White Terror (Taiwan)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
White Terror (Taiwan)
Part of Chinese Civil War, Retreat of the government of the Republic of China to Taiwan, and Cold War
228 by Li Jun.jpg
The Horrifying Inspection by Taiwanese printmaker Li Jun. It describes the hostile environment in Taiwan shortly after the February 28 incident, which marked the start of the White Terror period.
LocationTaiwan and other ROC-controlled islands
TargetLeftists, political dissidents, intellectuals
Attack type
Politicide, mass murder, political repression, police state
DeathsAt least 3,000 to 4,000 executed, not including 228 incident (18,000 to 28,000 killed) or extrajudicial executions[1]
VictimsAt least 140,000 imprisoned
PerpetratorsGovernment of the Republic of China (Taiwan) under the Kuomintang (KMT)
MotiveConsolidate rule over Taiwan after retreat from mainland China

In Taiwan, the term White Terror (Chinese: 白色恐怖; pinyin: Báisè Kǒngbù) describes the political repression of civilians living on the island and surrounding areas under its control by the government, under the rule of the Kuomintang (KMT).[2] The period of White Terror is generally considered to have begun when martial law was declared in Taiwan on 19 May 1949, which was enabled by the 1948 Temporary Provisions against the Communist Rebellion, and ended on 21 September 1992 with the repeal of Article 100 of the Criminal Code, allowing for the prosecution of "anti-state" activities. The Temporary Provisions were repealed a year earlier on 22 April 1991 and martial law was lifted on 15 July 1987.[3][4]

The period of White Terror generally does not include the 228 Incident of 1947, in which the KMT killed at least 18,000 Taiwanese civilians in response to a popular uprising, and also summarily executed many local political and intellectual elites. The two are frequently discussed in tandem as it was the catalyst that motivated the KMT to begin the White Terror.[5][6] Martial law was declared and lifted twice during the 228 Incident.

Following the 228 Incident, the KMT retreated from mainland China to Taiwan during the closing stages of the Chinese Civil War in 1949. Wanting to consolidate its rule on its remaining territories, the KMT imposed harsh political suppression measures, which included enacting martial law, executing suspected leftists or those they suspected to be sympathetic toward the communists.[7] Others targeted included Taiwanese locals and indigenous peoples who participated in the 228 Incident, such as Uyongʉ Yata'uyungana, and those accused of dissidence for criticizing the government.[8]

The KMT carried out persecutions against those who criticized or opposed the government, accusing them of attempting to subvert the regime, while excessively expanding the scope of punishment throughout this period.[9] It made use of the Taiwan Garrison Command (TGC), a secret police, as well as other intelligence units by enacting special criminal laws as tools for the government to purge dissidents.[10] Basic human rights and the right to privacy were disregarded, with mass pervasive monitoring of the people, filings of sham criminal cases against anyone who were suspected as being a dissident, as well as labelling any individuals who were not conforming a pro-regime stance as being communist spies, often without merit.[11] It is estimated that about 3,000 to 4,000 civilians were executed by the government during the White Terror.[1] The government was also suspected of carrying out extrajudicial killings against exiles in other countries.[a]

Pro-democracy demonstrations attempted during this period, such as the Kaohsiung Incident, were harshly suppressed. The KMT ruled as a one-party state, with the existence of any other political parties strictly outlawed, resulting in non-existent competitive elections; unapproved tangwai candidates that won elections such as Hsu Hsin-liang would be spuriously impeached and often forced into exile.[12] Even so, such restricted elections were marred by overt voter fraud, most notably during the Zhongli incident.

The ideology, theory and repression ruling pattern of Chiang Kai-shek's KMT's regime in mainland China and subsequently in Taiwan has been compared by some academics and scholars to fascist regimes elsewhere, such as Nazi Germany,[13] with the National Revolutionary Army heavily dependent and inspired by the German military mission during the Sino-German cooperation (1926–1941) until Adolf Hitler decided to withdraw in 1938 to align with Imperial Japan.[14][15][16] When Chiang retreated to Taiwan in 1949, his regime refused to establish a parliamentary democracy, but continued a variation of the fascist state in Taiwan. The legacy of authoritarianism and fascism during the White Terror in Taiwan has persisted until today, and political discussions about this topic continues to be highly controversial on the island.[17]

Time period[edit]

White Terror
Literal meaningWhite Terror

The White Terror is generally considered to have begun with the declaration of martial law on 19 May 1949. For its ending date, some sources cite the lifting of martial law on 15 July 1987,[18] while others cite the repeal of Article 100 of the Criminal Code on 21 September 1992, which allowed for the persecution of people for "anti-state" activities.[3] Martial law officially lasted for almost four decades,[b] which had been the longest period of martial law in the world at the time it was lifted. It is now the second longest, after Syria's 48-year period of martial law which lasted from 1963 to 2011.[19]

Most prosecutions took place between the first two decades as the KMT wanted to consolidate its rule on the island. Most of those prosecuted were labeled by the Kuomintang (KMT) as "bandit spies" (匪諜), meaning communist spies, and punished as such, often with execution.[18] A Wang Jingwei quote, often misattributed to Chiang Kai-shek, once famously said that he would rather "mistakenly kill 1,000 innocent people than allow one communist to escape".[20][21]

The KMT mostly imprisoned Taiwan's intellectual and social elite out of fear that they might resist KMT rule or sympathize with communism.[1] For example, the Formosan League for Reemancipation was a Taiwanese independence group established in 1947, which the KMT believed to be under communist control, leading to its members being arrested in 1950. The World United Formosans for Independence was persecuted for similar reasons. However, other prosecutions did not have such clear reasoning, such as in 1968, when Bo Yang was imprisoned for his choice of words in translating a Popeye comic strip. A large number of the White Terror's other victims were mainland Chinese, many of whom owed their evacuation to Taiwan to the KMT.[22]

Many mainlander victims of White Terror, such as Bo Yang and Li Ao, moved on to promote Taiwan's democratization and the reform of the Kuomintang. In 1969, future president Lee Teng-hui was detained and interrogated for more than a week by the Taiwan Garrison Command, which demanded to know about his "communist activities" and told him "killing you at this moment is as easy as crushing an ant to death." Three years later he was invited to join the cabinet of Chiang Ching-kuo.[23]

Fear of discussing the White Terror and the February 28 Incident gradually decreased with the lifting of martial law after the 1987 Lieyu massacre,[24] culminating in the establishment of an official public memorial and an apology by President Lee Teng-hui in 1995. In 2008, President Ma Ying-jeou addressed a memorial service for the White Terror in Taipei. Ma apologized to the victims and their family members on behalf of the government and expressed the hope that Taiwan would never again experience a similar tragedy.[25]


A Taiwanese political dissident after and prior to his execution

Around 140,000 Taiwanese were imprisoned under harsh treatment during this period, with many either indirectly dying or suffering various health problems in the process. About 3,000 to 4,000 were directly executed for their real or perceived opposition to the KMT's Chiang Kai-shek government.[1] Most of the victims of the White Terror were men, however, a number of women were tortured and/or executed.[26][27]



Since the lifting of martial law in 1987, the government has set up the 228 Incident Memorial Foundation, a civilian reparations fund supported by public donations for the victims and their families. However, there was never a proper truth and reconciliation commission. Many descendants of victims remain unaware that their family members were victims, while many of the families of victims, especially from Mainland China, did not know the details of their relatives' mistreatment during the riot.



  • Vern Sneider's novel A Pail of Oysters in 1953 was based on the officer's personal field survey revealing people's life in Taiwanese society under suppression in 1950s, was banned by Chinese Nationalists' authorities until being reissued in 2016 – 35 years after his death.[84][85][86][87]
  • Tehpen Tasi's autobiography Elegy of Sweet Potatoes (Japanese: 臺湾のいもっ子) in 1994, based on his testimony with the other political prisoners together for 13 months in 1954–1955.[88][89]
  • Julie Wu's The Third Son in 2013 describes the event and its aftermath from the viewpoint of a Taiwanese boy.[90]
  • Jennifer J. Chow's The 228 Legacy in 2013 focuses on how there was such an impact that it permeated throughout multiple generations within the same family.[91]
  • Shawna Yang Ryan's Green Island in 2016 tells the story of the incident as it affects three generations of a Taiwanese family.[92]
  • Ken Liu's The Paper Menagerie & Other Short Stories in 2016 includes a short story titled The Literomancer which references the 228 incident from the perspective of a young American girl who had recently moved to Taiwan, and asks both her father, who works on an American military base, and a neighbor, and old man named Mr. Kan about the incident. It develops on these two different perspectives throughout the story, becoming progressively darker.
  • Principle Jian Tian-lu's Hushen, a 2019 literature award winner expresses the humanity concern in contrast with the brutality on the first scene of 1987 Lieyu massacre.[93]


  • In 2014, Sharp Point Press and Future-Digi publicized the Rainy Port Keelung with 3 light novels telling a love story in the background of Keelung Massacre during the Feb. 28 incident.[94]
  • In 2017, Taiwanese game developer Red Candle Games launched Detention, a survival horror video game created and developed for Steam. It is a 2D atmospheric horror side-scroller set in 1960s Taiwan under martial law following the 228 incident. The critically acclaimed game also incorporates religious elements based on Taiwanese culture and mythology. Rely On Horror gave the game a 9 out of 10, saying that "every facet of Detention moves in one harmonious lockstep towards an unavoidable tragedy, drowning out the world around you."[95]
  • In 2017, Erotes Studio produced Blue Blood Lagoon with the story of high-school students running for life to escape from the bloodshed of military conscription arrest, prosecution and execution during the July 13 Penghu incident.[96]
  • In 2019, Team Padendon publicized a ghost RPG PAGUI based on a true family story of the Kaohsiung Massacre victims in Feb. 28 Incident: An orphan raised by a temple uncovered his identity and looked for his dispersed family for over 60 years with no result until he died; an old lady in her 90s heard the news arrives but only find her son in the coffin.[97][98]
  • In 2020, MatchB Studio produced an adventure puzzle Halflight with two brothers playing near a base witnessed an execution site upon the Feb. 28 incident, and one fell missing in chaos, followed by the family being persecuted apart, so the little boy went back trying to find the younger brother, but only stepped into the worse ending in 50 years.[99][100]


See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]


  1. ^ See Henry Liu and Chen Wen-chen.
  2. ^ 38 years and 57 days.


  1. ^ a b c d Huang, Tai-lin (20 May 2005). "White Terror exhibit unveils part of the truth". Taipei Times. p. 2.
  2. ^ Rubinstein, Murray A. (2007). Taiwan: A New History. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe. p. 302. ISBN 9780765614957.
  3. ^ a b "White Terror Period". National Human Rights Museum. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  4. ^ "Taiwan: Amendment of Article 100 of the Criminal Code". Amensty International.
  5. ^ 楊碧川. "嘉義的228故事:濫殺槍決,血染機場、火車站". The Reporter (Taiwan). Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  6. ^ Sui, Cindy (13 March 2016). "Taiwan Kuomintang: Revisiting the White Terror years". BBC News. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  7. ^ Fuchs, Chris (27 February 2017). "30 years after end of martial law, scars from Taiwan's 'White Terror' remain". NBC News. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  8. ^ Chen, Yu-fu; Hetherington, William (30 August 2021). "Aboriginal White Terror period victims remembered - Taipei Times". taipeitimes.com. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  9. ^ Hale, Erin (10 December 2021). "Book review: Stories from Taiwan's "White Terror"". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  10. ^ Bodenner, Chris (7 December 2016). "Is Taiwan Really a Beacon of Freedom? - The Atlantic". www.theatlantic.com. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  11. ^ Adams, John (26 February 2017). "Victims demand justice 70 years after Taiwan's bloody 228 Incident massacre | The Straits Times". www.straitstimes.com. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  12. ^ 房慧真. "【中壢事件40周年】許信良:群眾火燒警局時,我在三溫暖睡覺". The Reporter (Taiwan). Retrieved 8 January 2022. 真正的秋後算帳在1979,蔣經國接任總統這一年。年初由余登發父子被捕揭開序幕,許信良主張前往聲援,因為參與「橋頭事件」遊行,許信良被省政府以「擅離職守」罪名移送監察院,6月底,就職縣長1年半的同時,公懲會宣布許信良「休職2年」。只因曠職1天,辛苦拚來的桃園縣長,被迫提早謝幕。
  13. ^ Hartnett, Shaou-Whea Dodge & Keränen 2019, p. 5-6.
  14. ^ "Fascism in China Today - Ancient Roots and Modern Realities". Alexandria, Virginia: World Future Fund. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  15. ^ Eastman, Lloyd E. (1972). "Fascism in Kuomintang China". The China Quarterly. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 49. doi:10.1017/S0305741000036481. JSTOR 652110. S2CID 154740593. Retrieved 3 July 2022 – via JSTOR.
  16. ^ Rummel, R. J. (1991). China's Bloody Century: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1412806704. Retrieved 3 July 2022 – via University of Hawaiʻi.
  17. ^ Morris, James X. (27 February 2019). "The 228 Incident Still Haunts Taiwan". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  18. ^ a b Chen, Ketty (Winter 2008). "Disciplining Taiwan: The Kuomintang's Methods of Control during the White Terror Era (1947-1987)" (PDF). Taiwan International Studies Quarterly. 4 (4): 187.
  19. ^ Barker, Anne (28 March 2011). "Syria to end 48 years of martial law". ABC News. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  20. ^ Barnouin, Barbara and Yu Changgen. Zhou Enlai: A Political Life. Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2006. p. 38
  21. ^ "「寧可錯殺一千,不可放過一人」這句話是不是蔣介石先說的?".
  22. ^ a b 張, 子午. "The Graveyard At The Center Of Taiwan's White Terror Period". The Reporter. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  23. ^ Tsai, Shih-shan Henry (2005). Lee Teng-Hui and Taiwan's Quest for Identity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 101–103. ISBN 9781403970565.
  24. ^ Hau Pei-tsun (2000-01-01). <8-year Diary of the Chief of the General Staff (1981-1989)>. Commonwealth Publishing. ISBN 9576216389.(in Chinese)
  25. ^ "President Ma attends White Terror Memorial". China Post. July 16, 2008. Archived from the original on 2017-02-03.
  26. ^ Cheung, Han. "Taiwan in Time: The women claimed by the White Terror". www.taipeitimes.com. Taipei Times. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  27. ^ Ping, Hsing Ku. "Wang Ruisong and Chiang Kai-Shek :Ping-Hsing Ku Abuse". Retrieved 2022-10-03.
  28. ^ Cheung, Han (July 10, 2016). "Students, soldiers and spies". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  29. ^ Chang, Mau-Kuei; Lin, Chong-Wei; Wu, Rwei-ren (13 October 2017). "臺灣外省人生命記憶與敘事資料庫 (II) - 揭開「白色封印」研究成果報告 (完整版)" [Database of Life Memories and Narratives of Chinese Mainlanders (II) - Uncovering the "White Seal" Research Report (full Edition)] (PDF). Theme Research Project Report to the Ministry of Science and Technology, Executive Yuan (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taipei: Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences, Academia Sinica. Retrieved 4 March 2008.
  30. ^ Lin, Chuan-Kai; Chang, Mau-Kuei; Lai, Chi-Yu (2016). "台灣五零年代海軍白色恐怖案件" [White Terror Cases of Taiwanese Navy in 1950s] (PDF). 台灣外省人生命記憶與敘事資料庫 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taipei: Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  31. ^ Kuo, Chi-Bin (16 July 2020). "3" (PDF). 桂永清與戰後海軍重整 [Gui Yong-ching and the Navy Reorganization after the Chinese Civil War] (Thesis) (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taoyuan, Taiwan: Institute of Historical Research, National Central University. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  32. ^ Huang, Tai-lin (20 May 2005). "White Terror exhibit unveils part of the truth". Taipei Times. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  33. ^ Zhang, Yan-hsian; Gao, Shu-yuan (1998). 《鹿窟事件調查研究》 [Investigation aResearch on the Luku Incident] (in Chinese (Taiwan)). New Taipei City: Cultural Affairs Department, New Taipei City Government. ISBN 9570217588.
  34. ^ Weng, Yu-huang; Chen, Wei-han. "Luku Incident survivor pens memoir of events". Taipei Times. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  35. ^ 傅琪貽 (13 October 2017). "戰後臺灣原住民的白色恐怖 (1950年代)" [The White Terror on the Taiwanest Aborigines after WWII in 1950s] (PDF). Taiwanese History and International Academic Research Cross-Strait (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taipei: 臺灣日本綜合研究所. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  36. ^ Yang, Bi-chuan (27 February 2017). "The 228 Massacre In Alishan: "All We Have Left Are Ashes And Bones"". The Reporter. Taipei. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  37. ^ Maciej Rosalak (1 June 2021). "Statki PRL w pułapce Czang Kaj-szeka" [Ships of the Polish People's Republic in the trap of Chiang Kai-shek] (in Polish). Warsaw: Orle Pióro. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  38. ^ a b Lin, Hung-I (2008). "Chapter 4, 1953-1960" (PDF). 《封鎖大陸沿海──中華民國政府的「關閉政策」,1949-1960》 [Blockading the China coast: the "port-closure policy" of ROC government, 1949-1960] (MD thesis) (in Chinese (Taiwan)).
  39. ^ Li, Zhen-hsiang (8 January 2009). "Praca" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taiwan News Weekly, ver. 376, Taiwan Association for Truth and Reconciliation. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  40. ^ Prof. Sergey Vradiy (2020-02-20). ""Tuapse" Oil Tanker Episode in the History of Taiwan-Russia Relations" (PDF). Taiwan Fellowship, Center for Chinese Studies, National Central Library.
  41. ^ Лев КАПЛИН. "The tragedy of the tanker "Tuapse"" (in Russian). Riddles of History.
  42. ^ Moody, Peter R. (1977). Opposition and dissent in contemporary China. Hoover Press. p. 302. ISBN 0-8179-6771-0. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  43. ^ Tucker, Nancy Bernkopf (1983). Patterns in the dust: Chinese-American relations and the recognition controversy, 1949-1950. Columbia University Press. p. 181. ISBN 0-231-05362-2. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  44. ^ a b Zhu, Hong-Yuan (10 August 2012). "再論孫立人與郭廷亮「匪諜」案" [Review on the "Bandit Spies" Cases of Sun Li-jen and Guo Ting-liang] (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taipei: Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica. Retrieved 3 July 2022 – via Memorial Hall of General Sun Li-jen.
  45. ^ Howard L. Boorman; Janet Krompart (1970). Biographical Dictionary of Republican China. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231045581.
  46. ^ Craft, Stephen G. (2015). American Justice in Taiwan: The 1957 Riots and Cold War Foreign Policy. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9780813166377. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  47. ^ Wang, Feng (16 October 2015). 刺殺蔣介石:美國與蔣政權鬥爭史 [Assassination on Chiang Kai-shek: A History of American Struggle with Chiang's Regime] (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taipei: China Times Publishing. ISBN 9789571364308. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  48. ^ Han Cheung (18 March 2018). "Taiwan in Time: Chiang Kai-shek's last challenger". Taipei: Taipei Times. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  49. ^ "One man's struggle for a nation's freedom". Translated by Huang, Francis; Svensson, Perry; Chang, Eddy; Lin, Jackie; Shaw, Grace. Taipei: Taipei Times. 5 September 2002. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  50. ^ "Military authorities burn Lei Chen Memoirs" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. Taipei: International Committee for Human Rights in Taiwan (36). September 1988. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  51. ^ Chen, Yi-shen; Wang, Jing-ling (1 December 2000). 蘇東啟政治案件專輯 [Collection of the Su Tung-chi Political Cases] (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taipei: Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica. ISBN 9576717396. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  52. ^ "Who murdered Mr Lin's mother and daughters?" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. No. 2. Seattle: International Committee for Human Rights in Taiwan. January 1981. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  53. ^ Kristof, Nicholas D. (16 February 1992). "A Dictatorship That Grew Up". The New York Times Magazine. New York. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  54. ^ Guan Ren-jian (2011-09-01). <The Taiwan you don't know: Stories of ROC Arm Forces>. Puomo Digital Publishing. ISBN 9789576636493.(in Chinese)
  55. ^ Zheng Jing, Cheng Nan-jung, Ye Xiangzhi, Xu Manqing (1987-06-13). <Shocking inside story of the Kinmen Military Murder Case>. Freedom Era Weekly, Ver 175-176.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  56. ^ Vitali Kalinin (1958). "Ch. P. - Chrezvychainoe proisshestvie". IMDb. Retrieved 2021-03-09.
  57. ^ Victor Ivchenko (2021-02-21). "E.A. — Extraordinary Accident (Episode 1) 1958 film" (in Russian). All soviet movies on RVISION. Retrieved 2021-07-21.
  58. ^ Victor Ivchenko (2021-02-08). "E.A. — Extraordinary Accident (Episode 2) 1958 film" (in Russian). All soviet movies on RVISION. Retrieved 2021-07-25.
  59. ^ "A City of Sadness". 21 October 1989. Retrieved 12 March 2017 – via IMDb.
  60. ^ "Xiang jiao tian tang". IMDb. 1989. Retrieved 2021-07-31.
  61. ^ Chen, Guang-hsing (2001-05-01). "為什麼大和解不/可能? 〈多桑〉與〈香蕉天堂〉殖民/冷戰效應下省籍問題的情緒結構" [Why is ‘great reconciliation’ im/possible? De-Cold War/Decolonization, or Modernity and Its Tears] (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 國際邊緣‧名家專欄 National Central University. Retrieved 2021-08-09.
  62. ^ Liao, Shuyi (2015-07-11). "時光倒影 一場時代的荒謬劇 ——《香蕉天堂》" [Reflection in Time - A Ridicule Drama of the Era <Banana Paradise>] (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Merit Times. Retrieved 2021-08-09.
  63. ^ Hsiao Chiu (2002-08-21). "香蕉天堂 \ 大時代下外省人的悲情故事" [Banana Paradise - A Sad Story of Mainlanders under the Great Epoch] (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taiwan123. Archived from the original on 2007-05-27. Retrieved 2021-07-31.
  64. ^ "A Brighter Summer Day (1991) Awards". IMDb. 1993. Retrieved 2021-08-01.
  65. ^ 管仁健 (2008-12-27). "建中學生的少年殺人事件簿" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taipei: 你不知道的台灣. Retrieved 2021-08-01.
  66. ^ Jonathan Crow. "Good Men, Good Women (1995)". AllMovie. Retrieved 2021-08-02.
  67. ^ "好男好女" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taipei: Public Television Service. Retrieved 2021-08-02.
  68. ^ 山田としを、原野為二、和田春子 (2017-09-03). "幌馬車之歌 (蔡焜霖)" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Evanmusictaiwan. Retrieved 2021-08-02.
  69. ^ Stephen Holden (1996-03-23). "Heartbreak Island Film Review". The New York Times. Retrieved 2021-08-02.
  70. ^ Chyi Chin (2008-02-11). "Heartbreak Island" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). HOTSAUCEL185. Retrieved 2021-08-02.
  71. ^ Centre of Taiwan Studies (2014-07-28). "Film Screening: Super Citizen Ko and Q&A with Director Wan Jen". SOAS University of London. Retrieved 2021-08-03.
  72. ^ Chen, Ping-hao. "<Super Citizen Ko>" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taipei: Taiwan Film and Audiovisual Institute. Retrieved 2021-08-03.
  73. ^ "天公金 (2000) Forgotten or Forgiven" (in Chinese (China)). 1905電影網. 2000. Retrieved 2021-08-09.
  74. ^ Zhan, Zhengde (2019-11-15). "白色恐怖懺情錄" [White Terror Confession] (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Medium. Retrieved 2021-08-09.
  75. ^ "Lei wangzi". IMDb. 2009. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  76. ^ Holden, Stephen (2010-02-26). "When the Language of Diplomacy Includes 'Kapow!'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2021-08-03.
  77. ^ Anderson, John (2010-02-26). "'A Prophet': The Crime Epic Reborn". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2021-08-03.
  78. ^ Addiego, Walter (2011-01-07). "Review: 'Formosa Betrayed'". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2021-08-03.
  79. ^ "'Easier With Practice' captivates". Los Angeles Times. 2010-02-26. Retrieved 2021-08-03.
  80. ^ Liao, Leslie. "Taiwanese hit film "Detention" based on true story". Taipei: Radio Taiwan International. Retrieved 2021-08-04.
  81. ^ "DETENTION official trailer (with English subtitles)" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 華文創 Mandarin Vision. 2019-12-23. Retrieved 2021-08-04.
  82. ^ "Bodyless trailer for ARS Electronica Festival". Prof. Hsin-Chien Huang. 2020-08-31. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  83. ^ "設計系黃心健《失身記》獲奧地利電子藝術節榮譽獎" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taipei: National Taiwan Normal University Alumni Center. 2020. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  84. ^ Jackson, Grace (2017-03-09). "Remembering 2-28 Across Culture, Distance and Time". Taiwan Sentinel. Retrieved 2021-08-04.
  85. ^ Hong, Keelung (2003-02-28). "My Search for 2-28". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 2021-08-04.
  86. ^ Portteus, Danielle (2006-06-15). "Back in print". Monroe News. Retrieved 2021-08-04.
  87. ^ Cheung, Han (2016-02-28). "Literary redemption". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2021-08-04.
  88. ^ Prof. Jianyuan Zeng (2016). "哀音綿綿--蔡德本與《蕃薯仔哀歌》裡的嘉義朴子左翼青年身影" [Sound of Sorrow - Tehpen Tasi and the left-wing youth figure from Puzi Town, Chiayi County in "Elegy of Sweet Potatoes"] (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 台灣法律網 LawTW. Retrieved 2021-08-09.
  89. ^ "《靈魂與灰燼:臺灣白色恐怖散文選》獨家書摘:蔡德本《蕃薯仔哀歌》" [<Soul and Dust: Prose Selection of White Horror in Taiwan> - Exclusive Book Excerpt on Tehpen Tasi's "Elegy of Sweet Potatoes"] (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Spring Hill Publishing and National Human Rights Museum. 2021-07-16. Retrieved 2021-08-09.
  90. ^ Winterton, Bradley (May 7, 2014). "Book review: The Third Son". Taipei Times. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  91. ^ Bloom, Dan (Aug 19, 2013). "US author probes 'legacy' of the 228 Incident in novel". Taipei Times. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  92. ^ "Green Island by Shawna Yang Ryan - PenguinRandomHouse.com". Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  93. ^ "【19屍20命】浯島文學首獎探討「三七事件」 小金門的殺戮時代" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Kinmen: Up Media. 2019-11-23. Retrieved 2021-07-25.
  94. ^ "Finding Taiwanese Footprints of Taiwanese Through Games - An interview with the production team of <Rainy Port Keelung>" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Animen News. 2014-03-17. Archived from the original on 2014-08-14. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  95. ^ "Review: Detention - Rely on Horror". Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  96. ^ 吳柏緯 (2017-04-05). "July 13, February 28 and Zheng Nanrong...Learn about Taiwanese history by playing games" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Taipei: Liberty Times. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  97. ^ Miaozaza. "這款恐怖遊戲把我感動哭了" [This Horror Game Make Me Cry] (in Chinese (China)). Xi'an: Zhihu. Retrieved 2021-08-10.
  98. ^ 福爾摩斯閃電貓 (2020-07-05). "為你解讀台灣省《PAGUI打鬼》最詳細劇情+官將首由來+背後的真實故事" [Analyzing in Details for the Plot of <PAGUI> in Taiwan + the Origin of Its Screenplay + the True Story Behind It] (in Chinese (China)). Bilibili. Retrieved 2021-08-10.
  99. ^ Chan, Sam (2020-04-05). "重雷<夕生Halflight>秒懂遊戲 故事背景、劇情簡介、暗指謎團解答" [Understanding the Game <Halflight> Story Background, Plot Intro and Hidden Answers to Puzzles] (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Pixnet. Retrieved 2021-08-10.
  100. ^ 小魚 (2020-04-14). "《夕生Halflight #真結局》和過去和解的勇氣" [The Real Ending of Halflight - The Courage to Reconcile With the Past] (in Chinese (Taiwan)). gamer.com.tw. Retrieved 2021-08-10.

Works cited[edit]

English language[edit]

Chinese language (Traditional)[edit]

  • 藍博洲,1991,幌馬車之歌。台北:時報文化。
  • 藍博洲,1993,白色恐怖。台北:揚智。
  • 魏廷朝,1997,台灣人權報告書,1949–1995。台北:文英堂。
  • 台灣省文獻委員會編,1998,台灣地區戒嚴時期五零年代政治案件史料彙編(一):中外檔案。南投:台灣省文獻委員會。
  • 呂芳上計劃主持,1999,戒嚴時期台北地區政治案件相關人士口述歷史:白色恐怖事件查訪(上)。台北:台北市文獻委員會。
  • 朱德蘭,2001,崔小萍事件,南投:省文獻會。
  • 任育德,2003,從口述史看1950年代政治案件的女性受刑人,近代中國第154期。
  • 曹欽榮、鄭南榕基金會,2012,流麻溝十五號:綠島女生分隊及其他,臺北市,書林出版。
  • 顏世鴻,2012,青島東路三號:我的百年之憶及台灣的荒謬年代,臺北市,啟動文化。
  • 余杰,2014,在那明亮的地方 : 台灣民主地圖 ,臺北市,時報文化。
  • 向陽主編,2016, 打破暗暝見天光,新北市,國家人權博物館籌備處。

External links[edit]