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Chōtoku (長徳?) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō,?, lit. "year name") after Eiso and before Chōhō. This period spanned the years from February 995 through January 999.[1] The reigning emperor was Ichijō-tennō (一条天皇?).[2]

Change of era[edit]

  • 995 Chōtoku gannen (長徳元年?): The new era name was created to mark an event or a number of events. The previous era ended and a new one commenced in Shōryaku 6, on 22 February 995.[3]

Events of the Chōtoku era[edit]


  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Chōtoku" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 124, p. 124, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File[permanent dead link].
  2. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 150-153; Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 302-307; Varely, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 192-195.
  3. ^ Brown, p. 305.
  4. ^ Titsingh, p. 152.
  5. ^ Titsingh, p. 153.


External links[edit]

Preceded by
Era or nengō

Succeeded by