Bhutan Communist Party (Marxist–Leninist–Maoist)

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Communist Party of Bhutan
Founded April 22, 2003
Ideology Communism
Political position Far-left
Party flag
Communist Party of Bhutan Flag.svg

The Bhutan Communist Party (Marxist–Leninist–Maoist) is a banned communist party in Bhutan.

The CPB (MLM) calls for a New Democratic Revolution and the overthrow of the Bhutanese monarchy and the House of Wangchuck. Its armed wing is the Bhutan Tiger Force. It is currently estimated to have 600 to 1000 cadres.[1] The party is banned by the Bhutanese government.[2]


In the 1990s, Nepali-speaking Bhutanese peoples protested against the Bhutan government for democratization and language reforms. The government forcibly evicted the protesters, where they were put into refugee camps in eastern Nepal. Those who stayed have faced widespread discrimination. Inside the refugee camps, insurgent groups have sprung up, including the Communist Party of Bhutan (Marxist–Leninist–Maoist).[3] The CPB (MLM) was formed on April 22, 2003, as announced on the website of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist).[2]



CPB (MLM) was announced on April 22, 2003 on the website of the CPN (M).


The Royal Bhutan Army defused a bomb planted by the CPB (MLM) in Phuentsholing village, close to the Indian border.[4]


During the transition to constitutional monarchy in 2008, the Maoists rocked Bhutan with five explosions across the country, including one in the capital Thimphu. They also declared the beginning of a 'People's War'.[5]

In March 2008, the Bhutanese police killed five alleged Maoists and arrested seventeen more in various operations in the south.[5] On December 30, 2008 the Maoists ambushed and killed four forest rangers and took their weapons in Singye Dzong, 250 km away from the capital.[6]


A Bhutanese reporter was arrested on charges of being a Maoist.[7]


During the 16th South Asian Association of Regional Co-operation, security was tightened after threats by the Maoists.[8]


Its first act was a Ten-Point Program which it demanded from the government.[9] Its ideology derives from Mao Zedong. They call for the start of a People’s war and a New Democratic Revolution.

The group seeks repatriation for the Nepali refugees and the declaration of Bhutan as a ‘sovereign democracy’.[2] The CPB also wants to turn Bhutan into a republic.[10]

International connections[edit]

The Bhutanese Maoists have connections with the Nepalese Maoists, whom they consider to be their inspiration.[10]

The CPB have also formed links with Naxalite Indian North-East rebels such as the ULFA and NDFB and receive training from those groups, including bomb-making.[11]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "The Bhutan Insurgencies". Global Post. August 25, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c "Bhutan Assessment 2008". South Asia Terrorist Portal. New Delhi: Institute for Conflict Management. Retrieved 5 March 2016. 
  3. ^ "Bhutan tolerate democracy but not dissent". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. May 15, 2007. 
  4. ^ Hussain, Syed (April 25, 2007). "Tight security in Bhutan after bomb found in border town". Hinduistan Times. HT Media Limited. Archived from the original on February 8, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b "‘Maoists killed by Bhutan police’". BBC News. March 12, 2008. 
  6. ^ "Communist guerrillas kill four Bhutanese forest guards". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. January 1, 2009. 
  7. ^ "Bhutanese reporter is imprisoned". BBC. BBC News. January 22, 2009. 
  8. ^ "Bhutan's problem with Maoist Insurgency Groups?". International Reporter. Media International Limited. March 26, 2010. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. 
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-02-09. Retrieved 2006-04-17. 
  10. ^ a b "Rise of Red Army in the last Shrangi-La". Bhutan News Service. 
  11. ^ Bhaumik, Subir (November 14, 2008). "India-Bhutan rebel links ‘exposed’". BBC News. BBC.