Airbus A350 XWB
|Qatar Airways A350-941 landing at London Heathrow Airport in 2015|
|Role||Wide-body jet airliner|
|First flight||14 June 2013|
|Introduction||15 January 2015 with Qatar Airways (-900), mid-2016 (-800) to mid-2017 (-1000)|
|Primary users||Qatar Airways
|Number built||8 as of March 2015|
The Airbus A350 XWB is a family of long-range, twin-engine wide-body jet airliners developed by European aircraft manufacturer Airbus. The A350 is the first Airbus with both fuselage and wing structures made primarily of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer. Its variants seat 280 to 366 passengers in typical three-class seating layouts. The A350 is positioned to succeed the A330 and A340, and compete with Boeing's 787 and 777.
The A350 was originally conceived in 2004, pairing the A330's fuselage with new aerodynamics features and engines. In 2006, Airbus redesigned the aircraft in response to criticism from several major prospective customers, renamed it the A350 XWB (extra wide body). Development costs are projected to be €12 billion (US$15 billion or £10 billion). As of January 2015[update], Airbus had received orders for 780 aircraft from 40 customers around the globe. The prototype A350 first flew on 14 June 2013 from Toulouse, France. Type certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency was received in September 2014 and certification from the Federal Aviation Administration two months later. On 15 January 2015, the A350 entered service with Qatar Airways, the type's launch customer.
- 1 Development
- 2 Design
- 3 Variants
- 4 Orders and deliveries
- 5 Specifications
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Airbus initially rejected Boeing's claim that the Boeing 787 Dreamliner would be a serious threat to the Airbus A330, stating that the 787 was just a reaction to the A330, and that no response was needed. When airlines pushed Airbus to provide a competitor, Airbus initially proposed the A330-200Lite, a derivative of the A330 featuring improved aerodynamics and engines similar to those on the 787. The company planned to announce this version at the 2004 Farnborough Airshow, but did not proceed.
On 16 September 2004, then-Airbus president and CEO Noël Forgeard confirmed the consideration of a new project during a private meeting with prospective customers. Forgeard did not give a project name, and he did not state whether it would be an entirely new design or a modification of an existing product. The airlines were not satisfied, and Airbus committed €4 billion to a new airliner design. The original version of the A350 superficially resembled the A330 due to its common fuselage cross-section and assembly. A new wing, engines and a horizontal stabiliser were to be coupled with new composite materials and production methods applied to the fuselage to make the A350 an almost all-new aircraft. On 10 December 2004, the boards of EADS and BAE Systems, then the shareholders of Airbus, gave Airbus an "authorisation to offer (ATO)", and formally named it the A350.
On 13 June 2005 at the Paris Air Show, Middle Eastern carrier Qatar Airways announced that they had placed an order for 60 A350s. In September 2006 the airline signed a memorandum of understanding with General Electric to launch the GEnx-1A-72 for the aircraft. Emirates sought a more improved design and decided against ordering the initial version of the A350.
On 6 October 2005, the programme's industrial launch was announced with an estimated development cost of around €3.5 billion. The A350 was initially planned to be a 250- to 300-seat twin-engine wide-body aircraft derived from the existing A330's design. Under this plan, the A350 would have modified wings and new engines, while sharing the A330's fuselage cross-section. As a result of a controversial design, the fuselage was to consist primarily of aluminium-lithium, rather than the carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) fuselage on the 787. It was to see entry in two versions: the A350-800 capable of flying 8,800 nmi (16,300 km) with typical passenger capacity of 253 in three-class configuration and the 300-seat (3-class) A350-900 with 7,500 nmi (13,900 km) range. It was designed to be a direct competitor to the 787-9, and 777-200ER.
The A350 was publically criticised by two of Airbus' largest customers, International Lease Finance Corporation (ILFC) and GE Capital Aviation Services (GECAS). On 28 March 2006, ILFC President Steven F. Udvar-Hazy urged Airbus to pursue a clean-sheet design, or risk losing market share to Boeing, branding Airbus's strategy as "a Band-aid reaction to the 787", a sentiment echoed by GECAS president Henry Hubschman. In April 2006, while reviewing bids for the 787 and A350, CEO of Singapore Airlines (SIA) Chew Choon Seng, commented that: "Having gone through the trouble of designing a new wing, tail, cockpit... [Airbus] should have gone the whole hog and designed a new fuselage." Airbus responded by stating they were considering A350 improvements to satisfy customer demands, Airbus's then-CEO Gustav Humbert stated that: "Our strategy isn't driven by the needs of the next one or two campaigns, but rather by a long-term view of the market and our ability to deliver on our promises." As major airlines such as Qantas and Singapore Airlines selected the 787 over the A350, Humbert tasked an engineering team to produce new alternative designs; one such proposal, known internally as "1d", formed the basis of the A350 redesign.
Redesign and launch
On 14 July 2006, during the Farnborough Airshow, the redesigned aircraft was designated A350 XWB (Xtra-Wide-Body). There was some previous speculation that the revised aircraft would be called the Airbus A370 or A280, with Airbus going as far as accidentally publishing an advertisement referring to the model as the "A280" on the Financial Times 's website. Within four days, SIA agreed to order 20 A350XWBs with options for another 20 A350XWBs.
The proposed A350 was a new design, including a wider fuselage cross-section, allowing seating arrangements ranging from an 8-abreast low-density premium economy layout to a 10-abreast high-density seating configuration for a maximum seating capacity of 440–550 depending on variant. The A330 and previous iterations of the A350 would only be able to accommodate a maximum of eight seats per row. The 787 can accommodate 8 to 9 seats per row, while the 777 typically accommodates nine seats per row, with some airlines using a ten-abreast seating layout. The A350 cabin is 12.7 cm (5.0 in) wider at the eye level of a seated passenger than the competing 787, and 28 cm (11 in) narrower than the competing Boeing 777. (See Wide-body aircraft for a comparison of cabin widths and seating.) All A350 passenger models will have a range of at least 8,000 nmi (15,000 km). The redesigned composite fuselage provides higher cabin pressure and humidity, and lower maintenance costs.
On 1 December 2006, the Airbus board of directors approved the industrial launch of the A350-800, -900, and -1000 variants. The delayed launch decision was a result of delays of the Airbus A380 and discussions on how to fund development. EADS CEO Thomas Enders stated that the A350 programme was not a certainty, citing EADS/Airbus's stretched resources. However, it was decided programme costs are to be borne mainly from cash-flow. First delivery for the A350-900 was scheduled for mid-2013, with the −800 and −1000 following on 12 and 24 months later, respectively. New technical details of the A350 XWB were revealed at a press conference in December 2006. John Leahy indicated existing A350 contracts were being re-negotiated due to price increases compared to the original A350s contracted. On 4 January 2007, Pegasus Aviation Finance Company placed the first firm order for the A350 XWB with an order for two aircraft.
The design change imposed a two-year delay into the original timetable and increased development costs from US$5.3 billion (€5.5B) to approximately US$10 billion (€9.7B). The total development cost for the A350 was estimated at US$15 billion by Reuters (€12 billion or £10 billion). The original mid-2013 delivery date of the A350 changed, as a longer than anticipated development forced Airbus to delay the final assembly and first flight of the aircraft to the third quarter of 2012 and second quarter of 2013 respectively. As a result the flight test schedule was compressed from the original 15 months to 12 months. A350 programme chief Didier Evrard stressed that delays only affect the A350-900 while the -800 and -1000 schedules remain unchanged.
Airbus suggested Boeing's use of composite materials for the 787 fuselage was premature, and that the new A350 XWB will feature large carbon fibre panels for the main fuselage skin. After facing criticism for maintenance costs, Airbus confirmed in early September 2007 the adoption of composite fuselage frames for the aircraft structure. The composite frames will feature aluminium strips to ensure the electrical continuity of the fuselage (for dissipating lightning strikes). Airbus will use a full mock up fuselage to develop the wiring, a different approach from the A380, on which the wiring was all done on computers.
In 2006, Airbus confirmed development of a full bleed air system on the A350, as opposed to the 787's partial bleed configuration. Rolls-Royce agreed with Airbus to supply a new variant of the Trent turbofan engine for the A350 XWB, named Trent XWB. In 2010, after low-speed wind tunnel tests, Airbus finalized the static thrust at sea level for all three proposed variants to the 330–420 kN (74,000–94,000 lbf) range.
General Electric (GE) stated it will not offer the GP7000 engine on the aircraft, and that previous contracts for the GEnx on the original A350 did not apply to the XWB. Engine Alliance partner Pratt & Whitney seems to be at odds with GE on this, publicly stating that it is looking at an advanced derivative of the GP7000. In April 2007, Airbus former chief executive Louis Gallois held direct talks with GE management over developing a GEnx variant for the A350 XWB. In June 2007, Airbus's chief operating officer John Leahy indicated that the A350 XWB will not feature the GEnx engine, saying that Airbus wants GE to offer a more efficient version for the airliner. Since then, the largest GE engines operators, which include Emirates, US Airways, Hawaiian Airlines and ILFC have selected the Trent XWB for their A350 orders. In May 2009, GE said that if it reaches a deal with Airbus to offer the current 787-optimised GEnx for the A350, it will only power the -800 and -900 variants. GE believes it can offer a product that outperforms the Trent 1000 and Trent XWB, but was reluctant to support an aircraft competing directly with its GE90-115B-powered 777 variants.
In January 2008, French-based Thales Group won a US$2.9 billion (€2 billion) 20-year contract to supply avionics and navigation equipment for the A350 XWB, beating Honeywell and Rockwell Collins. US-based Rockwell Collins and Moog Inc were chosen to supply the horizontal stabiliser actuator and primary flight control actuation, respectively. The flight management system incorporated several new safety features. Regarding cabin ergonomics and entertainment, in 2006 Airbus signed a firm contract with BMW for development of an interior concept for the original A350. On 4 February 2010, Airbus signed a contract with Panasonic Avionics Corporation to deliver in-flight entertainment and communication (IFEC) systems for the Airbus A350 XWB.
In 2008, Airbus planned to introduce new techniques and procedures to cut assembly time in half. The A350 XWB production programme sees extensive international collaboration and investments in new facilities : Airbus constructed 10 new factories in Western Europe and the US, with extensions carried out on 3 further sites.
Among the new buildings was a £570 million (US$760 million or €745 million) composite facility in Broughton, Wales, which would be responsible for the wings. In June 2009, the National Assembly for Wales announced provision of a £28 million grant to provide a training centre, production jobs and money toward the new production centre.
Airbus manufactured the first structural component in December 2009. Production of the first fuselage barrel began in late 2010 at its production plant in Illescas, Spain. Construction of the first A350-900 centre wingbox was set to start in August 2010.
The new composite rudder plant in China opened in early 2011. The forward fuselage of the first A350 was delivered to the factory on 29 December 2011. Final assembly of the first A350 static test model was started on 5 April 2012. Final assembly of the first prototype A350 was completed in December 2012.
Testing and certification
The first Trent engine test was made on 14 June 2010. The Trent XWB's flight test programme began use on the A380 development aircraft in early 2011, ahead of engine certification in late 2011. On 2 June 2013, the Trent XWB engines were powered up on the A350 for the first time. Airbus confirmed that the flight test programme would last 12 months and use five test aircraft.
The A350's maiden flight took place on 14 June 2013 from the Toulouse–Blagnac Airport. Airbus's chief test pilot said, "it just seemed really happy in the air...all the things we were testing had no major issues at all."
A350 XWB, F-WWCF, msn. 2, underwent two-and-a-half weeks of climatic tests in the unique McKinley Climatic Laboratory at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, in May 2014, and was subjected to multiple climatic and humidity settings from a high of 45 °C to as low as -40 °C.
The A350 received type certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) on 30 September 2014. On 15 October 2014, EASA approved the A350-900 for ETOPS 370, allowing it to fly more than six hours on one engine and making it the first airliner to be approved for "ETOPS Beyond 180 minutes" before entry into service. Later that month Airbus received regulatory approval for a Common Type Rating for pilot training between the A350 XWB and A330. On 12 November 2014, the A350 received certification from the US Federal Aviation Administration.
Entry into service
In June 2011, the A350-900 was scheduled to enter service in the first half of 2014, with the −800 to enter service in mid-2016, and the −1000 in 2017. In July 2012, Airbus delayed the −900's introduction by three months into the second half of 2014. The first A350-1000 final assembly will begin in early 2016, for a first flight in the second half of the same year and entry into service in mid-2017.
The production rate should rise from three aircraft per month in early 2015 to five at the end of 2015, and should ramp to ten aircraft per month by 2018. 17 planes should be delivered in 2015, and the initial dispatch reliability is 98%.
In September 2007, Airbus rolled out new design advances to a gathering of 100 representatives from existing and potential XWB customers. The A350 XWB is based on the technologies developed for Airbus A380 and includes a similar cockpit and fly-by-wire systems layout. The A350 XWB will be made out of 53% composites, 19% Al/Al-Li, 14% titanium, 6% steel, and 8% miscellaneous. This compares to the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, which consists of 50% composites, 20% aluminum, 15% titanium, 10% steel and 5% other. October 2008 was the Airbus internal goal to freeze the design and Airbus expects 10% lower airframe maintenance cost and 14% lower empty seat weight than competing aircraft.
Airbus says that the new design provides a better cabin atmosphere with 20% humidity, a typical cabin altitude at or below 6,000 ft (1,800 m) and an airflow management system that adapts cabin airflow to passenger load with draught-free air circulation. Airbus is aiming to certify the A350 with 350-minute ETOPS capability on entry into service, and reach 420 min ETOPS capability later.
The new XWB fuselage has a constant width from door 1 to door 4, unlike previous Airbus aircraft, to provide maximum usable volume. The double-lobe (ovoid) fuselage cross-section has a maximum outer diameter of 5.97 m (19.6 ft), compared to 5.64 m (18.5 ft) for the A330/A340. The cabin's internal diameter will be 5.61 m (18.4 ft) wide at armrest level compared with 5.49 m (18.0 ft) in the Boeing 787 and 5.87 m (19.3 ft) in the Boeing 777. It allows for an eight-abreast 2–4–2 arrangement in a premium economy layout, with the seats being 49.5 cm (19.5 in) wide between 5 cm (2.0 in) wide arm rests. Airbus says that the seat width will be 1.3 cm (0.5 in) greater than a 787 seat in the equivalent configuration. In the nine-abreast, 3–3–3 standard economy layout, the XWB's seat width will be 45 cm (18 in) which will be 1.27 cm (0.5 in) wider than the equivalent seat layout for the 787, and 3.9 cm (1.5 in) wider than the equivalent A330 layout. However, the current 777 and future derivatives, have 1.27 cm (0.5 in) greater seat width than the A350 in a nine-abreast configuration. The 10-abreast seating on the A350 is similar to a 9-abreast configuration on the A330, with a seat width of 41.65 cm (16.4 in). Overall, Airbus promises passengers more headroom, larger overhead storage space and wider panoramic windows than current Airbus models.
The A350 features new composite wings with a wingspan that is common to the three proposed variants. With an area of 443 m2 (4,770 sq ft) the A350 features the largest wing of a single-deck widebody aircraft in production; this is to be surpassed by the in-development Boeing 777X which is planned to have a wing area of 466.8 m2 (5,025 sq ft). The wingspan of 64.8 m (213 ft) is 4.5 m (15 ft) greater than that of the A330. This is the same span as that of the longer-range variants of the Boeing 777, which have slightly less area. The A350's new wing has a 31.9° sweep angle, helping to increase typical cruise speed to Mach 0.85 and maximum operating speed to Mach 0.89. The A350-1000 have a wing design with about a 4% increase in surface area.
The wing tip will not have Airbus's traditional wingtip fences, but instead will curve upwards over the final 4.4 metres (14 ft) in a "sabre-like" shape. A new trailing-edge high-lift system has been adopted with an advanced dropped-hinge flap (similar to that of the A380), which permits the gap between the trailing edge and the flap to be closed with the spoiler. The manufacturer has extensively used computational fluid dynamics and also carried out more than 4,000 hours of low- and high-speed windtunnel testing to refine the aerodynamic design, achieving the final configuration of wing and winglet on the "Maturity Gate 5" on 17 December 2008.
The wings are produced in the new £400M, 46,000-square-metre (500,000 sq ft) North Factory at Airbus Broughton, employing 650 workers, in a specialist facility constructed with £29M of support from the Welsh Assembly Government.
The XWB's nose section will adopt a configuration derived from the A380 with a forward-mounted nosegear bay and a six-panel flightdeck windscreen. This differs substantially from the four-window arrangement in the original design. The new nose will improve aerodynamics and enable overhead crew rest areas to be installed further forward and eliminate any encroachment in the passenger cabin. The new windscreen has been revised to improve vision by reducing the width of the centre post. The upper shell radius of the nose section has been increased. The nose is likely to be constructed from aluminium but Airbus is currently running trade-off studies considering a one-piece carbon fibre structure. According to Gordon McConnell, A350 Chief Engineer, a carbon fibre structure would need titanium reinforcements for birdstrike protection, thus the aluminium structure is the best cost-wise.
Cockpit and avionics
The revised design of the cockpit dropped the A380-sized display and adopted 38 cm (15 in) Liquid-crystal display screens. The new six-screen configuration includes two central displays mounted one above the other (the lower one above the thrust levers) and a single (for each pilot) primary flight/navigation display, with an adjacent on-board information system screen. Airbus says the new cockpit will allow advances in navigation technology to be placed on the displays in the future plus flexibility and capacity to upload new software and to combine data from multiple sources and sensors for flight management and aircraft systems control. The A350 XWB will also feature a head-up display.
The avionics will be a further development of the integrated modular avionics (IMA) concept found on the A380. The A350's IMA will manage up to 40 functions (versus 23 functions for the A380) such as undercarriage, fuel, pneumatics, cabin environmental systems, and fire detection. Airbus says benefits will include reduced maintenance and lower weight because IMA replaces multiple processors and LRUs with around 50% fewer standard computer modules known as line-replaceable modules. The IMA runs on a 100-Mbit/s network based on the (Avionics Full-Duplex Switched Ethernet) standard, already employed in the A380 instead of the architecture used on the A330/A340.
The Trent XWB family has two basic engines to power the three A350 variants. The baseline 370 kN (83,000 lbf) thrust version for the A350-900 will be derated to 330 kN (74,000 lbf) and 350 kN (79,000 lbf) for the −800, while an upgraded 432 kN (97,000 lbf) thrust version will power the A350-1000. The higher-thrust version will have some modifications to the fan module—it will be the same diameter but will run slightly faster and have a new fan blade design—and run at increased temperatures allowed by new materials technologies from Rolls-Royce's research. The basic 248 t MTOW −800 will be offered with a 330 kN (74,000 lbf) sea-level-thrust rating, while the 279 t MTOW option will have 350 kN (79,000 lbf) thrust. Airbus also plans to offer a 'hot and high' rating option for Middle Eastern launching customers Qatar Airways, Emirates, and Etihad. This option has an increased thrust of 350 kN (79,000 lbf) at higher altitudes and temperatures.
The Trent XWB will feature a 300-centimetre (118 in) fan diameter and the design will be based on the advanced developments of the Trent 900 (Airbus A380) and Trent 1000 (Boeing 787). The Trent XWB may also benefit from the next-generation reduced acoustic mode scattering engine duct system (RAMSES), which is an Acoustic quieting engine nacelle intake and a carry-on design of the Airbus's "zero splice" intake liner developed for the A380. Engine thrust-reversers and nacelles will be supplied by US-based UTC Aerospace Systems.
The A350 XWB will feature a 1,268 kW (1,700 shp) Honeywell HGT1700 auxiliary power unit, which has 10% greater power density than the previous generation of Honeywell's 331 APU family. Honeywell will also supply the air management system: the bleed air, environmental control, cabin pressure control and supplemental cooling systems. The ram air turbine, capable of generating 100 kVA, is supplied by Hamilton Sundstrand and located in the lower surface of the fuselage. In light of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner battery problems, in February 2013 Airbus decided to revert from Lithium-ion to the proven Nickel-cadmium technology although the flight test programme will continue with the Lithium-Ion battery systems.
Fuel and hydraulic systems
Parker Hannifin will supply the complete fuel package: inerting system, fuel measurement and management systems, mechanical equipment and fuel pumps. The fuel tank inerting system will feature air-separation modules to generate nitrogen-enriched air that will be used to reduce the flammability of fuel vapour in the tanks.
Parker will also provide hydraulic power generation and distribution system: reservoirs, manifolds, accumulators, thermal control, isolation, software and new engine- and electric motor-driven pump designs. Parker estimates the contracts will generate more than $2 billion in revenues over the life of the programme.
Airbus adopted a new philosophy for the attachment of the A350s main undercarriage as part of the switch to a composite wing structure. Each main undercarriage leg is attached to the rear wing spar forward and to a gear beam aft, which itself is attached to the wing and the fuselage. To help reduce the loads further into the wing, a double side-stay configuration has been adopted. This solution resembles the design of the Vickers VC10.
Airbus devised a three-pronged main undercarriage design philosophy encompassing both four- and six-wheel bogies to ensure it can keep the pavement loading within limits. The A350-800 and A350-900 will both have four-wheel bogies, although the −800's will be slightly shorter to save weight. Both will fit in the same 4.1 m (13 ft) long bay. The higher weight variant, the A350-1000 (and the A350-900R, which is being proposed to British Airways, as the −900 size but with sufficient fuel capacity to allow nonstop London-Sydney flights) will use a six-wheel bogey, with a 4.7 m (15 ft) undercarriage bay. French-based Messier-Dowty will provide the main undercarriage for the −800 and −900 variant, and UTC Aerospace Systems will supply the −1000 variant. The nose gear will be supplied by Liebherr-Aerospace.
There are three variants of the A350, and all were launched in 2006. In July 2012, the A350-900 was scheduled to enter service in the second half of 2014; then the −800 in mid-2016, and −1000 in 2017. All variants are also to be offered as corporate jets by wholly owned subsidiary Airbus Executive and Private Aviation.
The A350-800 is to seat 270 passengers in a three-class configuration with a 9-abreast seating, and have a range of 15,400 km (8,300 nmi). It is designed to compete with the Boeing 787-9 and to directly replace the Airbus A330-200. In January 2010 Airbus announced that the −800 would be developed as a simple shrink of the −900, incorporating minor changes to the systems and structure and share more hardware with the −900 rather than as an optimised variant as was previously planned. This increased commonality will allow a higher maximum takeoff weight, which will increase the range (or payload) of the A350-800 compared to initial plans. The change will increase fuel burn by "a few per cent", according to the programme's marketing head, Sophie Pendaries.
The −800's fuselage is 10 frames shorter (six forward and four aft) than the −900 aircraft. The baseline −800 will be offered with an MTOW of 248 t (547,000 lb), MLW of 190 t (420,000 lb), MZFW of 178 t (392,000 lb), and 330 kN (74,000 lbf) thrust engines. An optional 11-tonne (24,000 lb) increase in MTOW, to 259 t (571,000 lb) with a corresponding increase of MZFW to 181 t (399,000 lb), MLW to 193 t (425,000 lb), and a higher thrust 370 kN (83,000 lbf) engine (common with −900 engine thrust) is available to customers as an option. While the increased weights compensate for the increased empty weight of the aircraft and associated minor fuel burn penalty due to maintaining commonality with −900, it also resulted in an increase in the aircraft maximum structural payload capability by 3 t (6,600 lb), or 459 km (248 nmi) of additional range. As development continues, Airbus plans to decrease structural weight in the −800, which should be around airframe 20.
In a bid to save on development and production costs, Airbus has recently encouraged those customers who have ordered the −800 variant to upgrade to the more popular −900. While many customers have changed their orders, a number are yet to be convinced of the benefits. Airbus CEO Fabrice Brégier said that some customers may switch their orders to the recently announced Airbus A330neo. As of January 2015, there are only 16 orders for the -800.
The A350-900 is the first A350 model and seats 314 passengers in a three-class cabin and 9-abreast layout. It has a standard design range target of 15,000 km (8,100 nmi). Airbus says that the A350-900 will have a decrease of 16% MWE per seat, a 30% decrease in block fuel per seat and 25% better cash operating cost than the Boeing 777-200ER. The −900 is designed to compete with the Boeing 777, and the Boeing 787, while replacing the Airbus A340-300.
The A350−900R extended-range variant has been proposed but not yet launched. It would feature the higher engine thrust, strengthened structure and undercarriage of the −1000. Range of the -900R was estimated at 17,600 km (9,500 nmi), which would be boosted to about 19,100 km (10,315 nmi) by these design improvements to compete with the Boeing 777-200LR and be capable of non-stop flight from London-Heathrow to Auckland. The A350−900F freighter variant has also been proposed. In July 2013, Aviation Week reported that Airbus has been discussing with airlines a possible -900 Regional version. This version would be for airlines that fly short to medium routes that do not need the extra range, maximum fuel capacity and weight of the baseline A350-900. Etihad Airways has expressed interest in the regional variant.
The A350-1000 has an 11-frame stretch over the −900 and will enter service after the −800. It is the largest variant of the A350 family and is to seat 350 passengers in a three-class cabin and 9-abreast configuration. It will have a range of 15,600 km (8,400 nmi). It is designed to replace the Airbus A340-600 and compete with the Boeing 777-300ER and Boeing 777X.
The A350-1000 will feature a slightly larger wing than the −800/900 models; a trailing-edge extension increasing its area by 4%. This will extend the high-lift devices and the ailerons, making the chord bigger by around 400 mm, optimising flap lift performance as well as cruise performance. These and other engineering upgrades are necessary so that the −1000 model does not suffer a reduction in range. Qatar Airways will be the launch customer of the -1000 variant.
Orders and deliveries
|Total orders||Total deliveries|
Airbus A350 orders and deliveries (cumulative, by year):
On 11 June 2014, Emirates cancelled an order for 70 A350s (50 A350-900s and 20 A350-1000s), which represented 9% of the A350 production backlog. Emirates president Tim Clark said that the airline was frustrated with the development of the A350-1000, including changes to the A350-1000 engines which were previously shared with the A350-900.
|Seating, typical||270 (3-class)
|Overall length||60.54 m (198.6 ft)||66.89 m (219.5 ft)||73.88 m (242.4 ft)|
|Wingspan||64.8 m (213 ft)|
|Wing area||443 m2 (4,770 sq ft)||~460 m2 (5,000 sq ft)|
|Overall height||17.05 m (55.9 ft)|
|Fuselage width||5.96 m (19.6 ft)|
|Seat width||18.0 in (45.7 cm) in standard 9-abreast economy or 16.4 in (41.7 cm) in 10-abreast high density economy|
|Fuselage height||6.09 m (20.0 ft)|
|Cabin width||5.61 m (18.4 ft)|
|Maximum takeoff weight||259 t (571,000 lb)||268 t (591,000 lb)||308 t (679,000 lb)|
|Maximum landing weight||193 t (425,000 lb)||205 t (452,000 lb)||233 t (514,000 lb)|
|Maximum zero fuel weight||181 t (399,000 lb)||192 t (423,000 lb)||220 t (485,000 lb)|
|Manufacturer's empty weight||115.7 t (255,100 lb)|
|Maximum cargo capacity||28 LD3 or 9 pallets||36 LD3 or 11 pallets||44 LD3 or 14 pallets|
|Cruise speed||Mach 0.85 (903 km/h, 561 mph, 487 knots, at 40,000 ft or 12.19 km)|
|Maximum cruise speed||Mach 0.89 (945 km/h, 587 mph, 510 knots, at 40,000 ft or 12.19 km)|
(with passengers and baggage)
|15,300 km (8,260 nmi)||14,350 km (7,750 nmi)||14,800 km (7,990 nmi)|
|Take off run at MTOWSL ISA||2,950 m (9,680 ft)||2,830 m (9,280 ft)||3,090 m (10,140 ft)|
|Maximum fuel capacity||129,000 l (34,100 US gal)||138,000 l (36,500 US gal)||156,000 l (41,200 US gal)|
|Service ceiling||43,100 ft (13,100 m)|
|Engines (2×)||RR Trent XWB|
|Maximum thrust capability||351 kN (79,000 lbf)||374 kN (84,000 lbf)||431 kN (97,000 lbf)|
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- Final assembly in France
- "Airbus confirms timing for A350 XWB First Flight". Airbus. 11 June 2013.
- "A350 enters service as Qatar jet heads for Frankfurt". Flight international. 15 January 2015.
- "Airbus advances towards first flight of A350 twinjet". Flight International. 23 October 2012.
- "German Airbus A350 XWB Production commences" (Press release). Airbus S.A.S. 31 August 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- "A350 (ATDB)". AeroTransport Data Bank. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- Gubisch, Michael (4 Mar 2015). "Second A350 to up ante in Qatar's battle with Lufthansa". Flightglobal. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- "PICTURES: Vietnam Airlines reveals new livery on first A350". Flight, 9 March 2015.
- 8 aircraft built includes 5 prototypes, 2 aircraft delivered to Qatar Airways, and 1 to be delivered to Vietnam Airlines. See Production, testing, and certification section of this article.
- "Airbus average list prices 2015". Airbus.com. 13 January 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- "Taking the lead: A350XWB presentation" (PDF). EADS. December 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009.
- "A350XWB". Airbus.
- "15 bln U.S dollars for Airbus A350". Reuters. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
- Orders & Deliveries summary, spreadsheet with details. Airbus, 31 January 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- Gunston 2009, p. 253
- "Airbus to launch Boeing 7E7 rival." BBC News. 10 December 2004
- Reed Business Information Limited. "A350: Airbus's counter-attack". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "Qatar signs MoU to launch GEnx on A350". Flight International. 14 September 2005. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- "Airbus unleashes A350 for long-range twin dogfight". Flight International. 15 June 2005. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- "A350 lifts off with $15bn Qatar". flightglobal.com
- Brierley, David (18 June 2006). "Pressure mounts following attack by Emirates". The Independent (London). Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- "Airbus settling on wider fuselage, composite wing as it nears A350 revamp decision". ATW Online
- Gates, D. "Airplane kingpins tell Airbus: Overhaul A350." Seattle Times, 29 March 2006
- Hamilton, S. "Redesigning the A350: Airbus’ tough choice." Leeham Company
- Michaels, D. and Lunsford, J.L. "Singapore Airlines Says Airbus Needs to Make A350 Improvements." The Wall Street Journal, 7 April 2006
- Associated Press. "Airbus Considering Improvements to A350". Seattle Times, 10 April 2006.
- "Criticism prompts Airbus to study options, CEO says." Rothman, A. Bloomberg News, 11 April 2006.
- "Under Pressure, Airbus Redesigns A Troubled Plane". Wall Street Journal. 14 July 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- Hepher, Tim (22 December 2014). "Insight - Flying back on course: the inside story of the new Airbus A350 jet". Reuters (Reuters UK). Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- Gunston 2009, p. 254
- "Singapore Airlines Orders 20 Airbus A350 XWB-900s and 9 Airbus A380s". Businesswire.com. 21 July 2006. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- "Onboard well-being". Airbus S.A.S. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (19 May 2008). "PICTURE: 10-abreast A350 XWB 'would offer unprecedented operating cost advantage'". Flight International. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- "Airbus – A350 XWB Xtra comfort". Archived from the original on 5 February 2008.
- "A350 XWB Family receives industrial go-ahead" (Press release). Airbus S.A.S. 1 December 2006. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- "Airbus Gets OK to Compete with Boeing 787". Chicago Sun-Times via Aircraft Maintenance Technology. 21 December 2006.
- Norris, Guy and Max Kingsley-Jones (2 October 2006). "A380 delay puts brakes on A350 XWB formal launch at Airbus". Flight International. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- Dinkloh, Peter (5 October 2006). "Airbus May Stop Work on Its A350 Plane, FT Deutschland Says". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- "CEO Streiff says A350 programme essential, but EADS board to decide".[dead link] Forbes. 5 October 2006.
- "Pegasus orders A350 XWBs, A330-200s". ATWonline.com. 5 January 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- "Airbus Unveils New A350 to Take on Boeing's 787." Bloomberg. 17 July 2006.
- "Airbus A350 Cost Rises to $15.4 Billion on Composites." Bloomberg. 4 December 2006
-  Reuters
- Robert Wall. "Airbus Delays A350 Final Assembly Start". Aviation Week. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
- Norris, Guy (8 May 2006). "Airline criticism of Airbus A350 forces airframer to make radical changes to fuselage, wing and engines". Flight International. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- "Airbus rolls out XWB design revisions". Flight International, September 2001
- "Airbus is at a crossroads on A350 design says ILFC". Flight International, March 2006.
- "Metallic strips will ensure electrical continuity in A350 carbon". Flight International, September 2007
- "PICTURE: Airbus builds 'physical mock-up' of XWB fuselage to avoid A380 mistakes". Flight International. Archived from the original on 3 May 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
- "Steinke, S. "Airbus Unveils A350 XWB". Flug Revue. September 2006.
- "Farnborough: Airbus A350 powerplant race ignites as Rolls-Royce reaches agreement to supply Trent". Flight International, July 2006.
- Patent 20090277445: System For Improving Air Quality In An Aircraft Pressure Cabin AIRBUS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH
- "R-R prepares to ground-test Trent XWB ahead of A380 trials next year". Flight International, 29 April 2010.
- Thomas, Geoffrey (8 March 2007). "No GP7000 for A350 XWB-1000". atwonline.com. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- Doyle, Andrew (20 February 2008). "Singapore 2008: Pratt & Whitney pushes GP7000 as alternative A350 XWB engine". Flight International. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- Norris, Guy. "GEnx variant may yet power A350". Flight International, 24 April 2007.
- Norris, Guy (20 April 2007). "Airbus lobbies General Electric to offer GEnx for A350 XWB". Flight International. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- "Airbus Says No To GEnx For A350 XWB". Aero-news.net. 7 June 2007. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- Ostrower, Jon (7 May 2009). "GE revives interest in A350 engine ahead of 787 flight test". Flight International.
- "Airbus selects Thales for A350 XWB cockpit avionics". Flight International January 2008
- "A350 cockpit offers unprecedented suite of safety tools". Flight International. 2010. Archived from the original on 13 July 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- "BMW to design parts of Airbus A350 model, reportedly aircraft cabins". Forbes. 5 January 2006. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- Reed Business Information Limited. "Honeywell wins Airbus A350 XWB systems contract". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (12 June 2008). "Streamlined build plan will cut A350 XWB assembly time in half". Flight International. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (13 February 2009). "Airbus and partners gear up for A350 production". Flight International. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- "Airbus invest in A350 XWB wing line". Flight International. 30 March 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "£28 m investment at Airbus factory". BBC. 19 June 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- Derber, Alex (4 December 2009). "Airbus manufactures first structural component for A350". Flight International.
- "Airbus in Spain begins production of A350 XWB components" (Press release). Airbus. 24 September 2010. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (29 July 2010). "Airbus aims to finally start assembling first A350 centre wingbox in August". Flight International. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- Kaminski-Morrow, David (1 March 2011). "Airbus opens A350 composite rudder plant in China". Flight International. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- "First Airbus A350 Hitches A Ride To the Factory". Wired. 29 December 2011.
- "Airbus starts final assembly of first A350 XWB" (Press release). Airbus. 5 April 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
- "First flyable A350 XWB "MSN1" structurally complete" (Press release). Airbus. 4 December 2012.
- "A350's Trent XWB engine runs for first time". Flightglobal. 18 June 2010.
- "Airbus Powers Up A350 Engines in Preparation for Debut Flight". Business Week. 2 June 2013.
- "Airbus Airbus A350 makes maiden test flight". BBC. 14 June 2013.
- "Airbus declares A350 maiden flight a success". Financial Times. 14 June 2013. (subscription required (. ))
- "The A350 XWB goes "hot and cold" during climatic testing in Florida" (Press release). Airbus.
- "Airbus A350-900 receives EASA Type Certification" (Press release). Airbus. 30 September 2014.
- "EASA certifies Airbus A350 XWB for up to 370 minute ETOPS" (Press release). European Aviation Safety Agency. 15 October 2014.
- "The Common Type Rating is approved for A350 XWB and A330 pilot training" (Press release). Airbus. 22 October 2014.
- "Airbus A350-900 receives FAA type certification" (Press release). Airbus. 13 November 2014.
- "PARIS: A350-1000 delayed to 2017 as Rolls raises XWB thrust". Flight international. 18 June 2011.
- "Airbus delays A350 XWB entry as EADS profits triple". BBC. 27 July 2012.
- "Airbus begins A350 ramp-up towards 10 a month". Flight International. 23 Dec 2014.
- "Airbus delivers first ever A350 XWB to Qatar Airways" (Press release). Airbus. 22 December 2014.
- Bjorn Fehrm (23 April 2015). "Bjorn’s Corner: Boeing’s 787 and Airbus’ 350 programs, a snapshot". Leeham News and Comment.
- First ever microcutaway of Airbus's A350 XWB, Drawing Flightglobal
- " Airbus to start manufacturing parts for new A350 XWB in late ’09". Engineering News online, 11 May 2009
- "787 Dreamliner: Program Fact Sheet". Boeing.
- Taking the lead: A350XWB presentation[dead link] EADS
- Kaminski-Morrow, David (8 January 2008). "Airbus studying 350min ETOPS for A350 at service entry". Flight International. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- "Airbus Seeks Approval for A350s to Fly Farther From Nearest Emergency Strip". The Wall Street Journal. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Gunston 2009, p. 257
- "Specifications Airbus A330-200". Airbus S.A.S. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- "Airbus unveils mock up XWB cabin" Flight International September 2007
- Advisor, Trip. "British Airways 787-8 Seat Map (17.5" seat width in economy)". SeatGuru. Retrieved 2014-08-28.
- Guru, Seat. "Air Asia X Seat Map A330-300". TripAdvisor. Retrieved 2014-09-24.
- Guru, Seat. "American Airlines 9 across 777 Economy Seat Map". TripAdvisor. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Advisor, Trip. "United 787-800 Seat Map". Seat Guru.
- Tsang, Daniel. "Boeing 777X & 787-10 show the lure of the X factor". Aspire Aviation.
- Kingsley-Jones, Matt. "PICTURE: 10-abreast A350 XWB 'would offer unprecedented operating cost advantage'". Flight International. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- "Why new wing is key A350 XWB". Flight International, 12 December 2006
- "A350-800 specifications". Airbus S.A.S. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
- "Boeing chooses largest wingspan for 777x". Aspireaviation.com. 26 July 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- "Technical Characteristics – Boeing 777-200LR and 777-300ER". Boeing. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- "Airbus A350 wing aerodynamics advance". Flight International, May 2007
- "PICTURES: Airbus refines A350 aerodynamic configuration". Flight International, June 2008
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (20 January 2009). "Airbus prepares for A350 production following definition freeze". Flight International. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- "Airbus opens A350 wing factory at Broughton, Flintshire". BBC News. 13 October 2011.
- "Airbus confirms switch to A380 style nose for A350 XWB". Flight International, September 2007
- Gunston 2009, p. 258
- "A350 could have composite nose". Flight International, December 2006
- "Airbus reveals all new A350 XWB flightdeck design". Flight International, September 2007
- "A350 avionics to expand on A380 system". Flight International, July 2007
- "A350 avionics to expand on A380 systems". Flight International, July 2007
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (29 April 2010). "R-R prepares to ground-test Trent XWB ahead of A380 trials next year". Flight International.
- "Vietnam Airlines first A350 XWB takes to the sky" (Press release). Airbus. 2 June 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- "Airbus A350 XWB set to be quietest generation of airliner as manufacturer improves zero splice". Flight International, January 2007
- "Honeywell wins first contract to supply systems for Airbus A350 XWB". Flight International, September 2007
- "Hamilton Sundstrand to supply Ram Air Turbine for A350 XWB"
- "Airbus activates "Plan B" for the A350 XWB batteries". Airbus. 15 February 2013.
- "Parker wins $2 billion system contract for the A350". Flight International, January 2008
- Airbus adopts VC-10 undercarriage concept for A350 XWB. Flight International, May 2007
- Extended range A350-900R adopts −1000 six-wheel-gear. Flight International, March 2007
- "Messier-Dowty Confirmed as A350 XWB Main Gear Supplier". Flight International, December 2007.
- Airbus opts for larger wing on A350-1000 through trailing edge extension FlightGlobal.com. Retrieved 6 May 2010
- Aircraft Profile: Airbus A350. FlightGlobal.com. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
- La mise en service de l'A350-800 et l'A350-1000 désormais prévue en 2016 et 2017. latribune.fr
- "Qatar Airways backs Airbus rethink on A350-800 design". Flight International. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
- "Airbus focuses on family commonality as it begins A350-800 detailed design". FlightGlobal.com. Retrieved 6 May 2010
- Flight International 4–10 May 2010 page 10 "A350-800 takes centre stage"
- Reed Business Information Limited. "A350-800 to be developed as -900 shrink". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (30 July 2010). "Airbus works to introduce lighter A350 structure with −800 variant". Flight International. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- Flottau, Jens (20 January 2014). "A350-800 Could Be Stretched To Seat 300". Aviation Week. Penton. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- "New A330 neo will impact A350-800 orders - Airfinance Journal - July 2014". airfinancejournal.com. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "Airbus set to axe A350-800?". Australian Business Traveller. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- John Leahy presentation at Paris Le Bourget 2007 Air Show. Airbus
- "The Market for Large Commercial Jet Transports 2011–2020". Forecast International, July 2011. archived copy.
- "Extended range A350-900R adopts −1000 six-wheel-gear". Flight International, March 2007.
- "Airbus A350 XWB". aerospace-technology.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- Coppinger, Rob (7 November 2007). "Airbus A350F matches Boeing MD-11 cargo volume says European airframe manufacturer". Flight Global. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- "Airbus to Offer A350-900 Regional This Year". Aviation Week, July 2013.
- Flottau, Jens (18 November 2013). "A350 Regional Version Offered at Lower Thrust". Aviation Week. Penton. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- "A350-1000 specifications". Airbus S.A.S. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
- Flottau, Jens, Growth mode, Aviation Week and Space Technology, 28 October 2013, p.29
- Flynn, David. "Airbus A350-1000 launch airline to be Qatar in 2017". Australian Business Traveller. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Airbus O&D". Airbus S.A.S. 30 June 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- "Airbus 2007 results". Press releases. Airbus S.A.S. 16 January 2008. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- "Airbus 2008 commercial results". Press releases. Airbus S.A.S. 15 January 2009. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- "Emirates cancels order for 70 Airbus A350 planes". Reuters. 11 June 2014.
- "Emirates cancels order for 70 Airbus A350s". BBC News. 11 June 2014.
- "Emirates Cancels Airbus A350 Order". Wall Street Journal. June 11, 2014. (subscription required (. ))
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (11 June 2014). "Why XWB isn’t extra enough for Emirates". Flight international. (subscription required (. ))
- A350-1000 gets upgrade to 387 seats; we analyse the consequences Leeham
- "A350-900 specifications". Airbus S.A.S. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (10 June 2008). "A350 weight growth will result in 1% fuel penalty: Airbus". Flight International. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (12 December 2006). "Airbus's A350 vision takes shape – Flight takes an in-depth look at the new twinjet". Flight International. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- Gunston, Bill (2009). Airbus: The Complete Story. Sparkford, Yeovil, Somerset, UK: Haynes Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84425-585-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
|Airbus A350 XWB Cutaway|
|Airbus A350 XWB Cutaway from Flightglobal.com|
|"First Look: Inside the Airbus A350" from Aviation Week|
- A350 page on the Airbus site
- Airbus A350 XWB site
- Airbus A350 News
- Airbus A350 XWB page on aerospace-technology.com
- Flying The A350: Airbus’s Most Technologically Advanced Airliner Airbus A350’s Enhanced, Modular Avionics A350’s Rolls-Royce Trent XWBs Video by Aviation Week
|Airbus A3xx aircraft production timeline, 1970s–present|
|Airbus A320 family||Airbus A320neo family|
|Airbus A330||Airbus A330neo|
|Airbus A340||Airbus A350 XWB|
|= Narrow-body||= Wide-body|