Ahmad Shah Bahadur
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|Ahmad Shah Bahadur|
The Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur, practices his equestrian skills, in a hunting field in the year 1750.
|13th Mughal Emperor|
|Reign||26 April 1748 – 2 June 1754|
|Coronation||4 May 1748 at Red Fort, Delhi|
|Spouse||Gauhar Afruz Banu Begum and another wife|
|Issue||Hamid Shah Bahadur
Bidar Bakht Mahmud Shah Bahadur
Tala Said Shah Bahadur
Muhammad Jamiyat Shah Bahadur
Muhammad Dilawar Shah Bahadur
Dil Afruz Begum
|Born||23 December 1725
Delhi, Mughal Empire
|Died||1 January 1775 (aged 49)
Delhi, Mughal Empire
|Burial||Mausoleum of Mariam Makani, Delhi|
Ahmad Shah Bahadur, Mirza Ahmad Shah, Mujahid-ud-Din Ahmad Shah Ghazi (23 December 1725 – 1 January 1775) was born to Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah. He succeeded his father to the throne as the 15th Mughal Emperor in the year 1748 at the age of 22. When Ahmed Shah Bahadur came to power the rule of the Mughal Empire was collapsing, furthermore his administrative weaknesses eventually led to the rise of the usurping Feroze Jung III.
Ahmed Shah Bahadur inherited a much weakened Mughal state. He was emperor in title for six years, but left all affairs to state to rivalling factions. He was deposed by the Vizier Feroze Jung III and later blinded along with his mother. He spent the remaining years of his life in prison and died of natural causes in January 1775.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Emergence of Ahmad Shah Bahadur
- 3 Succession
- 3.1 Internal transgressions (1750–1754)
- 3.1.1 Safdarjung's opposition to favoritism
- 3.1.2 Salabat Khan's imprisonment and disarray in the Mughal Army
- 3.1.3 Safdarjung's advance against Javed Khan's allies in Rohilkhand
- 3.1.4 Rise of Feroz Jung III
- 3.1.5 Ahmad Shah Bahadur turns against Feroz Jung III
- 3.1.6 Feroze Jung III's alliance with the Maratha Confederacy
- 3.1.7 Ahmad Shah Bahadur's attempt to cut off the escape route of the Maratha Confederacy
- 3.1.8 First Battle of Sikandarabad (1754)
- 3.1.9 Fall of Ahmad Shah Bahadur
- 3.1 Internal transgressions (1750–1754)
- 4 State the Mughal Empire
- 4.1 First Carnatic War (1746–1748)
- 4.2 Mughal Army expedition against Marwar
- 4.3 Mughal Viceroy cedes Punjab and Kashmir to Ahmad Shah Durrani
- 4.4 Loss of Gujarat and Orissa to the Maratha Confederacy
- 4.5 Second Carnatic War (1749–1754)
- 4.6 French-Nizam Alliance
- 5 Death
- 6 See also
- 7 References
The Deccan Wars of 1680 to 1707 had initiated the final decline of the Mughal Empire well before his birth, and it was only left to him to preside over the empire's final disintegration. After the Battle of Delhi (1737), the former empire had no territory left other than the region of Delhi itself.
As a young Prince Ahmad developed a weakness for women, though this was restricted under his father's supervision. Prince Ahmad is also known to have been an illiterate and never took part in military training. he was strongly supported by his mother Qudsiyya Begum, who began to manipulate the imperial court due to grief of Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah and his inability to consolidate the Mughal Empire and during the reign of her son who sought the harem more than his duties to the empire.
Emergence of Ahmad Shah Bahadur
After the death of the Mughal viceroy of Lahore, Zakariya Khan Bahadur his two sons Yahya Khan Bahadur and Mian Shah Nawaz Khan the Emir of Multan, fought each other during for succession. after defeating his elder brother Mian Shah Nawaz Khan, declared himself the Mughal viceroy of Punjab, this weakness was quickly exploited by Ahmad Shah Durrani who initiated another campaign with 30,000 cavalry to assist Shah Nawaz Khan, who was resented for tax-evasion in the Mughal imperial court and opposed by the Grand Vizier Qamaruddin Khan, who was the father-in-law of Yahya Khan.
In April 1748, Ahmad Shah Abdali joined by Shah Nawaz Khan invaded Indus River Valley prompting Muradyab Khan Kalhoro the Subedar of Sindh to dispatch reinforcements to assist the Mughal Army along the river banks. Prince Ahmad and the respected Grand Vizier Qamaruddin Khan, Hafiz Rahmat Khan, Safdarjung, Intizam-ud-Daula, Nasir Khan the former Subedar of Ghazni and Kabul, Yahya Khan and Ali Muhammad Khan Rohilla were dispatched by the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah to command a large Mughal Army of 75,000 to confront the 12,000 advancing Durrani's. During the Battle of Manipur (1748), in Sirhind by the river Sutlej both forces fought a decisive battle and Prince Ahmad was nominally victorious, he was thereupon conferred with the title Bahadur, after a Durrani wagon filled with gunpowder exploded. However, the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah seriously mourned the fall of the Grand Vizier Qamaruddin Khan, who was killed by a stray artillery shell during the battle. After Ahmad Shah Durrani's retreat the Mughal aligned Khans of: Kalat, Dera Ghazi Khan and Dera Ismail Khan plotted to murder Ahmad Shah Durrani, who eventually discovered the plot and had them deposed.
However, Qamaruddin Khan's son Muin ul-Mulk also a recognized war hero from the Battle of Manipur, was placed as the Mughal viceroy of Punjab, by the new Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur.
In the year 1751, Ahmad Shah Bahadur permitted the resident Ottoman delegations and their ambassador Haji Yusuf Agha to return to Istanbul, he did not attempt to reestablish relations and contacts with the Ottoman Sultans from thenceforth.
The Battle of Manipur had a considerable impact on the tactical prowess of Ahmad Shah Bahadur, in fact when he became Mughal Emperor, he is known to have introduced and organized the Purbiya artillerymen corps particularly in the years 1754-51 to combat the invading Durrani's and the rebellious Sikhs in the North-West regions of the Mughal Empire.
The Mughal Grand Vizier Qamar-ud-Din Khan died during the ensuing conflict in Sirhind. When this news was brought to the concerned Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah he became gravely sick and died soon afterwards. Upon hearing this Prince Ahmad, rushed to Delhi where he spent a week in sorrow. Afterwards, on 18 April 1748 he ascended the throne. On 29 April 1748 his coronation was held at Red Fort and he assumed the title Abu Nasir Mujahid-ud-Din Ahmad Shah Ghazi. He posted Safdarjung, Nawab of Oudh as Mughal Grand Vizier, Feroze Jung III as Mir Bakshi and Muin ul-Mulk (Mir Mannu), the son of late Grand Vizier Qamaruddin Khan, as the governor of Punjab The head eunuch of the Mughal court, Javed Khan, was given the official title of Nawab Bahadur and an army of 5000, he (together with the emperor's mother who was given a fore of 50,000) became effective regent in the emperor's place. The Emperor now began to enjoy his life with women in his harem. It is said that for several months he never saw faces of men.
The enuch, Javed Khan's rise to power and his authority was seen as an affront to the nobility and the aristocracy of the empire; particularly to the emperor's worthy soldiers.
Miniature painting showing Qudsia Begum being entertained with fireworks and dance (1742 CE by Mir Miran).
Silver rupee of Ahamad Shah Bahadur.
Internal transgressions (1750–1754)
Safdarjung's opposition to favoritism
After the Mughal Grand Vizier Safdarjung survived an assassination attempt in the year 1749 (plotted by Javed Khan), due to his response tensions erupted in the Mughal imperial court when he tried to de-legitimize any relatives of his predeceasing Grand Viziers he also tried to drive out all the members of the imperial Afghan Faction from positions of authority due to the stipends they received from the eunuch.
These policies brought Safdarjung in conflict with the principal members of the Turani Faction and particularly Javed Khan.
Salabat Khan's imprisonment and disarray in the Mughal Army
In the year 1750, Javed Khan arrested the Mughal commander Salabat Khan (of Persian origins, like Safdarjung) after he demanded pay for his 18,000 troops who were recalled to Delhi after completing the assigned expedition against Marwar, while imprisoned in the dungeons the general Salabat Khan sold all his property to pay his troops in order to halt a possible revolt and thenceforth lived in poverty like a Dervish.
Safdarjung's advance against Javed Khan's allies in Rohilkhand
When Safdarjung responded by amassing his Mughal Army, Jat and Maratha mercenaries for an expedition that caused defeat upon Qudsia Begum's loyalists in Rohilkhand, the Mughal Emperor demanded an immediate cease of hostilities which was obeyed by Safdarjung.
Safdarjung's action had cleared the path for the rise of Qudsia Begum's harsh opponents within Javed Khan's faction such as Intizam-ud-Daula (who was poisoned by his own troops for attempting to form an alliance with the Maratha Confederacy).
Rise of Feroz Jung III
Ahmad Shah Bahadur then chose the eighteen-year-old Feroze Jung III son of the deceased Intizam-ud-Daula to counter the growing influence of Safdarjung in May 1753. Feroze Jung III gathered the opposition to Safdarjung, and was joined by Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech, Qudsia Begum and even the emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur.
Safdarjung was officially stripped of his estates and authority by the emperor and even defeated. But due to his supporters such as Suraj Mal, he forgiven and thus withdrew to Awadh.
Ahmad Shah Bahadur turns against Feroz Jung III
Feroze Jung III then emerged as the new regent of the Mughal Empire his prowess was feared by Ahmad Shah Bahadur, who soon became estranged from him after Feroze Jung III collected 1,500,000 dams and refused to pay salaries to the Mughal imperial army of 80,000 and Mughal imperial officials who demanded 32 months payment.
Ahmad Shah Bahadur would soon later declare Safdarjung his Grand Vizier.
Feroze Jung III's alliance with the Maratha Confederacy
When Ahmad Shah Bahadur tried to have young Feroze Jung III removed from the imperial court, the outcast sent Aqibat Mahmud to arrest the Emperor and then sought an alliance with the Maratha chieftain Sadashivrao Bhau.
Raghunathrao demanded that Suraj Mal pay Chauth and Sardeshmukhi (harsh forms of tribute), after his refusal; Khanderao Holkar was dispatched to overthrow Suraj Mal, with the support of Feroze Jung III.
Ahmad Shah Bahadur's attempt to cut off the escape route of the Maratha Confederacy
Fearing the strength of Feroze Jung III after his alliance with the Maratha Confederacy, the emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur reconciled with Safdarjung and wrote letters to Madhao Singh of Amber and Marwar chiefs and also Suraj Mal (who had been besieged for four months at Siege of Kumher Fort).
Although besieged, Suraj Mal's planned that Ahmad Shah Bahadur was to advance to Sikandarabad on an excuse of a hunting trip and there would be joined by Safdarjung and the Jats (under the command of Suraj Mal). From thence the emperor would move towards Agra where Amber and Marwar chiefs were to join him. The siege at Siege of Kumher Fort would conclude when Khanderao Holkar was killed in a Zamburak shot by the forces of Suraj Mal.
Feroze Jung III, aided by the Marathas led by Malhar Rao Holkar, defeated Safdarjung. At this the Emperor collected a large army and camped at Sikandarabad[disambiguation needed]. On the other hand, the Maratha chieftain Sadashivrao Bhau, Malhar Rao Holkar and 2,000 Maratha's and their ally Feroze Jung III routed Imperial Mughal Army of the Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur at the First Battle of Sikandarabad (1754). The Emperor left his mother, wives and a retinue of 8,000 women behind and fled to Delhi.
Fall of Ahmad Shah Bahadur
After the First Battle of Sikandarabad (1754) the ailing Safdarjung fled to Awadh, while a Mughal general laid siege to Bhurtpore where Suraj Mal and his Jat rebels had controlled. After being reinstated as the Grand Vizier, Feroze Jung III moved out of Delhi to support his lieutenant with a fresh supply of ammunition.
It was during this confrontation Feroze Jung III claimed that Ahmad Shah Bahadur sent secret dispatches to Suraj Mal, encouraging him to fight and promised to advance to the aid of the Jats. Feroze Jung III intercepted such letters and made peace with Suraj Mal, and returned to the emperor in Delhi and caused menaces by blinding Ahmad Shah Bahadur; after hearing of this action Safdarjung fell ill and died.
State the Mughal Empire
The weak but influential Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur maintained correspondence from distant loyal vassals and Nawabs such as Chanda Shahib, Nawab of Tinnevelly (his southernmost subject) and Muzaffar Jung.
The Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah bestowed him with the title Nasir Jung and later the next Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur appointed him as the Subedar of the Deccan and bestowed him with the title Nasir-ud-Daula, he was killed by the renegade Himmat Khan in 1750.
First Carnatic War (1746–1748)
In the year 1749 Joseph François Dupleix successfully gained an alliance with Chanda Sahib and Muzaffar Jung the two strong designated Mughal administrators in the Deccan and sought bring them into power in their respective regions, other famous leaders such as Hyder Ali also sided with the French. Soon the Chanda Sahib, Muzzafar Jung and the French led by Patissier and De Bussy had the capacity to defeat the alarmed Nawab of the Carnatic Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan during the Battle of Ambur.
In response to this power struggle among the subjects of the Mughal Empire in the Deccan, Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah and Nasir Jung aligned themselves with the English in the year 1750. When Nasir Jung tried to recapture Gingee Fort, from De Bussy he was halted, defeated and killed by the forces of the troublesome Himmat Khan the Nawab of Kadapa. Joseph François Dupleix the real power behind the successors soon delegated a formidable governance to his allies: Muzaffar Jung was declared the Nizam of Mughal lands in eastern-Deccan and Chanda Sahib was declared the new Nawab of the Carnatic. The French were perceived as powerful aristocrats throughout the Mughal Empire, their English counterparts however had their reputations tarnished by the alleged acts of piracy since the days of Aurangzeb.
Mughal Army expedition against Marwar
Mir Bakshi and commander of the Mughal Army, Salabat Khan was joined by Bakht Singh against the forces of Ram Singh and Ishwari Singh. Both sides fought against each other during the Battle of Raona (1750).
Immediately after the battle Ishwari Singh reconciled with Salabat Khan and the confrontation ended in ceasefire. Soon afterwards the Maratha Confederacy invaded Jaipur and Ishwari Singh committed suicide.
Mughal Viceroy cedes Punjab and Kashmir to Ahmad Shah Durrani
In the year 1750, Muin-ul-Mulk ceded territories to Ahmad Shah Durrani in order to seek an end to all hostilities. However, Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded again in the year 1751 and occupied Kashmir the opposing Mughals led by Muin-ul-Mulk were entirely defeated and captured in the year 1753. Ahmad Shah Durrani pardoned captured Mughal viceroy Muin-ul-Mulk due to his courageousness in battle and reappointed Muin-ul-Mulk as his representative with the permission of the Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur.
Loss of Gujarat and Orissa to the Maratha Confederacy
Mughal Army looses control of the Ahmedabad region
In 1750, the Marathas annexed Gujarat from the Mughals, and fierce battles continued between the two sides it was during that havoc that the Raj Bovri Mosque complex was destroyed during a massive fray in 1753.
In response to the annexation of Gujarat, the Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur appointed and strengthened the Nawab of Junagarh Nawab Muhammad Bahadur Khanji and bestowed various titles and authority to various entities loyal to the Mughal Empire in the region. Ahmad Shah Bahadur and Safdarjung also dispatched Salabat Khan and a Mughal Army of 18,000 to an expedition to quell all rebels in Rajput territories and to gather support for the regions garrisons.
Alivardi Khan looses Orissa
In the year 1751 after defending his territories from the Marathas for nearly 11 years, Alivardi Khan the famous Nawab of Bengal, and Faujdars from various regions such as Patna, Dacca and Orissa were overrun by large force of Marathas under the command of Raghoji I Bhonsle, who eventually annexed Odisha for the Maratha Confederacy.
Second Carnatic War (1749–1754)
In the year 1751, Chanda Sahib and his lieutenants Reza Sahib and Muhammed Yusuf Khan were defeated by Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah and Clive during the Battle of Arcot. Later onward's Muzaffar Jung faced the averse uncooperative Nawabs of Kurnool, Cuddapah and Savanur after they jointly attacked Muzaffar Jung' encampments of 3000 troops, during the confrontation the Nawab of Savanur was killed, the Nawab of Kurnool was shot and wounded but apathetic Himmat Khan the Nawab of Kadapa challenged Muzaffar Jung to a duel both men charged their Howdah's at each other and eliminated each other in combat.
The news of Muzaffar Jung's death had created a great sense of shock and panic among the Mughals and the French were also affected by this unforeseeable event. De Bussy rose to the occasion and almost risked the wrath of the imperial court when he chose his brother Salabat Jung as the new Subedar of the Deccan, without the approval of Ahmad Shah Bahadur. Together they entered Hyderabad on 12 April and then marched against the Marathas to strengthen the Mughal garrison at Aurangabad on 18 June. Unwilling to allow his brother to gain power Intizam-ud-Daula an influential general in the Mughal Army, abandoned his post and threatened to march into the Deccan with an army of 150,000 and overthrow Salabat Jung with the assistance of their Maratha adversary Balaji Bajirao.
Instead of awaiting an eminent invasion Joseph François Dupleix decided to challenge the Marathas and inflicted a defeat upon their leader Balaji Bajirao by taking advantage of a lunar eclipse in December 1751. The coalition of De Bussy and Salabat Jung efficiently marched towards Poona delivering a series of crushing defeats upon the Marathas and their allies for the first time in decades. In the following year De Bussy enforced the Peace Treaty of Ahmadnagar upon the Marathas.
During a very interesting turn of events Intizam-ud-Daula was poisoned by his own troops for pursuing an alliance with Balaji Bajirao. The Nawab of the Carnatic Chanda Sahib was killed in a mutiny after he was defeated by Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah and Clive in the year 1752. Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah was then successfully recognized as the next Nawab of the Carnatic, mainly by arousing the sympathies of Ahmad Shah Bahadur.
In the year 1753, De Bussy led his coalition in order to capture the Northern Circars this move would also trigger another series of victories against the Maratha chieftain Raghoji I Bhonsle in 1754. This campaign continued until the year 1757 and Salabat Jung and De Bussy's inflicted a series of upon the Maratha around their own strongholds near Poona. This alliance with the French had greatly contributed to the advancement of Salabat Jung's forces, in the year 1756 Salabat Jung's forces utilized heavy muskets known as Catyocks, which were attached to the ground, it was known to have fired more rapidly than a cannon. These new weapons would completely reverse fortunes of the Maratha rebels.
After his deposition, Ahmad Shah Bahadur was imprisoned at the Salimgarh Fort. He stayed there for the rest of his life and finally died in 1775 at the age of 50 during the reign of Emperor Shah Alam II. One of his sons, Bidar Bakhsh reigned briefly in 1788.
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Ahmad Shah Bahadur