EADS CASA C-295

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C-295
Polish Air Force C-295 (cropped).jpg
A Polish Air Force C-295M
Role Military transport aircraft
Manufacturer CASA
EADS CASA
Airbus Defence and Space
Indonesian Aerospace
Tata Advanced Systems
First flight 28 November 1997
Introduction 2001[1]
Status In service
Primary users Egyptian Air Force
Polish Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
Spanish Air Force
Produced 1997–present
Number built 192[2]
Developed from CASA/IPTN CN-235

The CASA C-295 (now Airbus C295) is a medium tactical transport aircraft that was designed by the Spanish company CASA in the 1990s as a development of the CASA/IPTN CN-235. When CASA was incorporated into the European aeronautical group EADS in 2000, the aircraft was designated as the EADS CASA C-295. It made its first flight on 28 November 1997 and entered service with the Spanish Air Force in 2001.

The C-295 is capable of performing a wide variety of missions effectively: tactical and logistical transport, parachute and cargo drop, medical evacuation, and maritime patrol.

Given the failure of the CN-235 in the commercial aviation segment, although it obtained civil certification to be employed by government agencies, a commercial version of this aircraft was not initially launched. It was not until 2017, many years after the military versions entered service, that it obtained its first contract in this sector.

It has been acquired by various nations such as Spain, Egypt, Poland, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, and Portugal, and it has participated in numerous international operations, including those in the former Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Iraq, Lebanon, and Chad.

Design and development[edit]

Portuguese Air Force EADS CASA C-295 (code 16708) arrives at RAF Fairford, Gloucestershire, England, on 10 July 2014, for the Royal International Air Tattoo.

The C-295 is manufactured and assembled in the Airbus Defence and Space facilities in San Pablo Airport, located in Seville, Spain. It is a development of the Spanish–Indonesian transport aircraft CASA/IPTN CN-235, but with a stretched fuselage, 50% more payload capability and new Pratt & Whitney Canada PW127G turboprop engines.

CASA began development of the C-295 in November 1996, and the first prototype made its maiden flight on 28 November 1997.[1] The first order for the C-295, from the Spanish Air Force for nine aircraft, was announced in April 1999. It was certificated as airworthy by the Spanish Dirección General de Aviación Civil and the American Federal Aviation Administration in December 1999. Deliveries to the Spanish Air Force began in November 2001.[1]

In 2012, Airbus Military announced several enhancements to the base C-295 design, changes included the adoption of winglets and an ability to carry the Marte anti-ship missile; a dedicated airborne early warning and control variant was also planned.[3] In November 2015, a C-295 successfully demonstrated a new self-protection suite, which incorporated elements such as directional infrared countermeasures from Elbit Systems and infrared passive airborne warning system.[4] In January 2016, Airbus was in the process of developing a new probe-and-drogue aerial refuelling rig to be optionally installed in the centerline of the C295 for the aerial refuelling of combat helicopters. Initial 'dry' flight tests are scheduled later in the year. Airbus is also performing flap optimisations and other modifications upon the type for extremely short takeoff and landing capabilities.[5]

The C-295's main competitor is the C-27J Spartan, manufactured initially by Alenia Aeronautica (2006-2012) and Alenia Aermacchi (2012-2016) and now by Leonardo S.p.A.[6] The C-295 was a major bidder for the US ArmyUS Air Force Joint Cargo Aircraft (JCA) programme but lost to the L-3 Communications/Alenia team for the C-27J in June 2007.[7] The C-295 was considered a higher risk by the US Army due to its use of a new operational mode to meet altitude and range requirements.[8] Among other contracts the C-295 lost to the C-27J are the Peruvian Air Force's Antonov An-32s' replacement and the Royal Australian Air Force's retired de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribous' replacement.

The C-295 MPA was a candidate to replace the German Navy's P-3C, at least as a stopgap solution from 2025 to 2032.[9] A combined order with Spain had been suggested.[10] But Germany ordered five P-8 Poseidons in 2021.[11]

Variants[edit]

C-295 AEW prototype at the Royal International Air Tattoo in 2011
C-295 Armed ISR variant at Dubai Air Show 2017
C-295W prototype at the Farnborough Airshow in 2014
C-295M

Military transport version. Capacity for 71 troops, 48 paratroops, 27 stretchers, five 2.24 × 2.74 m (88 × 108 inches) pallets, or three light vehicles.[1]

CN-295

Variant produced by Indonesian Aerospace under license in Bandung, Indonesia.[12] Since 2011, Indonesian Aerospace has an industrial collaboration with Airbus Defence & Space for the CN-295 program.[12]

C-295 MPA/Persuader

Maritime patrol/anti-submarine warfare version. Provision for six hardpoints.[1]

C-295 AEW&C

Prototype airborne early warning and control version with EL/W-2090 360 degree radar dome. The AESA radar was developed by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and has an integrated IFF (Identification friend or foe) system.[13] [14]

C-295 Firefighter

Dedicated aerial firefighting aircraft.[15]

CC-295 Kingfisher

Dedicated search and rescue aircraft for the Royal Canadian Air Force based on C-295W.[16][17][18]

C-295 SIGINT
Dedicated signals intelligence version.[19]
C-295W

This variant is equipped with wingtip devices (winglets), which allows it to improve its performance in the takeoff, climb and cruise flight phases, by increasing the lift-drag ratio.[20][21]

C-295 ISR

This variant is equipped with machine guns, small-caliber automatic cannons, rocket launchers, laser-guided bombs, and anti-tank missiles.[22][23]

AC-295 Gunship

Gunship version developed by Airbus Defence and Space, Orbital ATK, and the King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau, based on the AC-235 Light Gunship configuration.[24][25]

KC-295
Dedicated tanker aircraft.[26]

Operators[edit]

CASA C-295 operators:
  C-295M users
  C-295 Persuader users
  Users of both versions

The C-295 is in service with the armed forces of 15 countries. As of 31 August 2015, 136 C-295s have been ordered with 134 in service and two lost in accidents.[27]

 Algeria
 Angola
 Bangladesh
EADS CASA C-295 of the Brazilian Air Force in special markings for RIAT 2009
 Brazil
  • The Brazilian Air Force received 13 C-295s, designated C-105A Amazonas, to replace their ageing DHC-5/C-115 Buffalo transports. Additional orders are to raise the total to 15 by 2020.[28][34][35]
 Burkina Faso
 Canada
 Chile
 Colombia
  • The Colombian Air Force operates six C-295s; the last of the original four was delivered in April 2009. The fifth aircraft was ordered in September 2012 and delivered 14 March 2013.[27] The sixth aircraft was ordered in January 2013, entering service before 31 August 2015.[27]
 Czech Republic
  • The Czech Air Force ordered four C-295 which replaced their Antonov An-26s, with all having been delivered in 2010. They are based at Kbely Air Force Base.[41] Two more were ordered in 2017.[42]
 Ecuador
 Egypt
  • The Egyptian Air Force operates 24 C-295s as of August 2018.[43] Three aircraft were initially ordered for tactical and logistical transport.[44] The first delivery was on 24 September 2011.[45] In January 2013 a follow-on order was signed for six more aircraft[46] and a further eight was ordered on 16 July 2014.[47]
 Equatorial Guinea
 Finland
 Ghana
 India
 Indonesia
  • The Indonesian Air Force operates eight C-295s for tactical and logistical transport. One C-295 is on order as of August 2015.[27] Three planes will be assembled in Indonesia by Indonesian Aerospace (Indonesian: PT Dirgantara Indonesia), the same company which built the CN-235s, the C-295's predecessor.[54] The first two aircraft were delivered in September 2012.[55][56] The C-295s replaced the older Fokker F27s.
  • The Indonesian National Police operates one CN-295 for personnel and logistical transport.[57]
 Ireland
  • The Irish Air Corps ordered two C295 Maritime Patrol Aircraft in December 2019 to replace their CN-235 aircraft.[58]
 Ivory Coast
 Jordan
EADS CASA C-295 of the Kazakh Air Force delivered in 2013
 Kazakhstan
  • The Kazakh Air Force operates eight C-295s. In March 2019, Kazakhstan awarded Airbus a contract to produce a ninth C-295 for the Kazakh Air Force.[60]
 Mali
 Mexico
A Royal Air Force of Oman C-295MPA being tested at Seville Airport in 2015
 Oman
A Philippine Air Force CASA C-295M taxis after landing at Legazpi Airport.
 Philippines
CASA C-295 of the Polish Air Force at the Radom Air Show in 2005
 Poland
  • The Polish Air Force has received 17 C-295s that replaced their Antonov An-26s. One aircraft crashed on 23 January 2008, the other 16 are in service at Kraków-Balice Air Base. Poland was the first foreign customer, ordering eight planes in 2001, two each in 2006 and 2007, with delivery from 2003 to 2008.[66] In June 2012, another five aircraft were ordered,[67] two delivered in October 2012, third in December 2012, and final two units on 2 November 2013.[68]
 Portugal
 Saudi Arabia
 Serbia
 Spain
 Thailand
 United Arab Emirates
 Uzbekistan
 Vietnam

Accidents and notable incidents[edit]

  • In the Mirosławiec air accident on 23 January 2008, a Polish Air Force C-295 flying from Warsaw via Powidz and Krzesiny to Mirosławiec crashed during its approach to the 12th Air Base near Mirosławiec.[79] All 20 people on board were killed in the accident.[80] All Polish C-295s were grounded after the incident.[81] Polish defence minister Bogdan Klich dismissed five air force personnel after the accident investigation, which concluded that multiple failings contributed to 23 January crash.[82]
  • On 31 October 2011, the Czech Army grounded its fleet of four C-295Ms due to an in-flight equipment failure onboard one aircraft. While landing, one of its two engines stopped working. Prior to this, a cockpit display and other equipment had also failed. The plane landed safely on its remaining engine. General Vlastimil Picek ordered the grounding of all aircraft until an inquiry ended. The fleet was previously grounded in February 2011, following a severe drop in altitude in mid-flight, and again in May due to avionics problems.[83]
  • On 9 November 2012, an Algerian Air Force C-295 crashed in the Lozère region of southern France while flying from Paris to Algeria with the loss of all six people on board.[84]

Specifications (C-295M)[edit]

EADS CASA C-295
Cargo cabin transporting a Polish military Honker light vehicle

Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 2004-05[85]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Capacity: 73 troops / 48 paratroops / 12 stretcher intensive care medevac / 27 stretcher medevac with 4 medical attendants
  • Maximum payload: 7,050 kg (15,543 lb) normal
9,250 kg (20,393 lb) overload
  • Length: 24.46 m (80 ft 3 in)
  • Wingspan: 25.81 m (84 ft 8 in)
  • Height: 8.66 m (28 ft 5 in)
  • Wing area: 59 m2 (640 sq ft)
  • Airfoil: NACA 65-218[86]
  • Max takeoff weight: 21,000 kg (46,297 lb) normal
23,200 kg (51,147 lb) overload
  • Maximum landing weight: 20,700 kg (45,636 lb) normal
23,200 kg (51,147 lb) overload
  • Maximum zero-fuel weight: 18,500 kg (40,786 lb) normal
20,700 kg (45,636 lb) overload
  • Fuel capacity: 7,650 l (2,020 US gal; 1,680 imp gal) with optional in-flight refuelling probe
  • Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PW127G turboprop engines, 1,972 kW (2,644 hp) each for take-off (normal)
2,177 kW (2,919 hp) with APR
  • Propellers: 6-bladed Hamilton Sundstrand HS-568F-5, 3.94 m (12 ft 11 in) diameter composite propellers with auto-feathering and synchro-phasing

Performance

  • Cruise speed: 482 km/h (300 mph, 260 kn) at optimum altitude
  • Range: 1,555 km (966 mi, 840 nmi) normal payload, ISA, 45 minutes reserve at 460 m (1,509 ft)
1,277 km (793 mi; 690 nmi) max overload payload
4,587 km (2,850 mi; 2,477 nmi) normal MTOW, max fuel with 2,940 kg (6,482 lb) payload
2,148 km (1,335 mi; 1,160 nmi) overload MTOW, max fuel with 8,000 kg (17,637 lb) payload
  • Ferry range: 5,000 km (3,100 mi, 2,700 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 4,125 m (13,533 ft) on one engine
  • Absolute ceiling: 9,145 m (30,003 ft)
  • g limits: +2.53 (normal MTOW)
+2.25 (overload MTOW)
  • Time to altitude: to optimum cruising altitude 12 minutes
  • Power/mass: 0.188 kW/kg (0.114 hp/lb) normal
0.17 kW/kg (0.10 hp/lb) overload
  • Take-off run: 844 m (2,769 ft) Sea level, ISA
934 m (3,064 ft) Sea level, ISA + 20
  • Take-off distance to 15 m (49 ft): 1,025 m (3,363 ft) Sea level, ISA
1,103 m (3,619 ft) Sea level, ISA + 20
  • Landing run: 420 m (1,378 ft)
  • Landing distance from 15 m (49 ft): 729 m (2,392 ft)

Armament

  • Hardpoints: 6 (optional: three under each wing) with a capacity of inboard pylons 800 kg (1,764 lb); centre pylons 500 kg (1,102 lb); outboard pylons 300 kg (661 lb)

Avionics
Honeywell RDR-1400C weather radar

  • IFR instrumentation, comms and FMS as specified by customers

See also[edit]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]