Anti-communist mass killings

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Anti-communist mass killings are the politically motivated mass killings of communists, alleged communists, or their alleged supporters which were committed by anti-communists and political organizations or governments which opposed communism. The communist movement has faced opposition since it was founded and the opposition to it has often been organized and violent. Many anti-communist mass killing campaigns waged during the Cold War were supported and backed by the United States and its Western Bloc allies.[1][2][3][4][5] Some U.S.-supported mass killings, including the Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66 and the killings by the Guatemalan military during the Guatemalan Civil War, are considered acts of genocide by some scholars.[3][6][7]: 4 


White Terror[edit]

White Terror is a term that was coined during the French Revolution in 1795 in order to denote all forms of counter-revolutionary violence, referring to the solid white flag of the loyalists to the French throne.[8] Since then, historians and individual groups have both used the term White Terror in order to refer to coordinated counter-revolutionary violence in a broader sense. In the course of history, many White Terror groups have persecuted, attacked, and killed communists, alleged communists and communist-sympathizers as part of their counter-revolutionary and anti-communist agendas. Historian Christian Gerlach wrote that "when both sides engaged in terror, the 'red' terror usually paled in comparison with the 'white'", and cited the crushing of the Paris Commune, the terrors of the Spanish Civil War, and the Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66 as examples.[9]


Latin America was ravaged by many bloody civil wars and mass killings during the 20th century. Most of these conflicts were politically motivated, or they revolved around political issues, and anti-communist mass killings were committed during several of them.


From 1976 to 1983, the military dictatorship of Argentina, the National Reorganization Process under Jorge Rafael Videla, organized the arrest and execution of between 9,000 and 30,000 civilians suspected of communism or other leftist sympathies during a period of state terror. Children of the victims were sometimes given a new identity and forcibly adopted by childless military families.[10][11] Held to account in the 2000s, the perpetrators of the killings argued that their actions were a necessary part of a "war" against Communism.[12] This campaign was part of a broader anti-communist operation called Operation Condor, which involved the repression and assassination of thousands of left-wing dissidents and alleged communists by the coordinated intelligence services of the Southern Cone countries of Latin America, which was led by Pinochet's Chile and supported by the United States.[2][1][3][5]: 87 

El Salvador[edit]

La Matanza[edit]

In 1932, a Communist Party-led insurrection against the Salvadoran military dictatorship of Maximiliano Hernández Martínez was brutally suppressed by the Salvadoran Armed Forces, resulting in the deaths of 30,000 peasants.[13]

Salvadoran Civil War[edit]

The Salvadoran Civil War (1979–1992) was a conflict between the military-led government of El Salvador and a coalition of five left-wing guerrilla organizations that was known collectively as the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN). A coup on 15 October 1979 led to the killings of anti-coup protesters by the government as well as anti-disorder protesters by the guerrillas and it is widely seen as the tipping point toward civil war.[14]

By January 1980, the left-wing political organizations united to form the Coordinated Revolutionaries of the Masses (CRM). A few months later, the left-wing armed groups united to form the Unified Revolutionary Directorate (DRU). It was renamed the FMLN following its merger with the Communist Party in October 1980.[15]

The full-fledged civil war lasted for more than 12 years and saw extreme violence from both sides. It also included the deliberate terrorizing and targeting of civilians by death squads, the recruitment of child soldiers and other violations of human rights, mostly by the military.[16] An unknown number of people "disappeared" during the conflict and the United Nations reports that more than 75,000 were killed.[17] The United States contributed to the conflict by providing large amounts of military aid to the government of El Salvador during the Carter[18] and Reagan administrations.


Massacres, forced disappearances, torture and summary executions of guerrillas and especially civilian collaborators of the communist[19] Guerrilla Army of the Poor at the hands of United States-backed Armed Forces of Guatemala had been widespread since 1965. It was a longstanding policy of the military regime and known by United States officials.[20] A report from 1984 discussed "the murder of thousands by a military government that maintains its authority by terror".[21] Human Rights Watch described extraordinarily cruel actions by the armed forces, mostly against unarmed civilians.[22]

The repression reached genocidal levels in the predominantly indigenous northern provinces where guerrillas of the Guerrilla Army of the Poor operated. There, the Guatemalan military viewed the Maya peoples, traditionally seen as subhumans, as being supportive of the guerillas and began a campaign of wholesale killings and disappearances of Mayan peasants. While massacres of Indigenous peasants had occurred earlier in the war, the systematic use of terror against the Indigenous population began around 1975 and peaked during the first half of the 1980s. An estimated 200,000 Guatemalans were killed during the Guatemalan Civil War, including at least 40,000 persons who "disappeared". Of the 42,275 individual cases of killing and "disappearances" documented by the CEH, 93% were killed by government forces. 83% of the victims were Maya and 17% Ladino.[23]


The political and ideological struggles in Asia during the 20th century frequently involved communist movements. Anti-communist mass killings were committed on a large scale in Asia.

Mainland China[edit]

KMT troops rounding up Communist prisoners

The Shanghai massacre of April 12, 1927 was a violent suppression of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Chiang Kai-shek's conservative faction in the Kuomintang (KMT). Following the incident, the latter carried out a full-scale purge of communists in all areas under their control and even more violent suppressions occurred in cities such as Guangzhou and Changsha.[24] The purge led to an open split between the left- and right-wings of the KMT, with Chiang Kai-shek establishing himself as the leader of the right-wing at Nanjing in opposition to the original left-wing KMT government led by Wang Jingwei in Wuhan.

Before dawn on April 12, gang members began to attack district offices controlled by the union workers, including Zhabei, Nanshi and Pudong. Under an emergency decree, Chiang ordered the 26th Army to disarm the workers' militias, which resulted in more than 300 people being killed and wounded. The union workers organized a mass meeting to denounce Chiang on April 13 and thousands of workers and students went to the headquarters of the 2nd Division of the 26th Army to protest. Soldiers opened fire, killing 100 and wounding many more. Chiang dissolved the provisional government of Shanghai, labor unions and all other organizations under Communist control and he reorganized a network of unions with allegiance to the Kuomintang under the control of Du Yuesheng. Over 1,000 communists were arrested, some 300 were executed and more than 5,000 went missing. Western news reports later nicknamed General Bai "The Hewer of Communist Heads".[25]

Some National Revolutionary Army commanders with communist backgrounds who were graduates of the Whampoa Military Academy kept their sympathies hidden and were not arrested and many of them switched their allegiance to the communists after the start of the Chinese Civil War.[26]

The twin rival KMT governments, known as the Nanjing–Wuhan split (Chinese: 宁汉分裂), did not last long because the Wuhan Kuomintang also began to violently purge communists as well after its leader Wang found out about Joseph Stalin's secret order to Mikhail Borodin that the CCP's efforts were to be organized so it could overthrow the left-wing KMT and take over the Wuhan government. More than 10,000 communists in Canton, Xiamen, Fuzhou, Ningbo, Nanjing, Hangzhou and Changsha were arrested and executed within 20 days. The Soviet Union officially terminated its cooperation with the KMT. Wang, fearing retribution as a communist sympathizer, fled to Europe. The Wuhan Nationalist government soon disintegrated, leaving Chiang as the sole legitimate leader of the Kuomintang. In a year, over 300,000 people were killed across Mainland China in the suppression campaigns carried out by the KMT.[27]

During the Shanghai Massacre, the Kuomintang also specifically targeted women with short hair whom had not been subjected to foot binding, presuming such "non-traditional" women to be radicals.[28] Kuomintang forces cut off their breasts, shaved their heads, and displayed their mutilated corpses in an effort to intimidate the local populace.[28]

Chinese Civil War[edit]

During the civil war between the Kuomintang and the communists, both factions committed mass violence against civilian populations and even against their own armies, with the aim of obtaining hegemony over Mainland China. During the civil war, the Kuomintang anti-communist faction killed 1,131,000 soldiers before entering combat during its conscription campaigns. In addition, the Kuomintang faction massacred 1 million civilians during the civil war.[29] Most of these civilian victims were peasants.[28]

East Timor[edit]

By broadcasting false accusations of communism against the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor leaders and sowing discord in the Timorese Democratic Union coalition, the Indonesian government fostered instability in East Timor and according to observers created a pretext for invading it.[30] During the Indonesian invasion of East Timor and the subsequent occupation of it, the Indonesian National Armed Forces killed and starved around 150,000[31][32][33] citizens of East Timor or about a fifth of its population. Oxford University held an academic consensus which called the occupation the East Timor genocide and Yale University teaches it as part of its Genocide Studies program.[34][35]


As Major General, Suharto (at right, foreground) attends the funeral for the generals assassinated in the abortive coup that led to the mass purge, 5 October 1965

A violent anti-communist purge and massacre took place shortly after an abortive coup in the capital of Indonesia, Jakarta, which was blamed on the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). Most estimates of the number of people who were killed by the Indonesian security forces range from 500,000 to 1,000,000.[36][7]: 3  The bloody purge constitutes one of the worst, yet least known, mass murders since the Second World War.[37] The killings started in October 1965 in Jakarta, spread to Central and Eastern Java and later to Bali and smaller outbreaks occurred on parts of other islands,[38] most notably Sumatra. As the Sukarno presidency began to unravel and Suharto began to assert control following the 30 September Movement coup attempt, the PKI's upper national leaders were hunted down and arrested and some of them were summarily executed and the Indonesian Air Force in particular was a target of the purge. The party chairman Dipa Nusantara Aidit had flown to Central Java in early October, where the coup attempt had been supported by leftist officers in Yogyakarta, Salatiga and Semarang.[39] Fellow senior party leader Njoto was shot around November 6, Aidit on 22 November and First Deputy PKI Chairman M. H. Lukman was killed shortly after.[40]

As part of the broader anti-communist mass killings, the Suharto regime massacred Chinese-Indonesians on the presumption that they were necessarily part of a disloyal Communist "fifth column."[41]

In 2016, an international tribunal in The Hague ruled that the killings constitute crimes against humanity and it also ruled that the United States and other Western governments were complicit in the crimes.[42] Declassified documents published in 2017 confirm that not only did the United States government have detailed knowledge of the massacres as they happened, it was also deeply involved in the campaign of mass killings.[43] Historian John Roosa contends the documents show "the U.S. was part and parcel of the operation, strategizing with the Indonesian army and encouraging them to go after the PKI."[44] According to University of Connecticut historian Bradley R. Simpson, the documents "contain damning details that the US was willfully and gleefully pushing for the mass murder of innocent people".[37] UCLA historian Geoffrey B. Robinson argues that without the backing of the US and other powerful Western states, the Indonesian Army's program of mass killings would not have occurred.[7]: 22, 177  Vincent Bevins writes that other right-wing military regimes around the world engaged in their own anti-communist extermination campaigns sought to emulate the mass killing program carried out by the Indonesian military, given the success and prestige it enjoyed among Western powers, and found evidence that indirectly linked the metaphor "Jakarta" to eleven countries.[4]


During the Korean War, tens of thousands of suspected communists and communist sympathizers were killed in what came to be known as the Bodo League massacre. Estimates of the death toll vary. According to professor Kim Dong-Choon, a commissioner of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, at least 100,000 people were executed on suspicion of supporting communism,[45] a figure which he called "very conservative."[46][47] The overwhelming majority–82%–of the Korean War-era massacres that the Truth and Reconciliation Commission was petitioned to investigate were perpetrated by the Republic of Korea Armed Forces, with just 18% of the massacres being perpetrated by the Korean People's Army.[48]


Thousands of people, labeled as communist sympathizers and spies, were killed by the government of Chiang Kai-shek during the White Terror (Chinese: 白色恐怖; pinyin: báisè kǒngbù) in Taiwan, a violent suppression of political dissidents following the 28 February Incident in 1947.[49] Protests erupted on 27 February following an altercation between a group of Tobacco Monopoly Bureau agents and a Taipei resident, with protestors calling for democratic reforms and an end to corruption. The Kuomintang regime responded by using violence to suppress the popular uprising. Over the next several days, the government-led crackdown killed several thousand people, with estimates generally setting the death toll somewhere between 10,000 and 30,000 or even more.[50][51] From 1947 to 1987, around 140,000 Taiwanese were imprisoned, about 3,000 to 4,000 of whom were executed for their alleged opposition to the Kuomintang regime.[52]


The Thai military government and its Communist Suppression Operations Command (CSOC), helped by the Royal Thai Army, the Royal Thai Police and paramilitary vigilantes, reacted with drastic measures to the insurgency of the Communist Party of Thailand during the 1960s and 1970s. The anti-communist operations peaked between 1971 and 1973 during the rule of Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachorn and General Praphas Charusathien. According to official figures, 3,008 suspected communists were killed throughout the country.[53] Alternative estimates are much higher. These civilians were usually killed without any judicial proceedings.[citation needed]

A prominent example was the so-called "Red Drum" or "Red Barrel" killings of Lam Sai, Phatthalung Province, Southern Thailand, where more than 200 civilians[53] (informal accounts speak of up to 3,000)[54][55] who were accused of helping the communists were burned in red 200-litre oil drums, sometimes after having been killed to dispose of their bodies and sometimes burned alive.[55] The incident was never thoroughly investigated and none of the perpetrators was brought to justice.[56]

After three years of civilian rule following the October 1973 popular uprising, at least 46 leftist students and activists who had gathered on and around Bangkok's Thammasat University campus were massacred by police and right-wing paramilitaries on 6 October 1976. They had been accused of supporting communism. The mass killing followed a campaign of violently anti-communist propaganda by right-wing politicians, media and clerics, exemplified by the Buddhist monk Phra Kittiwuttho's claim that killing communists was not sinful.[57][58]


Benjamin Valentino estimates 110,000–310,000 deaths as a "possible case" of "counter-guerrilla mass killings" by the United States Armed Forces and South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.[59]


The communist movement has faced opposition since it was founded in Europe in the late 19th century. The opposition to it has sometimes been violent and during the 20th century, anti-communist mass killings were committed on a large scale.


In 1920s, the government of the Kingdom of Bulgaria used the failed assassination of Tsar Boris III as a pretext to open mass hunting for leftists, both Communists and members of the Agrarian Union that continued to support the deposed Prime Minister Aleksandar Stamboliyski after the 1923 Bulgarian coup d'état.[citation needed]


At least 22,000 Communist Party of Estonia members, alleged communists, Soviet prisoners-of-war and Estonian Jews were massacred as part of The Holocaust in Estonia. As well as Jews, these killings were targeted at communists by the Nazis and their Estonian collaborators, justified by the Nazi conspiracy theory of "Judeo-Bolshevism" and the anti-Soviet sentiments of Estonian nationalists. Modern Estonia has been accused of glorifying these crimes by centre-left European politicians in recent years.[60]


German communists, socialists and trade unionists were among the earliest domestic opponents of Nazism[61] and they were also among the first to be sent to concentration camps. Adolf Hitler claimed that communism was a Jewish ideology which the Nazi Party called "Judeo-Bolshevism". Fear of communist agitation was used to justify the Enabling Act of 1933, the law which gave Hitler plenary powers. Hermann Göring later testified at the Nuremberg Trials that the Nazis' willingness to repress German communists prompted President Paul von Hindenburg and the German elite to cooperate with the Nazis. The first concentration camp was built at Dachau in March 1933 and its original purpose was to imprison German communists, socialists, trade unionists and others who opposed the Nazis.[62] Communists, social democrats and other political prisoners were forced to wear red triangles.

In 1936, Germany concluded the international Anti-Comintern Pact with the Empire of Japan in order to fight against the Comintern. After the German assault on communist Russia in 1941, the Anti-Comintern Pact was renewed, with many new signatories who were from the occupied states across Europe and it was also signed by the governments of Turkey and El Salvador. Thousands of communists in German-occupied territory were arrested and subsequently sent to German concentration camps. Whenever the Nazis conquered a new piece of territory, members of communist, socialist and anarchist groups were normally the first persons to be immediately detained or executed. On the Eastern Front, this practice was in keeping with Hitler's Commissar Order in which he ordered the summary execution of all political commissars who were captured among Soviet soldiers as well as the execution of all Communist Party members in German held territory.[63] The Einsatzgruppen carried out these executions in the east.


The disarmament of the communist-dominated EAM-ELAS resistance movement in the aftermath of the Treaty of Varkiza (February 1945) was followed by period of political and legal repression of leftists by the Kingdom of Greece.[64] The government's stance facilitated the creation of a total of 230 right wing paramilitary bands, which numbered 10,000 to 18,000 members in July 1945. The right wing death squads engaged in the organized persecution of Greek leftists, which came to be known as the White Terror.[65] In the period between the Treaty of Varkiza and the 1946 election, right-wing terror squads committed 1,289 murders, 165 rapes, 151 kidnappings and forced disappearances. 6,681 people were injured, 32,632 tortured, 84,939 arrested and 173 women were shaved bald. Following the victory of the United Alignment of Nationalists on 1 April 1946 and until 1 May of the same year, 116 leftists were murdered, 31 injured, 114 tortured, 4 buildings were set aflame and 7 political offices were ransacked.[66]


In Spain, the White Terror (or the "Francoist Repression") refers to the atrocities committed by the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War as well as the atrocities that were committed afterwards in Francoist Spain.[67]

Most historians agree that the death toll of the White Terror was higher than that of the Red Terror. While most estimates of Red Terror deaths range from 38,000[68] to 55,000,[69] most estimates of White Terror deaths range from 150,000[70] to 400,000.[71]

Concrete figures do not exist because many communists and socialists fled Spain after the Republican faction lost the Civil War. Furthermore, the Francoist government destroyed thousands of documents related to the White Terror[72][73][74] and tried to hide evidence which revealed its executions of the Republicans.[75][76] Thousands of victims of the White Terror are buried in hundreds of unmarked common graves, more than 600 in Andalusia alone.[77] The largest common grave is that at San Rafael cemetery on the outskirts of Málaga (with perhaps more than 4,000 bodies).[78] The Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory (Asociación para la Recuperación de la Memoria Historica or ARMH)[79] says that the number of disappeared is over 35,000.[80]

According to the Platform for Victims of Disappearances Enforced by Francoism, 140,000 people were missing, including victims of the Spanish Civil War and the subsequent Francoist Spain.[81][82] It has come to mention that regarding number of disappeared whose remains have not been recovered nor identified, Spain ranks second in the world after Cambodia.[83]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Mark Aarons (2007). "Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide." In David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (eds). The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9004156917 pp. 71
  2. ^ a b Blakeley, Ruth (2009). State Terrorism and Neoliberalism: The North in the South. Routledge. pp. 4, 20-23, 88. ISBN 978-0-415-68617-4.
  3. ^ a b c McSherry, J. Patrice (2011). "Chapter 5: "Industrial repression" and Operation Condor in Latin America". In Esparza, Marcia; Henry R. Huttenbach; Daniel Feierstein (eds.). State Violence and Genocide in Latin America: The Cold War Years (Critical Terrorism Studies). Routledge. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-415-66457-8.
  4. ^ a b Bevins, Vincent (2020). The Jakarta Method: Washington's Anticommunist Crusade and the Mass Murder Program that Shaped Our World. PublicAffairs. p. 238. ISBN 978-1541742406.
  5. ^ a b Prashad, Vijay (2020). Washington Bullets: A History of the CIA, Coups, and Assassinations. Monthly Review Press. pp. 83–88. ISBN 978-1583679067.
  6. ^ Melvin, Jess (2018). The Army and the Indonesian Genocide: Mechanics of Mass Murder. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-138-57469-4.
  7. ^ a b c Robinson, Geoffrey B. (2018). The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965-66. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400888863.
  8. ^ "The White Terror of 1815: Royalist reprisals against Napoleon's generals". Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  9. ^ Gerlach & Six 2020, p. 13.
  10. ^ Anderson, Jon Lee (14 March 2013). "Pope Francis and the Dirty War". The New Yorker.
  11. ^ Goldman, Francisco (19 March 2012). "Children of the Dirty War". The New Yorker.
  12. ^ McDonnell, Patrick (29 August 2008). "Two Argentine ex-generals guilty in 'dirty war' death". Los Angeles Times.
  13. ^ Cold War's Last Battlefield, The: Reagan, the Soviets, and Central America by Edward A. Lynch State University of New York Press 2011, p. 49.
  14. ^ Wood, Elizabeth (2003). Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  15. ^ Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia, El Salvador, In Depth: Negotiating a settlement to the conflict, Archived 19 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, viewed on 24 May 2013
  16. ^ Larsen, Neil (2010). "Thoughts on Violence and Modernity in Latin America". In Grandin & Joseph, Greg & Gilbert (ed.). A Century of Revolution. Durham and London: Duke University Press. pp. 381–393.
  17. ^ "Report of the UN Truth Commission on El Salvador" United Nations, 1 April 1993
  18. ^ Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia, El Salvador, In Depth: Negotiating a settlement to the conflict, Archived 19 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, "While nothing of the aid delivered from the US in 1979 was earmarked for security purposes the 1980 aid for security only summed US$6,2 million, close to two-thirds of the total aid in 1979", viewed on 24 May 2013
  19. ^ McAllister2010, pp. 280–281.
  20. ^ Group says files show U.S. knew of Guatemala abuses. The Associated Press via the New York Daily News, 19 March 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  21. ^ Guatemala: A Nation of Prisoners, An Americas Watch Report, January 1984, pp. 2–3.
  22. ^ "Human Rights Testimony Given Before the United States Congressional Human Rights Caucus" (Press release). Human Rights Watch. 16 October 2003. Retrieved 3 September 2009.
  23. ^ 83% of the "fully identified" 42,275 civilians killed by human rights violations during the Guatemalan Civil War were Mayan and 17% Ladino.< See CEH 1999, p. 17, and "Press Briefing: Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission". United Nations. 1 March 1999. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  24. ^ Wilbur, Nationalist Revolution 114
  25. ^ "CHINA: Nationalist Notes". Time. 25 June 1928. Archived from the original on 21 November 2010. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
  26. ^ Jung Chang and Jon Halliday (2005). Mao, The Unknown Story. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-224-07126-2. (this book is controversial for its anti-Mao tone and references).
  27. ^ Barnouin, Barbara and Yu Changgen. Zhou Enlai: A Political Life. Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2006. ISBN 962-996-280-2. Retrieved at Google Books on 12 March 2011. p.38
  28. ^ a b c Karl, Rebecca E. (2010). Mao Zedong and China in the twentieth-century world : a concise history. Durham [NC]: Duke University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-8223-4780-4. OCLC 503828045.
  29. ^ R.J.Rummel. "CHINA'S BLOODY CENTURY".
  30. ^ Dunn, p. 78; Budiadjo and Liong, p. 5; Jolliffe, pp. 197–198; Taylor (1991), p. 58. Taylor cites a September CIA report describing Indonesian attempts to "provoke incidents that would provide the Indonesians with an excuse to invade should they decide to do so".
  31. ^ Kiernan, p. 594.
  32. ^ "Center for Defense Information". Project On Government Oversight.
  33. ^[bare URL image file]
  34. ^ Payaslian, Simon. "20th Century Genocides". Oxford bibliographies.
  35. ^ "Genocide Studies Program: East Timor".
  36. ^ Friend (2003), p. 113.
  37. ^ a b Scott, Margaret (26 October 2017). "Uncovering Indonesia's Act of Killing". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  38. ^ Cribb (1990), p. 3.
  39. ^ Vickers (2005), p. 157.
  40. ^ Ricklefs (1991), p. 288; Vickers (2005), p. 157
  41. ^ Karl, Rebecca E. (2010). Mao Zedong and China in the twentieth-century world : a concise history. Durham [NC]: Duke University Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-8223-4780-4. OCLC 503828045.
  42. ^ Perry, Juliet (21 July 2016). "Tribunal finds Indonesia guilty of 1965 genocide; US, UK complicit". CNN. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  43. ^ Scott, Margaret (26 October 2017). "Uncovering Indonesia's Act of Killing". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  44. ^ Bevins, Vincent (20 October 2017). "What the United States Did in Indonesia". The Atlantic. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  45. ^ "Khiem and Kim Sung-soo: Crime, Concealment and South Korea". Japan Focus. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 11 August 2008.
  46. ^ Associated Press. "AP: U.S. Allowed Korean Massacre In 1950". CBS NEWS. CBS. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  47. ^ McDonald, Hamish (15 November 2008). "South Korea owns up to brutal past". The Sydney Morning Herald. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  48. ^ "Truth and Reconciliation: Activities of the Past Three Years" (PDF). Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Korea). March 2009. p. 39. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Out of those 9,600 petitions, South Korean forces conducted 7,922 individual massacres and North Korean forces conducted 1,687 individual massacres.
  49. ^ Rubinstein, Murray A. (2007). Taiwan: A New History. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe. p. 302. ISBN 9780765614957.
  50. ^ 傷亡人數與人才斷層. (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2 March 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2008.
  51. ^ Durdin, Tillman (29 March 1947). "Formosa killings are put at 10,000". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 April 2006. Retrieved 22 April 2006.
  52. ^ Huang, Tai-lin (20 May 2005). "White Terror exhibit unveils part of the truth". Taipei Times.
  53. ^ a b Jularat Damrongviteetham (2013). Narratives of the "Red Barrel" Incident: Collective and Individual Memories in Lamsin, Southern Thailand. Oral History in Southeast Asia: Memories and Fragments. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 101.
  54. ^ Tyrell Haberkorn (2013). Getting Away with Murder in Thailand: State Violence and Impunity in Phatthalung. State Violence in East Asia. University Press of Kentucky. p. 186.
  55. ^ a b Matthew Zipple (2014). "Thailand's Red Drum Murders Through an Analysis of Declassified Documents" (PDF). Southeast Review of Asian Studies. 36: 91.
  56. ^ Tyrell Haberkorn (2013). Getting Away with Murder in Thailand. pp. 186–187.
  57. ^ Chris Baker; Pasuk Pongphaichit (2009). A History of Thailand (Second ed.). Ocford University Press. pp. 191–194.
  58. ^ Thongchai Winichakul (2002). Remembering/Silencing the Traumatic Past: The Ambivalent Memories of the October 1976 Massacre in Bangkok. Cultural Crisis and Social Memory: Modernity and Identity in Thailand and Laos. Routledge. p. 244.
  59. ^ Valentino, Benjamin (2005). Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the 20th Century. Cornell University Press. p. 84. ISBN 9780801472732.
  60. ^ "Glorification of Nazism in Estonia".
  61. ^ Non-Jewish Resistance, Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C.
  62. ^ Bethell, Gareth (27 January 2005). "Horrors of Auschwitz". The Wiltshire Gazette and Herald. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  63. ^ "Commissar Order". Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  64. ^ Margaritis, Giorgos (2005). Ιστορία του ελληνικού εμφυλίου πολέμου 1946-1949 [History of the Greek Civil War 1946-1949] (in Greek). Vol. I. Athens: Vivliorama. pp. 174–175. ISBN 9608087120.
  65. ^ Kyritsis, Nikos (2012). Δημοκρατικός Στρατός Ελλάδας. Ιδρυση - Μονάδες - Αξιωματικοί - Δυνάμεις - Απώλειες - Κοινωνική Σύνθεση [Democratic Army of Greece. Creation – Units – Officers – Strength – Casualties – Social Structure] (in Greek). Athens: Syghroni Epoxi. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-960-451-146-4.
  66. ^ Margaris, Nikos (1966). Η Ιστορία της Μακρονήσου [The History of Makronisos] (in Greek). Vol. I. Athens: Papadopoulos and Co. pp. 29–30.
  67. ^ Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain; The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939 (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006), pp.89–94.
  68. ^ Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain; The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939. Penguin Books. 2006. London. p.87
  69. ^ Thomas, Hugh. The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. 2001. p.900
  70. ^ Casanova, Julían; Espinosa, Francisco; Mir, Conxita; Moreno Gómez, Francisco. Morir, matar, sobrevivir. La violencia en la dictadura de Franco. Editorial Crítica. Barcelona. 2002. p.8
  71. ^ Richards, Michael. A Time of Silence: Civil War and the Culture of Repression in Franco's Spain, 1936-1945. Cambridge University Press. 1998. p.11
  72. ^ Preston, Paul. The Spanish Civil War. Reaction, revolution & revenge. Harper Perennial. 2006. London. p.316
  73. ^ Espinosa, Francisco. La justicia de Queipo. Editorial Crítica. 2006. Barcelona. p.4
  74. ^ Espinosa, Francisco. Contra el olvido. Historia y memoria de la guerra civil. Editorial Crítica. 2006. Barcelona. p.131
  75. ^ Fontana, Josep, ed. España bajo el franquismo. Editorial Crítica. 1986. Barcelona. p.22
  76. ^ Espinosa, Francisco. La justicia de Queipo. Editorial Crítica. 2006. Barcelona. pp.172–173
  77. ^ Moreno Gómez, Francisco. 1936: el genocidio franquista en Córdoba. Editorial Crítica. Barcelona. 2008. p.11
  78. ^ "A chilling summer - Olive Press News Spain". 2 April 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  79. ^ "Opening Franco's Graves", by Mike Elkin Archaeology Volume 59 Number 5, September/October 2006. Archaeological Institute of America
  80. ^ Silva, Emilio. Las fosas de Franco. Crónica de un desagravio. Ediciones Temas de Hoy. 2006. Madrid. p. 110
  81. ^ "Garzón recibe más de 140.000 nombres de desaparecidos en la Guerra Civil y la dictadura respecto de las que todavía se continúa desconociendo su paradero". El Mundo, 22 de septiembre de 2008.
  82. ^ "Al menos 88.000 víctimas del franquismo continúan sepultadas en fosas comunes." Público, 30 August 2012.
  83. ^ "España es el segundo país con más desaparecidos después de Camboya". Diario del Alto Aragón (in Spanish). 1 March 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2022.


Further reading[edit]