8 – A railway strike is declared in the Transvaal and Orange Free State.
- January 9 – The Phi Beta Sigma fraternity is founded by African American students at Howard University, in Washington, D.C.
- January 11 – The Sakurajima volcano in Japan begins to erupt, becoming effusive after a very large earthquake on January 13. The lava flow causes the island which it forms to be linked to the Ōsumi Peninsula.
- February 2 – Charlie Chaplin makes his film début, in the comedy short Making a Living.
- February 7 – Charlie Chaplin's second film, the Keystone comedy Kid Auto Races at Venice, is released, in which his character of The Tramp is introduced to audiences (although first filmed in Mabel's Strange Predicament, released two days later).
- February 8 – The Luxembourg national football team has its first victory, beating France 5–4 in a friendly match, for the first and only time in football history.
- February 10 – The film Hearts Adrift is released; the name of Mary Pickford, the star, is displayed above the title on movie marquees.
- February 12 – In Washington, D.C., the first stone of the Lincoln Memorial is put into place.
- February 13 – Copyright: In New York City, the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers is established, to protect the copyrighted musical compositions of its members.
- February 17 – Karl Staaff steps down as Prime Minister of Sweden, in the aftermath of the Courtyard Crisis. He is replaced by Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, father of Dag Hammarskjöld.
- February 26 – The ocean liner that will become HMHS Britannic, sister to the RMS Titanic, is launched at the Harland and Wolff shipyards in Belfast.
- February 28 – The Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus is proclaimed by ethnic Greeks, in Northern Epirus.
- March 1 – The Republic of China joins the Universal Postal Union.
- March 6 – FK Vojvodina football club is founded in Novi Sad (Serbia).
- March 7 – Prince William of Wied arrives in Albania, to begin his reign.
- March 8 – Aircraft are first transferred to Don Muang Royal Thai Air Force Base.
- March 10 – Suffragette Mary Richardson damages Velázquez's painting Rokeby Venus in London's National Gallery, with a meat chopper.
- March 16 – Henriette Caillaux, wife of French minister Joseph Caillaux, murders Gaston Calmette, editor of Le Figaro, fearing publication of letters showing she and Caillaux were romantically involved during his first marriage (she is acquitted on July 28).
- March 17 (Saint Patrick's Day) – Green beer is invented by Dr. Thomas H. Curtin, and displayed at the Schnorrer Club of Morrisania in the Bronx, New York.
- March 27 – Belgian surgeon Albert Hustin makes the first successful non-direct blood transfusion, using anticoagulants.
- March 29 – Katherine Routledge and her husband arrive in Easter Island, to make the first true study of it (they depart in August 1915).
- April 4–September 27 Komagata Maru incident: The Komagata Maru sails from India to Canada. Due to Canadian regulations designed to exclude Asian immigrants, the boat is not permitted to dock in Vancouver, and is forced to return to Calcutta with all its passengers.
- April 9 – Tampico Affair: A misunderstanding involving United States Navy sailors in Mexico, and army troops loyal to Mexican dictator Victoriano Huerta, leads to a breakdown in diplomatic relations between the United States and Mexico.
- April 11
- April 14 –18 – The first International Criminal Police Congress is held in Monaco; 24 countries are represented, including some from Asia, Europe, and the Americas; the Dean of the Paris Law School is president.
- April 20
- April 21 – United States occupation of Veracruz: 2,300 U.S. Navy sailors and Marines from the South Atlantic fleet land in the port city of Veracruz, Mexico, which they will occupy for over six months. The Ypiranga incident occurs when they attempt to enforce an arms embargo against Mexico, by preventing the German cargo steamer SS Ypiranga from unloading arms for the Mexican government in the port.
- April 22 – Mexico ends diplomatic relations with the United States for the time being.
- April 23 – The Afrikaans language receives official recognition, when Cornelis Jacobus Langenhoven addresses the English caucus of the Cape Provincial Council.
- May 1 – November 1 – The Exposition Internationale is held at Lyon, France.
- May 5 – November 11 – The Jubilee Exhibition (Jubilæumsutstillingen) is held at Kristiania, Norway, to mark the centennial of the country's Constitution.
- May 9 – J. T. Hearne becomes the first bowler to take 3,000 first-class wickets.
- May 14 – Woodrow Wilson signs a Mother's Day proclamation.
- May 17 – The Protocol of Corfu provides for the provinces of Korçë and Gjirokastër, constituting Northern Epirus, to be granted autonomy under the nominal sovereignty of Albania.
- May 25 – In the U.K., the House of Commons passes the Irish Home Rule Act.
- May 29 – The ocean liner RMS Empress of Ireland sinks in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; 1,012 lives are lost.
- May 30 – The ocean liner RMS Aquitania makes her maiden voyage.
- June 1 – Woodrow Wilson's envoy, Edward Mandell House, meets with Kaiser Wilhelm II.
- June 8 – The Brazilian Football Confederation is founded, with Álvaro Zamith as its first president. The Brazilian Olympic Committee is founded on the same day.
- June 9 – Pittsburgh Pirate Honus Wagner becomes the first baseball player in the twentieth century with 3,000 career hits.
- June 12 – Greek genocide: Ottoman Greeks in Phocaea are massacred by Turkish irregular troops.
- June 18 – Mexican Revolution: The Constitutionals take San Luis Potosí; Venustiano Carranza demands Victoriano Huerta's surrender.
- June 23 – After it had been closed so that it could be deepened, the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal is reopened by the Kaiser; the British Fleet under Sir George Warrender visits; the Kaiser inspects the Dreadnought HMS King George V.
- June 24 – In Manchester, New Hampshire, a downtown fire causes $400,000 worth of damage and injures 19 firemen.
- June 28 – Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria: Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip, 19, assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Duchess Sophie, in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, triggering the July Crisis and World War I. Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo and Zagreb break out.
- June 29
- The Secretary of the Austro-Hungarian Legation at Belgrade sends a dispatch to Vienna, suggesting Serbian complicity in the crime of Sarajevo. Anti-Serb riots continue throughout Bosnia.
- Khioniya Guseva attempts and fails to assassinate Grigori Rasputin at his hometown in Siberia.
- The International Exhibition opens the "White City", Ashton Gate, Bristol, England, U.K. It closes on August 15, and the site is used as a military depot.
- June 30 – Among those addressing the Parliament of the United Kingdom, on the murdered Archduke, are Lords Crewe and Lansdowne in the House of Lords, and Messrs Asquith and Law in the Commons.
- July 1 – The Royal Naval Air Service, a forerunner of the Royal Air Force, is established.
- July 2 – The German Kaiser announces that he will not attend the Archduke's funeral.
- July 4
- July 5 – A council is held at Potsdam, powerful leaders within Austria-Hungary and Germany meet to discuss the possibilities of war with Serbia, Russia, and France.
- July 7 – Austria-Hungary convenes a Council of Ministers, including Ministers for Foreign Affairs and War, the Chief of the General Staff and Naval Commander-in-Chief; the Council lasts from 11:30 am until 6:15 pm.
- July 9 – The Emperor of Austria-Hungary receives the report of the Austro-Hungarian investigation, into the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria at Sarajevo. The Times publishes an account of the Austro-Hungarian press campaign against the Serbians (who are described as "pestilent rats").
- July 10 – Nicholas Hartwig, Russian Minister to Serbia, dies of a heart attack while visiting Austrian minister Wladimir Giesl von Gieslingen, at the Austrian Legation in Belgrade.
- July 11
- Baseball legend Babe Ruth makes his major league debut, with the Boston Red Sox.
- USS Nevada, the United States Navy's first "super-dreadnought" battleship, is launched.
- Over 5,000 people attend a rally in Union Square, Manhattan, called by the Anti-Militarist League to commemorate the anarchists killed in the July 4th Lexington Avenue bombing.
- July 13 – Reports surface of a projected Serbian attack upon the Austro-Hungarian Legation at Belgrade.
- July 14 – The Government of Ireland Bill completes its passage through the House of Lords in the U.K. It allows Ulster counties to vote on whether or not they wish to participate in Home Rule from Dublin.
- July 15 – Mexican Revolution: Victoriano Huerta resigns from the presidency of Mexico, and leaves for Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz.
- July 18
- July 19 – George V summons a conference to discuss the Irish Home Rule problem. It meets from July 21–24, without reaching consensus.
- July 23 – July Ultimatum: Austria-Hungary presents Serbia with an unconditional ultimatum.
- July 25 – Austria-Hungary severs diplomatic ties with Serbia, and begins to mobilise its own forces. Radomir Putnik, Chief of the Serbian General Staff, is arrested in Budapest, but subsequently allowed to return to Serbia.
- July 26 – Bachelor's Walk massacre: The King's Own Scottish Borderers of the British Army fire on Dubliners at Bachelor's Walk, killing 3, and injuring 38 people.
- July 27
- July 28
- July 28–August 10 – World War I: Pursuit of Goeben and Breslau: British and French naval forces fail to prevent the ships of the Imperial German Navy Mediterranean Division from reaching the Dardanelles.
- July 29
- World War I: Austro-Hungarian Navy river monitor SMS Bodrog fires the first shots of the war, opening the bombardment of the defences of Belgrade, Serbia's capital.
- In Massachusetts, the new Cape Cod Canal opens; it shortens the trip between New York and Boston by 66 miles, but also turns Cape Cod into an island.
- July 31
- August 1
- The German Empire declares war on the Russian Empire, following Russia's military mobilization in support of Serbia; Germany also begins mobilisation.
- France orders general mobilisation.
- The New York Stock Exchange is closed due to war in Europe, whereas nearly all stock exchanges were already closed.
- Marcus Garvey founds the Universal Negro Improvement Association in Jamaica.
- August 2
- August 3
- Germany declares war on Russia's ally, France.
- At 7:00 am (local time) Belgium declines to accept Germany's ultimatum of August 2.
- August 4
- German troops invade Belgium at 8:02 am (local time). In London the King declares war on Germany, for this violation of Belgian neutrality and especially to defend France. This means a declaration of war by the whole British Empire against Germany. The United States declares neutrality.
- Imperial German Navy Rear-Admiral Wilhelm Souchon bombards the French Algerian ports of Bône and Philippeville from battlecruiser Goeben and light cruiser Breslau.
- August 5
- Germany declares war on Belgium.
- The Kingdom of Montenegro declares war on Austria-Hungary.
- The guns of Point Nepean fort at Port Phillip Heads in Victoria (Australia) fire across the bows of the Norddeutscher Lloyd steamer SS Pfalz, which is attempting to leave the Port of Melbourne in ignorance of the declaration of war, and she is detained; this is said to be the first Allied shot of the war.
- SS Königin Luise, taken over two days earlier by the Imperial German Navy as a minelayer, lays mines 40 miles (64 km) off the east coast of England. She is intercepted and sunk by the British Royal Navy light cruiser HMS Amphion, the first German naval loss of the war. The following day, Amphion strikes mines laid by the Königin Luise and is sunk with some loss of life, in the first British casualties of the war.
- German zeppelins drop bombs on Liège, Belgium, killing 9 civilians.
- The first electric traffic light is installed between Euclid Avenue and East 105 Street, in Cleveland, Ohio.
- August 5–16 – Battle of Liège: The German Army overruns and defeats the Belgians with the first operational use of Big Bertha.
- August 6 – World War I:
- August 7 – World War I:
- Battle of Mulhouse: France launches its first attack of the war, in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to recover the province of Alsace from Germany, beginning the Battle of the Frontiers.
- British colonial troops of the British Gold Coast Regiment, entering the German West African colony of Togoland, encounter the German-led police force at a factory in Nuatja, near Lomé, and the police open fire on the patrol. Alhaji Grunshi returns fire, the first soldier in British service to fire a shot in the war.
- August 8
- August 9 – World War I: British Royal Navy light cruiser HMS Birmingham rams and sinks German submarine U-15 off Fair Isle, the first U-boat lost in action.
- August 12 – World War I:
- August 13 – The Teoloyucan Treaties are signed in the State of Mexico.
- August 15
- The Panama Canal is inaugurated with the passage of the SS Ancon.
- Mexican Revolution: Venustiano Carranza's troops under general Álvaro Obregón enter Mexico City.
- A dismissed servant kills 7 people at American architect Frank Lloyd Wright's studio and home, Taliesin in Wisconsin (including Wright's mistress, Mamah Borthwick), and sets it on fire.
- August 15–24 – World War I: Battle of Cer: Serbian troops defeat the Austro-Hungarian army, marking the first Entente victory of the War.
- August 16 – World War I:
- German warships SMS Goeben and Breslau (both commissioned in 1912), which reached Constantinople on August 10, are transferred to the Ottoman Navy, Goeben becoming its flagship, Yavuz Sultan Selim.
- Lake Nyasa is the scene of a brief naval battle, when Captain Edmund Rhoades, commander of the British steamship SS Gwendolen, hears that war has broken out, and he receives orders from the British high command to "sink, burn, or destroy" the German Empire's only ship on the lake, the Hermann von Wissmann, commanded by a Captain Berndt. Rhoades's crew find the Hermann von Wissmann in a bay near "Sphinxhaven", in German East African territorial waters. Gwendolen disables the German vessel with a single cannon shot from a range of about 1,800 metres (2,000 yards). This very brief engagement is hailed by The Times in England, as the British Empire's first naval victory of World War I.
- August 17–September 2 – World War I: The Battle of Tannenberg begins between German and Russian forces.
- August 20 – World War I:
- August 22 – World War I – Battle of Rossignol: German forces decisively defeat the French.
- August 23 – World War I:
- August 26 – World War I:
- August 26–27 – Battle of Le Cateau: British, French and Belgian forces make a successful tactical retreat from the German advance.
- August 26–30 – Battle of Tannenberg: The Russian Second Army is surrounded and defeated.
- August 28 – Battle of Heligoland Bight: British cruisers under Admiral Beatty sink three German cruisers.
- August 29–30 – The Battle of St. Quentin: French forces hold back the German advance.
- September 1
- September 2 – World War I: The French village of Moronvilliers is occupied by the Germans.
- September 3
- September 5 – World War I:
- London Agreement: No member of the Triple Entente (Britain, France, or Russia) may seek a separate peace with the Central Powers.
- The First Battle of the Marne begins: Situated north-east of Paris, the French 6th Army under General Maunoury attacks German forces near to Paris. Over 2,000,000 fight (500,000 are killed/wounded) in the Allied victory. A French and British counterattack at the Marne ends the German advance on Paris.
- British Royal Navy scout cruiser HMS Pathfinder is sunk by German submarine U-21 in the Firth of Forth (Scotland), the first ship ever to be sunk by a locomotive torpedo fired from a submarine.
- September 7 – World War I: Turkey declares war on Belgium.
- September 8 – World War I: Private Thomas Highgate becomes the first British soldier to be executed for deserting during the war.
- September 10 – World War I: South Africa declares war on Germany.
- September 11 – World War I:
- Battle of Rawa: Austro-Hungarian forces are defeated by the Russians.
- First Battle of the Masurian Lakes: A German offensive pushes the Russian First Army back across its entire front.
- Battle of Bita Paka: The Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force lands on German New Guinea and secures a strategically significant wireless station, the first major Australian military engagement of the War.
- September 13 – World War I:
- September 14 – Royal Australian Navy submarine HMAS AE1 vanishes while on combat patrol near Papua New Guinea, beginning one of Australia's longest naval mysteries; the sunken vessel will not be discovered for another 103 years.
- September 15
- September 17
- September 21 – World War I: British Imperial police forces capture Schuckmannsburg, in the Caprivi Strip of German South-West Africa.
- September 22 – World War I:
- Action of 22 September 1914: German submarine U-9 torpedoes three British Royal Navy armoured cruisers, HMS Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue, with the death of more than 1,400 men, in the North Sea.
- Bombardment of Papeete: German naval forces bombard Papeete, French Polynesia.
- German light cruiser SMS Emden bombards Madras, the only Indian city to be attacked by the Central Powers in the War.
- September 25 – World War I: The first Battle of Albert begins as part of the Race to the Sea.
- September 26 – The United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is established, by the Federal Trade Commission Act.
- September 28 – World War I: The First Battle of the Aisne ends indecisively.
- September 30 – The Flying Squadron of America is established, to promote the temperance movement.
- October 3 – World War I: 25,000 Canadian troops depart for Europe.
- October 4
- October 9 – World War I: Siege of Antwerp: Antwerp (Belgium) falls to German troops.
- October 14 – World War I: The Canadian Expeditionary Force arrives on 32 ocean liners, in Plymouth Sound.
- October 16–31– World War I: Battle of the Yser: The Belgian army halts the German advance, but with heavy losses.
- October 19 – World War I:
- October 27 – World War I:
- October 28 – World War I:
- Battle of Penang, Malaya: German cruiser Emden sinks a Russian cruiser and French destroyer, before escaping.
- Participants in the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria are sentenced at Sarajevo. Gavrilo Princip, being under 20 years of age at the time of the assassination, cannot be given the death penalty, and is given a 20-year prison sentence instead.
- October 29 – World War I: Ottoman warships shell Russian Black Sea ports; Russia, France, and Britain declare war on November 1–November 5.
- October 31 – World War I: Battle of the Vistula River concludes in Russian victory over German and Austro-Hungarian forces around Warsaw.
- November 1 – World War I: Battle of Coronel – A British Royal Navy squadron commanded by Rear-Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock is met in the eastern Pacific and defeated by superior German forces led by Vice-Admiral Maximilian von Spee in the first British naval defeat of the war, resulting in the loss of HMS Good Hope and HMS Monmouth.
- November 5 – World War I:
- Britain and France declare war on Turkey. The United Kingdom annexes Cyprus, which it controls until Cyprus' declaration of independence in 1960.
- The Battle of Tanga ends, with the British Indian Expeditionary Force B failing to capture German East Africa defences.
- Alpha Phi Delta is founded as a Greek social fraternity at Syracuse University in the United States.
- November 7 – Siege of Tsingtao: The Japanese and British seize Jiaozhou Bay in China, the base of the German East Asia Squadron.
- November 9 – World War I: Battle of Cocos – The German cruiser Emden is sunk by the Australian cruiser Sydney.
- November 13 – Zaian War: Battle of El Herri – Zayanes (Berbers) in Morocco overpower French forces.
- November 16 – A year after being created by passage of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the Federal Reserve Bank of the United States officially opens for business.
- November 21 – In New Haven, Connecticut, the new Yale Bowl officially opens; Harvard defeats Yale 36–0 in the first American football game held here.
- November 23 – Mexican Revolution: The last of U.S. forces withdraw from Veracruz, occupied seven months earlier in response to the Tampico Affair; Venustiano Carranza's troops take over, and Carranza makes the town his headquarters.
- November 24 – Benito Mussolini is expelled from the Italian Socialist Party.
- November 28 – World War I: Following a war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opens for bond trading.
- December 2 – Serbian Campaign (World War I): Austro-Hungarian forces occupy Belgrade, Serbia.
- December 8 – World War I: Battle of the Falkland Islands: A superior British Royal Navy squadron under Doveton Sturdee defeats ships of the Imperial German Navy under Maximilian von Spee.
- December 12 – The New York Stock Exchange re-opens, having been closed since August 1, except for bond trading.
- December 15 – A gas explosion at the Mitsubishi Hōjō mine disaster, Kyūshū, Japan, kills 687 people (the worst coal mine disaster in Japanese history).
- December 16 – World War I: Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby: Imperial German Navy battlecruisers attack English North Sea ports, resulting in 137 deaths.
- December 17 – United States President Woodrow Wilson signs the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act (initially introduced by Francis Burton Harrison).
- December 18 – Egypt becomes a British protectorate.
- December 19
- December 20 – Tokyo Station, officially opens, and changes from railway base station from Shinbashi Station in Japan.[page needed]
- December 24 – World War I:
- December 25 – World War I: Cuxhaven Raid: British aircraft launched from warships attack the German port of Cuxhaven with submarine support, although little damage is caused.
- China declares its neutrality in World War I.
- The capital of the Guangxi Province of China is moved from Guilin to Nanning.
- Oxymorphone, a powerful narcotic analgesic closely related to morphine, is first developed in Germany.
- The first everyday items made of stainless steel come into public circulation.
- Blaise Diagne of Senegal becomes the first Black African representative in the French Parliament.
- The Port of Orange, Texas, is dredged for the fabrication of vessels for the United States Navy.
- The United States Power Squadrons is formed.
- Phi Sigma, a local undergraduate classical club, is founded by a group of students in the Greek Department at the University of Chicago.
- Fashion and perfumes company Puig is founded in Barcelona.
- Woodman's of Essex, the famous family-owned clam shack on Boston's North Shore, is opened.
|January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December|
- January 1 – Noor Inayat Khan (aka Nora Baker), World War II heroine (executed 1944)
- January 2 – Vivian Stuart (aka Alex Stuart, Barbara Allen, Fiona Finlay, V. A. Stuart, William Stuart Long, Robyn Stuart), British writer (d. 1986)
- January 4
- January 5 – George Reeves, American actor (Superman) (d. 1959)
- January 7 – Edwin La Dell, British artist (d. 1970)
- January 9 – Kenny Clarke, American jazz drummer and bandleader (d. 1985)
- January 12 – Albrecht von Goertz, German car designer (d. 2006)
- January 13
- January 14
- January 15 – Hugh Trevor-Roper, English historian (d. 2003)
- January 17
- January 18 – Arno Schmidt, German author (d. 1979)
- January 20 – Roy Plomley, English radio broadcaster, producer, playwright and novelist (d. 1985)
- January 22 – Syd Hartley, English professional association football player (d. 1987)
- January 26 – Princess Hadice Hayriye Ayshe Dürrühsehvar (d. 2006)
- January 27 – Smokey Hogg, American Texas blues and country blues musician (d. 1960)
- January 30
- January 31
- February 3
- February 4 – Alfred Andersch, German writer (d. 1980)
- February 5
- February 6
- February 9
- February 10 – Larry Adler, American musician (d. 2001)
- February 11 – Matt Dennis, American singer, songwriter (d. 2002)
- February 12
- February 15 – Kevin McCarthy, American actor (d. 2010)
- February 16 – Jimmy Wakely, American country-western singer, actor (d. 1982)
- February 17 – Arthur Kennedy, American actor (d. 1990)
- February 19 – Jacques Dufilho, French comedian, actor (d. 2005)
- February 20
- February 21
- February 22
- February 23 – Theofiel Middelkamp, Dutch cyclist (d. 2005)
- February 25 – John Arlott, British journalist, author and cricket commentator (d. 1991)
- February 26 – Robert Alda, American-born actor, father of actor Alan Alda (d. 1986)
- March 1
- March 2
- March 3
- March 4
- March 6 – Kiril Kondrashin, Russian conductor (d. 1981)
- March 8 – Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich, Russian physicist (d. 1987)
- March 10
- March 12 – Frank Soo, English footballer, manager (d. 1991)
- March 13
- March 14
- March 17
- March 19
- March 20 – Richard Carlyle, American actor (d. 2009)
- March 23 – Wendell Smith, African American sportswriter (d. 1972)
- March 25 – Norman Borlaug, American agricultural scientist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 2009)
- March 26 – William Westmoreland, American Vietnam War general (d. 2005)
- March 27
- March 28 – Edmund Muskie, American politician (d. 1996)
- March 30 – Sonny Boy Williamson I, American musician (d. 1948)
- March 31 – Octavio Paz, Mexican diplomat, writer, and Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
- April 2
- April 3
- April 4
- April 7 – Heinz Billing, German physicist, computer scientist (d. 2017)
- April 8 – María Félix, Mexican actress (d. April 8, 2002)
- April 11
- April 12
- April 13 – Orhan Veli, Turkish poet (d. 1950)
- April 17 – Dovey Johnson Roundtree, Australian botanist, ecologist (d. 2018)
- April 18 – Claire Martin, Canadian author (d. 2014)
- April 20 – Betty Lou Gerson, American actress (d. 1999)
- April 21 – James Henry Quello, American Federal Communications Commissioner (d. 2010)
- April 22
- April 24
- April 25
- April 26
- April 28 – Michel Mohrt, French author, historian (d. 2011)
- April 30 – Dorival Caymmi, Brazilian songwriter (d. 2008)
- May 3
- May 5 – Tyrone Power, American actor (d. 1958)
- May 7 – Ye Fei, Filipino-Chinese general and politician (d. 1999)
- May 8 – Romain Gary, Russian-born writer, diplomat (d. 1980)
- May 9 – Hank Snow, Canadian country musician (d. 1999)
- May 12
- May 13
- May 14
- May 16 – Edward T. Hall, American anthropologist (d. 2009)
- May 18
- Alla Bayanova, Russian singer (d. 2011)
- Georg von Tiesenhausen, German-American rocket scientist (d. 2018)
- Boris Christoff, Bulgarian opera singer (d. 1993)
- Cacilda Borges Barbosa, Brazilian pianist, conductor and composer (d. 2010)
- Pierre Balmain, French fashion designer (d. 1982)
- Maxine Grimm, American religious figure (d. 2017)
- May 19
- May 20 – Avraham Shapira, head of the Rabbinical court of Jerusalem and the Supreme Rabbinic Court; rosh yeshiva of Mercaz HaRav (d. 2007)
- May 22
- May 24
- May 26
- May 28 – W. G. G. Duncan Smith, British World War II pilot (d. 1996)
- May 29
- May 31
- June 6 – Zhang Jingfu, Chinese politician (d. 2015)
- June 7 – Ralph M. Holman, American attorney and judge (d. 2013)
- June 10
- June 12 – Go Seigen, Japanese Go player (d. 2014)
- June 13 – Prince Aschwin of Lippe-Biesterfeld (d. 1988)
- June 14
- June 15
- June 16 – Eleanor Sokoloff, American pianist (d. 2020)
- June 18 – E. G. Marshall, American actor (d. 1998)
- June 19 – Alan Cranston, U.S. Senator (d. 2000)
- June 20 – Muazzez İlmiye Çığ, Turkish archaeologist
- June 21
- June 22 – Mei Zhi, Chinese children's author, essayist (d. 2004)
- June 23 – Juán Landolfi, Argentine-Italian football player
- June 24
- June 25
- June 26
- June 27
- June 28 – Ian MacDonald, American actor (d. 1978)
- June 29
- June 30
- July 1
- July 2
- July 5
- July 6
- July 7
- July 8
- July 9
- July 10
- July 11
- July 13
- July 14
- July 15
- July 16 – Herbert Nürnberg, German boxer (d. 1995)
- July 17
- July 18
- July 19
- July 20
- July 21
- July 22
- July 23
- July 24
- July 25 – Lionel Van Deerlin, American politician (d. 2008)
- July 27 – Gusti Huber, Austrian actress (d. 1993)
- July 29
- July 30 – Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin, Irish president of the International Olympic Committee (d. 1999)
- July 31 – Louis de Funès, French comedy actor (d. 1983)
- August 2 – Beatrice Straight, American actress (d. 2001)
- August 5
- August 9
- August 10
- August 11 – Hugh Martin, American composer (d. 2011)
- August 15 – Paul Rand, American graphic designer (d. 1996)
- August 16
- August 17
- August 19
- August 21 – Syed Jaafar Albar, Malaysian politician (d. 1977)
- August 26 – Julio Cortázar, Argentine writer (d. 1984)
- August 27 – Heidi Kabel, German actress (d. 2010)
- August 28 – Paul, Finnish Orthodox archbishop (d. 1988)
- August 30 – Julie Bishop, American actress (d. 2001)
- August 31
- September 1 – Tsuneko Sasamoto, Japanese photographer
- September 2
- September 5
- September 7 – James Van Allen, American physicist (d. 2006)
- September 10
- September 11 – Serbian Patriarch Pavle, (d. 2009)
- September 12
- September 13 – Ralph Rapson, American architect (d. 2008)
- September 14 – Clayton Moore, American actor (The Lone Ranger) (d. 1999)
- September 15
- September 16 – Allen Funt, American television show host (Candid Camera) (d. 1999)
- September 17
- September 18
- September 20
- September 21 – Bob Lido, American singer and musician (d. 2000)
- September 22 – Siegfried Lowitz, German television actor (d. 1999)
- September 23
- September 24
- September 25
- September 26 – Jack LaLanne, American fitness, exercise and nutritional expert (d. 2011)
- September 27 – Sophie Sooäär, Estonian actress and singer (d. 1996)
- September 28 – Marian Fuks, Polish historian
- October 1
- October 2
- October 3 – Ellsworth Wareham, American cardiothoracic surgeon (d. 2018)
- October 4 – Jim Cairns, Australian politician (d. 2003)
- October 6 – Thor Heyerdahl, Norwegian explorer (d. 2002)
- October 7
- October 8 – Henry C. Pearson, American abstract and modernist painter (d. 2006)
- October 9
- October 10
- October 13 – Eleanor Perry, American screenwriter and author (d. 1981)
- October 14 – Raymond Davis Jr., American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2006)
- October 15 – Mohammed Zahir Shah, King of Afghanistan (d. 2007)
- October 16 – Leonard Litwin, American real estate developer (d. 2017)
- October 17 – Jerry Siegel, American comic book author (d. 1996)
- October 19 – Juanita Moore, African-American actress (d. 2014)
- October 20 – James C. Floyd, Canadian aerospace engineer
- October 21 – Martin Gardner, American writer (d. 2010)
- October 23 – Dick Durrance, American skier (d. 2004)
- October 24 – František Čapek, Czechoslovakian canoeist (d. 2008)
- October 25
- October 26 – Jackie Coogan, American actor (d. 1984)
- October 27 – Dylan Thomas, Welsh poet and author (d. 1953)
- October 28
- October 29 – Ben Gage, American actor, singer, and radio announcer (d. 1978)
- October 30
- October 31 – Edward Allcard, British architect and yachtsman (d. 2017)
- November 1 – Moshe Teitelbaum, Hassidic rabbi (d. 2006)
- November 2
- November 3 – William A. Wilson, American diplomat and businessman (d. 2009)
- November 5 – Alton Tobey, American artist (d. 2005)
- November 6
- November 7 – John Welsh, Irish actor (d. 1985)
- November 8
- November 9 – Hedy Lamarr, Austrian actress (d. 2000)
- November 10 – Tod Andrews, American actor (d. 1972)
- November 11
- November 13
- November 14 – Joseph Barnes, Irish physician (d. 2017)
- November 18 – William Phillips, New Zealand economist (d. 1974)
- November 21 – Abd al-Karim Qasim, Iraqi general, 24th Prime Minister of Iraq (d. 1963)
- November 22 – Alex Pitko, American baseball player (d. 2011)
- November 23
- November 25 – Joe DiMaggio, American baseball player (d. 1999)
- November 26 – S. Prestley Blake, American businessman
- November 28 – Gertrude Jeannette, American actress (d. 2018)
- November 29 – Coleridge Goode, Jamaican-born British jazz bassist (d. 2015)
- December 2 – Bill Erwin, American actor (d. 2010)
- December 6 – Ruchoma Shain, American-born teacher and author (d. 2013)
- December 7 – Alberto Castillo, Argentine tango singer and actor (d. 2002)
- December 8 – Mary Tortorich, American voice teacher (d. 2017)
- December 9 – Frances Reid, American actress (d. 2010)
- December 10 – Dorothy Lamour, American actress and singer (d. 1996)
- December 11 – Gabriel Chiramel, Indian priest, zoologist, and author (d. 2017)
- December 12 – Patrick O'Brian, British novelist (d. 2000)
- December 13 – Larry Parks, American actor (d. 1975)
- December 14
- December 15 – Anatole Abragam, French physicist (d. 2011)
- December 16 – Renzo Franzo, Italian politician (d. 2018)
- December 19 – Dietrich Hrabak, German World War II flying ace (d. 1995)
- December 20 – Harry F. Byrd Jr., American politician (d. 2013)
- December 21 – Frank Fenner, Australian virologist and microbiologist (d. 2010)
- December 23 – David Alexander, American television director (d. 1983)
- December 24
- December 25 – Abelardo Raidi, Venezuelan sportswriter and radio broadcaster (d. 2002)
- December 26 – Richard Widmark, American actor (d. 2008)
- December 28 – Bidia Dandaron, Buddhist author and teacher in the USSR (d. 1974)
- December 29 – Billy Tipton, American musician (d. 1989)
- December 30 – Bert Parks, American singer and actor (Miss America Pageant) (d. 1992)
- Makhosini Dlamini, 1st Prime Minister of Swaziland (d. 1978)
- Sudha Roy, Indian radical leader (d. 1987)
- Clint C. Wilson Sr., African American editorial cartoonist (d. 2005)
|January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December|
- January 3 – Nadezhda Rykalova, Russian actress (b. 1824)
- January 8 – Simon Bolivar Buckner, American soldier and politician and Confederate soldier (b. 1823)
- January 10 – Leonie Aviat, French Roman Catholic religious sister and saint (b. 1844)
- January 11 – Carl Jacobsen, Danish brewer and patron of the arts (b. 1842)
- January 13 – Valentin Zubiaurre, Spanish composer and professor of the Madrid Royal Conservatory (b. 1837)
- January 15
- January 16 – Itō Sukeyuki, Japanese admiral (b. 1843)
- January 17 – Fernand Foureau, French explorer (b. 1850)
- January 18 – Georges Picquart, French general and politician (b. 1854)
- January 19
- January 21
- Salvador Martínez Cubells, Spanish painter (b. 1845)
- Donald Smith, 1st Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal, Scottish-born Canadian businessman and philanthropist (b. 1820)
- January 26 – Jose Gabriel del Rosario Brochero, Argentine Roman Catholic priest and saint (b. 1840)
- February 1
- February 4 – Per Pålsson, Swedish criminal (b. 1828)
- February 8
- February 13 – Alphonse Bertillon, French police officer and forensic scientist (b. 1853)
- February 15 – Giuseppe Vigoni, Italian explorer (b. 1846)
- February 20 – Federico Degetau, Puerto Rican politician (b. 1862)
- February 24 – Joshua Chamberlain, American Civil War general (b. 1828)
- February 25 – Sir John Tenniel, English illustrator (b. 1820)
- March 1
- March 6 – George Washington Vanderbilt II, American businessman (b. 1862)
- March 9 – José Luciano de Castro, Portuguese politician, 3-time Prime Minister of Portugal (b. 1834)
- March 12 – George Westinghouse, American entrepreneur (b. 1846)
- March 13
- March 16 – Charles Albert Gobat, Swiss politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1843)
- March 18 – Andreas Beck, Norwegian explorer (b. 1864)
- March 19
- March 22 – Allen Caperton Braxton, American lawyer (b. 1862)
- March 23 – Rafqa Pietra Choboq Ar-Rayès, Lebanese Maronite, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic nun and saint (b. 1832)
- March 25 – Frédéric Mistral, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1830)
- March 28 – Robert Fraser, British Roman Catholic bishop (b. 1858)
- March 31 – Christian Morgenstern, German poet and writer (b. 1871)
- April 1 – Rube Waddell, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1876)
- April 2 – Paul Heyse, German writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1830)
- April 4 – Sir Henry Hallam Parr, British army officer (b. 1847)
- April 7 – Mohammad Ayyub Khan, Emir of Afghanistan (b. 1855)
- April 11 – Elena Guerra, Italian Roman Catholic religious professed and blessed (b. 1835)
- April 14 – Antonio Frixione, Italian painter and printmaker (b. 1843)
- April 15 – Count Frederick of Hohenau (b. 1857)
- April 16
- April 19
- April 24 – Benedict Menni, Italian Roman Catholic priest and saint (b. 1841)
- April 25 – Géza Fejérváry, 16th Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1833)
- April 26 – Eduard Suess, Austrian geologist (b. 1831)
- April 28 – Philippe Édouard Léon Van Tieghem, French botanist (b. 1839)
- May 2 – John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll, husband of Princess Louise of the United Kingdom (b. 1845)
- May 3 – Élisabeth Leseur, French Roman Catholic mystic and servant of God (b. 1866)
- May 8 – Seth Edulji Dinshaw, Indian Parsi philanthropist
- May 10 – Lillian Nordica, American opera singer (b. 1857)
- May 12 – Eugenio Montero Ríos, 29th Prime Minister of Spain (b. 1832)
- May 13 – Isabella Fyvie Mayo, British poet and novelist (b. 1843)
- May 15 – Ida Freund, Austrian-born chemist and educator (b. 1863)
- May 23
- May 24 – Herman Teodor Holmgren, Swedish architect (b. 1842)
- May 26 – Jacob Riis, Danish-American social reformer (b. 1849)
- May 27 – Sir Joseph Swan, British scientist (b. 1828)
- May 29 – Joseph Gérard, French Roman Catholic priest and blessed (b. 1831)
- May 31 – Angelo Moriondo, Italian inventor (b. 1851)
- June 10 – Abraam, Egyptian Coptic Orthodox bishop and saint (b. 1829)
- June 11 – Adolf Friedrich V, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (b. 1848)
- June 12 – Béla Spányi, Hungarian painter (b. 1852)
- June 13 – Odoardo Toscani, Italian painter (b. 1859)
- June 14 – Adlai E. Stevenson I, 23rd Vice President of the United States (b. 1835)
- June 15 – John Robert Sitlington Sterrett, American classical scholar and archeologist (b. 1851)
- June 19 – Brandon Thomas, British actor and playwright (Charley's Aunt) (b. 1848)
- June 21 – Bertha von Suttner, Austrian writer and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1843)
- June 22 – Princess Phannarai, Thai princess consort (b. 1838)
- June 23 – Bhaktivinoda Thakur, Indian philosopher and guru (b. 1838)
- June 25 – Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (b. 1826)
- June 26 – Antonio Herrera Toro, Venezuelan painter, critic and professor (b. 1857)
- June 28
- July 2 – Joseph Chamberlain, British politician (b. 1836)
- July 9 – Prince Gustav of Thurn and Taxis (b. 1848)
- July 12 – Horace Harmon Lurton, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (b. 1844)
- July 17 – Luis Uribe, Chilean naval hero (b. 1847)
- July 21 – Karl von Czyhlarz, Czech-born Austrian jurist and politician (b. 1833)
- July 23 – Vladimir Meshchersky, Russian journalist and novelist (b. 1839)
- July 29 – Pietro Pace, Maltese Roman Catholic bishop (b. 1831)
- July 31
- August 4 – Hubertine Auclert, French feminist (b. 1848)
- August 6
- August 7 – Charles Davis Lucas, British sailor, first Royal Navy officer to be awarded the Victoria Cross (b. 1834)
- August 8
- August 9
- August 12 – John Philip Holland, Irish developer of the submarine (b. 1840)
- August 15 – Adolfo Carranza, Argentine lawyer (b. 1857)
- August 16 – Mary Bird, British Anglican missionary (b. 1859)
- August 20 – Pope Pius X (b. 1835)
- August 22 – Giacomo Radini-Tedeschi, Italian Roman Catholic cardinal (b. 1857)
- August 23
- August 26 – Achille Pierre Deffontaines, French general (died of wounds received in action) (b. 1858)
- August 27 – Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, Austrian economist (b. 1851)
- August 28 – Leberecht Maass, German admiral (killed in action) (b. 1863)
- August 30 – Aleksander Samsonov, Russian general (suicide) (b. 1859)
- September 3 – Albéric Magnard, French composer (b. 1865)
- September 5 – Charles Péguy, French poet, essayist and editor (b. 1873)
- September 8
- September 11
- September 13 – Mostafa Fahmy Pasha, Egyptian politician, 7th Prime Minister of Egypt (b. 1840)
- September 14 – Nicolás Zamora, Filipino Methodist minister and bishop (b. 1875)
- September 15 – Koos de la Rey, Boer general (b. 1847)
- September 16 – C. X. Larrabee, American businessman (b. 1843)
- September 22 – Alain-Fournier, French writer (killed in action) (b. 1886)
- September 26 – August Macke, German painter (killed in action) (b. 1887)
- September 28 – Richard Warren Sears, American founder of Sears, Roebuck and Company (b. 1863)
- October 1 – Kitty Lange Kielland, Norwegian painter (b. 1843)
- October 10
- October 12 – Prince Oleg Konstantinovich of Russia (b. 1892)
- October 16
- Victor Arnold, Austrian actor (b. 1873)
- Antonino Paternò Castello, Marchese di San Giuliano, Italian diplomat (b. 1852)
- October 17
- October 19 – Julio Argentino Roca, Argentine general and statesman, 2-Time President of Argentina (b. 1843)
- October 21 – Dimitrie Sturdza, 4-Time Prime Minister of Romania (b. 1833)
- October 23 – Thomas Edward Wilkinson, South African Anglican bishop (b. 1837)
- October 23 – José Evaristo Uriburu, Argentine politician, 12th President of Argentina (b. 1831)
- October 24 – Yevgeniya Mravina, Russian soprano (b. 1864)
- October 25 – Charles W. H. Douglas, British Army general (b. 1850)
- October 27 – Prince Maurice of Battenberg (b. 1891)
- October 28
- November 1
- November 2 – Heinrich Burkhardt, German mathematician (b. 1861)
- November 3 – Georg Trakl, Austrian poet (suicide) (b. 1887)
- November 5
- November 9
- November 11 – A. E. J. Collins, British cricketer and soldier (killed in action) (b. 1885)
- November 12 – Augusto dos Anjos, Brazilian poet (b. 1884)
- November 14 – Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, British field marshal (b. 1832)
- November 16 – Nikolai Chayev, Russian writer, poet and playwright (b. 1824)
- November 17 – Sattar Khan, Persian pivotal figure (b. 1866)
- November 19 – Robert Jones Burdette, American minister and sentimental humorist (b. 1844)
- November 21 – Thaddeus C. Pound, American businessman and politician (b. 1832)
- November 24 – Aristide Cavallari, Italian Roman Catholic cardinal (b. 1849)
- November 28 – Johann Wilhelm Hittorf, German physicist (b. 1824)
- December 1 – Alfred Thayer Mahan, United States Navy admiral, geostrategist and historian (b. 1840)
- December 5 – Angelo Di Pietro, Italian Roman Catholic cardinal (b. 1828)
- December 8 – Maximilian von Spee, German admiral (killed in action) (b. 1861)
- December 14 – Giovanni Sgambati, Italian pianist and composer (b. 1841)
- December 24 – John Muir, American naturalist (b. 1838)
- December 26 – Sir Thomas Kelly-Kenny, British army general (b. 1840)
- December 29
- Jehandad Khan, Afghan emir (executed)
- Physics – Max von Laue
- Chemistry – Theodore William Richards
- Medicine – Róbert Bárány
- Literature – not awarded
- Peace – not awarded
- Blanke, David (2002). The 1910s. American popular culture through history (Illustrated ed.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-313-31251-9.
- Robinson, David (1986) [First published 1985]. Chaplin: His Life and Art. London: Paladin. p. 113. ISBN 0-586-08544-0.
- Chaplin, Charles (2003) [First published 1964]. My Autobiography. London: Penguin Classics. p. 145. ISBN 0-141-01147-5.
- Adams, Charles Henry (March 26, 1914). "New York Day By Day". The Evening Independent. St. Petersburg, Florida. p. 7. Retrieved July 14, 2014.
- The Atlanta Constitution 1914-06-17 p. 1.
- Finestone, Jeffrey; Massie, Robert K. (1981). The Last Courts of Europe. Dent. p. 247.
- Smith, David James (2010). One Morning In Sarajevo. Hachette UK.
He was photographed on the way to the station and the photograph has been reproduced many times in books and articles, claiming to depict the arrest of Gavrilo Princip. But there is no photograph of Princip's arrest – this photograph shows the arrest of Behr.
- "International exhibition became known as a city". Bristol Post. July 9, 2013. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2014.
- Admiralty Circular CW.13963/14, 1 July 1914: "Royal Naval Air Service – Organisation"
- "Plan Big Meeting For Dead Bomb Men: Demonstration in Union Square by Anti-Militarist League Announced for Tomorrow" (pdf). The New York Times. Adolph Ochs. July 10, 1914. p. 1. Retrieved July 13, 2008.
- "August 1914". WarChron. 2007. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
- "The First Shot of World War I". Coastal Defences of Colonial Victoria. 1997. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
- "The Gold Coast Mobilized, A Proud Record: The case of Sergeant Grunshi". The Times (48572). London. March 25, 1940. p. 7.
- Thompson, J. Lee (2007). Forgotten Patriot: a life of Alfred, Viscount Milner of St. James's and Cape Town, 1854-1925. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 311. ISBN 0-8386-4121-0.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- Bennet, Geoffrey (2001). Naval Battles of the First World War. Penguin Books.
- Selcuk Aksin Somel (2010). The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 324. ISBN 978-0-8108-7579-1.
- "Egypt: a constitution". Time. April 28, 1923. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Mejia, Carolina. "Maria Feliz: 10 datos intimos de la diva del cine mexicano" [Maria Feliz: 10 intimate facts about the diva of Mexican Cinema] (in Spanish). El Univerasl de10.mx.
- "Rugby Union Footballers are Doing their Duty. Over 90% Have Enlisted. British Athletes! Will You Follow this Glorious Example?". World Digital Library. 1915. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
Primary sources and year books
- New International Year Book 1914, Comprehensive coverage of world and national affairs, 913pp
- Beatty, Jack. The Lost History of 1914: Reconsidering the Year the Great War Began (1912) excerpt; argues the war was not inevitable
- Gilbert, Martin. A History of the Twentieth Century: Volume 1 1900-1933 (1997); global coverage of politics, diplomacy and warfare; pp 297–349; emphasis on World War I
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