Cliff Robertson

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Cliff Robertson
Robertson in 1981
Clifford Parker Robertson III

(1923-09-09)September 9, 1923
DiedSeptember 10, 2011(2011-09-10) (aged 88)
Resting placeCedar Lawn Cemetery
EducationLa Jolla High School
Alma materAntioch College
Years active1943–2007
Political partyDemocratic
(m. 1957; div. 1959)
(m. 1966; div. 1989)

Clifford Parker Robertson III (September 9, 1923 – September 10, 2011) was an American actor whose career in film and television spanned over six decades. Robertson portrayed a young John F. Kennedy in the 1963 film PT 109, and won the 1968 Academy Award for Best Actor for his role in the film Charly.

On television, Robertson portrayed retired astronaut Buzz Aldrin in the 1976 TV film adaptation of Aldrin's autobiographic Return to Earth, played a fictional character based on Director of Central Intelligence Richard Helms in the 1977 miniseries Washington: Behind Closed Doors, and portrayed Henry Ford in Ford: The Man and the Machine (1987). His last well-known film appearances were as Uncle Ben in the 2002–2007 Spider-Man film trilogy.

Robertson was an accomplished aviator who served as the founding chairman of the Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA)'s Young Eagles Program at its inception in the early 1990s. It became the most successful aviation youth advocacy program in history.

Early life and education[edit]

Robertson was born in La Jolla, California,[1][2][3] the son of Clifford Parker Robertson Jr. (1902–1968), and his first wife, Audrey Olga Robertson (née Willingham; 1903–1925).[a][5] His Texas-born father was described as "the idle heir to a tidy sum of ranching money".[6] Robertson once said, "[My father] was a very romantic figure – tall, handsome. He married four or five times, and between marriages he'd pop in to see me. He was a great raconteur, and he was always surrounded by sycophants who let him pick up the tab. During the Great Depression, he tapped the trust for $500,000, and six months later he was back for more."[4]

Robertson's parents divorced when he was one, and his mother died of peritonitis a year later in El Paso, Texas, at the age of 21.[1][4][7] He was raised by his maternal grandmother, Mary Eleanor "Eleanora" Willingham (née Sawyer, 1875–1957), in California, and rarely saw his father.[1][4][8] He graduated in 1941 from La Jolla High School, where he was known as "The Walking Phoenix".[9]

He served as a third mate in the U.S. Merchant Marine during World War II,[1][10] before attending Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, and dropping out to work for a short time as a journalist.[11]


Robertson studied at the Actors Studio, becoming a life member.[12] In the early 1950s he worked steadily in television, including a stint as the lead of Rod Brown of the Rocket Rangers (1953–1954). He appeared in Broadway in Late Love (1953–1954) and The Wisteria Trees (1955), the latter written by Joshua Logan.


Robertson made his film debut in Picnic (1955), directed by Logan. Robertson played the role of William Holden's best friend – a part originated on stage by Paul Newman. Newman was under contract to Warner Bros when the film was being made and was then considered too big a star to reprise his stage performance. Logan's wife recommended Robertson after seeing him in a revival of The Wisteria Trees and the director remembered him from a Chicago production of Mister Roberts and so Robertson was cast.[13]

The film was a box office success and Robertson was promoted to Joan Crawford's co star in Autumn Leaves (1956), also at Columbia Pictures, playing her mentally unstable younger lover. This meant he had to pass up the chance to replace Ben Gazzara on Broadway in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof.[14] However he did return to Broadway to appear in Orpheus Descending by Tennessee Williams, which only had a short run.

Robertson, Jane Powell, and Keith Andes in the 1958 film, The Girl Most Likely

Robertson went to RKO to make two films: The Naked and the Dead (1958), an adaptation of the famous novel, co-starring Aldo Ray; and The Girl Most Likely (1958), a musical – the last film made by RKO Studios. Robertson received superb reviews for Days of Wine and Roses on TV with Piper Laurie.

He was in Columbia's Gidget (1959) appearing opposite Sandra Dee as the Big Kahuna. It was popular and led to two sequels, neither of which Robertson appeared in. Less successful was a war film at Columbia, Battle of the Coral Sea (1959).

On TV, Robertson appeared in "A Hundred Yards Over the Rim" and "The Dummy" for The Twilight Zone, as well as the first episode of The Outer Limits, "The Galaxy Being". He was the third lead in Paramount's All in a Night's Work (1961) and starred in Samuel Fuller's Underworld U.S.A. (1961) at Columbia. He also portrayed the villain Shame in Batman (1966).

Robertson supported Esther Williams in The Big Show (1961). He also starred in Underworld U.S.A. (1961). He had his first film hit since Gidget with Columbia's The Interns (1962). After supporting Debbie Reynolds in My Six Loves (1963), Robertson was President John F. Kennedy's personal choice to play him in 1963's PT 109.[15] The film was not a success at the box office.

More popular was Sunday in New York (1963), where Robertson supported Rod Taylor and Jane Fonda, and The Best Man where he was a ruthless presidential candidate.

Robertson appeared in a popular war film 633 Squadron (1964) then supported Lana Turner in a melodrama, Love Has Many Faces (1965). In 1965 he said his contract with Columbia was for one film a year.[16]


In 1961 Robertson had played the lead role in a United States Steel Hour television production titled "The Two Worlds of Charlie Gordon", based on the novel Flowers for Algernon by Daniel Keyes.[17] Frustrated at the progress of his career, Robertson optioned the rights to the teleplay and hired William Goldman to write a script. Before Goldman completed his work, Robertson arranged for Goldman to be hired to Americanize the dialogue for Masquerade (1965), a spy spoof which Robertson starred in, replacing Rex Harrison.

Robertson then made a war film, Up from the Beach (1965) for Fox and guest-starred on that studio's TV show, Batman (1966). He co-starred with Harrison in The Honey Pot (1967) for Joseph L. Mankiewicz then appeared in another war film, The Devil's Brigade (1968) with William Holden.

Robertson disliked Goldman's Algernon script and replaced the writer with Stirling Silliphant for what became Charly (1968). The film was another box office success and Robertson won the 1968 Academy Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of a mentally-challenged man.


Charly was made by ABC Pictures, which insisted that Robert Aldrich use Robertson in Too Late the Hero (1970), a war film with Michael Caine that was a disappointment at the box office.

Robertson turned down roles in The Anderson Tapes, Straw Dogs (before Peckinpah was involved), and Dirty Harry.[18] Instead Robertson co-wrote, starred in, and directed J. W. Coop (1972), another commercial disappointment despite excellent reviews.

Lynn Garrison's Stampe-Vertongen SV.4 painted for a Robertson film project, Weston, Ireland, 1969

Looking back on his career, Robertson said: "nobody made more mediocre movies than I did. Nobody ever did such a wide variety of mediocrity".[18]

In 1969, immediately after winning the Academy Award for Charly, Robertson, a lifelong aviation enthusiast, attempted to produce and direct an aviation film, I Shot Down the Red Baron, I Think, featuring World War I aerial combat, using Lynn Garrison's Irish aviation facility. The comedic storyline portrayed the Red Baron as gay. The aircraft featured garish paint schemes. The film was never completed or released.

Robertson played Cole Younger in The Great Northfield Minnesota Raid (1972) and a pilot in Ace Eli and Rodger of the Skies (1973). He appeared in the 1974 thriller Man on a Swing and the 1975 British drama Out of Season.

Later career[edit]

Robertson returned to supporting parts in Three Days of the Condor (1975), which was a big hit. He played the lead in Obsession (1976), a popular thriller from Brian De Palma and Paul Schrader, and in the Canadian drama, Shoot (1976). He was also one of several stars in Midway (1976).

Robertson turned to television for Washington: Behind Closed Doors (1977), then had the lead in a thriller, Dominique (1978). He returned to directing for The Pilot (1980), also playing the title role, an alcoholic flyer. Robertson played Hugh Hefner in Star 80 (1980). He attempted to make Charly II in 1980 but it did not happen.[19]

From the 1980s and 1990s onwards, Robertson was predominantly a character actor. He played villains in Class (1983) and Brainstorm (1983). He did have the lead in Shaker Run (1985) in New Zealand, and Dreams of Gold: The Mel Fisher Story (1986) on TV.

In addition, he served as the company spokesperson for AT&T from 1983 to 1992 and appeared in various commercials for their long-distance service and consumer telephones.[20]

He was a villain in Malone (1987), did Dead Reckoning (1990) on TV and supported in Wild Hearts Can't Be Broken (1991), Wind (1991), Renaissance Man (1994) and John Carpenter's Escape from L.A. (1996).

Late in his life Robertson's career had a resurgence. He appeared as Uncle Ben Parker in Sam Raimi's Spider-Man (2002), as well as in the sequels Spider-Man 2 (2004) and Spider-Man 3 (2007; his last acting role). He commented on his website: "Since Spider-Man 1 and 2, I seem to have a whole new generation of fans. That in itself is a fine residual."[21] He also starred in and wrote 13th Child (2002) and appeared in Riding the Bullet (2004), both horror films.

In 1989, he was a member of the jury at the 39th Berlin International Film Festival.[22]


Robertson and Felicia Farr in the Playhouse 90 presentation of "Natchez"

Robertson's early television appearances included a starring role in the live space opera Rod Brown of the Rocket Rangers (1953–1954), as well as recurring roles on Hallmark Hall of Fame (1952), Alcoa Theatre (1959), and Playhouse 90 (1958, 1960), Outlaws (three episodes). Robertson also appeared as a special guest star on Wagon Train for one episode, portraying an Irish immigrant.

In 1958, Robertson portrayed Joe Clay in the first broadcast of Playhouse 90's Days of Wine and Roses. In 1960, he was cast as Martinus Van Der Brig, a con man, in the episode "End of a Dream" of Riverboat.

Other appearances included, 1958 "Wagon Train", The Twilight Zone episodes "A Hundred Yards Over the Rim" (1961) and "The Dummy" (1962), followed by The Eleventh Hour in the 1963 episode, "The Man Who Came Home Late". He guest-starred on such television series as The Greatest Show on Earth, Breaking Point and ABC Stage 67. He had starring roles in episodes of both the 1960s and 1990s versions of The Outer Limits. He was awarded an Emmy for his leading role in a 1965 episode, "The Game" of Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre. He appeared twice as a guest-villain on ABC's Batman as the gunfighter "Shame" (1966 and 1968), the second time with his wife, Dina Merrill, as "Calamity Jan".

In 1976, he portrayed a retired Buzz Aldrin in an adaptation of Aldrin's autobiography Return to Earth. The next year, he portrayed a fictional Director of Central Intelligence (based on Richard Helms) in Washington: Behind Closed Doors, an adaptation of John Ehrlichman's roman à clef The Company, in turn based on the Watergate scandal. In 1987, he portrayed Henry Ford in Ford: The Man and The Machine. From 1983 to 1984, he played Dr. Michael Ranson in Falcon Crest.

Columbia Pictures scandal[edit]

In 1977, Robertson discovered that his signature had been forged on a $10,000 check payable to him, although it was for work he had not performed. He also learned that the forgery had been carried out by then-Columbia Pictures head David Begelman, and on reporting it he inadvertently triggered one of the biggest Hollywood scandals of the 1970s.[23] Begelman was charged with embezzlement, convicted, and later fired from Columbia. Despite pressure to remain quiet, Robertson and his wife Dina Merrill spoke to the press. As a result, Hollywood producers blacklisted him.[24]

He finally returned to studio film five years later, starring in Brainstorm (1983).[11][25] The story of the scandal is told in David McClintick's 1982 bestseller Indecent Exposure.

Personal life[edit]

In 1957, Robertson married actress Cynthia Stone, the former wife of actor Jack Lemmon. They had a daughter, Stephanie, before divorcing in 1959; he also had a stepson by this marriage, Chris Lemmon. In 1966, he married actress and Post Cereals heiress Dina Merrill, the former wife of Stanley M. Rumbough Jr.; they had a daughter, Heather (1968–2007), before divorcing.[1] By this marriage, he also had stepchildren Stanley Hutton Rumbough, David Post Rumbough, and Nedenia Colgate Rumbough. He resided in Water Mill, New York.[26]

Robertson was a Democrat and supported Arizona congressman Morris K. Udall during the 1976 Democratic presidential primaries.[27]


A certified private pilot, one of Robertson's main hobbies was flying and, among other aircraft, he owned several de Havilland Tiger Moths, a Messerschmitt Bf 108, and a genuine World War II – era Mk.IX Supermarine Spitfire MK923.[28][29] His first plane flight was in a Lockheed Model 9 Orion. As a 13-year-old he cleaned hangars for airplane rides. He met Paul Mantz, Art Scholl, and Charles Lindbergh while flying at local California airports.[30] His piloting skills helped him get the part as the squadron leader in the British war film 633 Squadron. He entered balloon races, including one in 1964 from the mainland to Catalina Island that ended with him being rescued from the Pacific Ocean. He was also a glider pilot and owned a Grob Astir.[31]

In 1969, during the civil war conflict in Nigeria, Robertson helped organize an effort to fly food and medical supplies into the area. He also organized flights of supplies to the ravaged country of Ethiopia when it experienced famine in 1978.[28] Within the EAA, he founded the Cliff Robertson Work Experience in 1993, which offers youths the chance to work for flight and ground school instruction.[32]

Robertson was flying a private Beechcraft Baron over New York City on the morning of September 11, 2001, two days after his 78th birthday. He was directly above the World Trade Center climbing through 7,500 feet when the first Boeing 767 struck. He was instructed by air traffic control to land immediately at the nearest airport after a nationwide order to ground all civilian and commercial aircraft following the attacks.[33]

Young Eagles[edit]

He was a longtime member of the Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA), working his way through the ranks in prominence and eventually co-founding the Young Eagles Program with EAA president Tom Poberezny. Robertson chaired the program from its 1992 inception to 1994 (succeeded by former test pilot Gen. Chuck Yeager). Along with educating youth about aviation, the initial goal of the Young Eagles was to fly one million children (many of them never having flown before) prior to the 100th Anniversary of Flight celebration on December 17, 2003. That goal was achieved on November 13, 2003. On July 28, 2016, the two millionth Young Eagle was flown by actor Harrison Ford.[34]


On September 10, 2011, one day after his 88th birthday, Robertson died of natural causes in Stony Brook, New York.[35][36] His body was cremated, and a private funeral was held at St. Luke's Episcopal Church in East Hampton, New York and was interred at the Cedar Lawn Cemetery.


Year Title Role Notes
1943 We've Never Been Licked Adams Uncredited
Corvette K-225 Lookout Uncredited
1955 Picnic Alan Benson
1956 Autumn Leaves Burt Hanson
1958 The Girl Most Likely Pete last film made by RKO Studios
The Naked and the Dead Lieutenant Robert Hearn
Days of Wine and Roses Joe Clay Part of the Playhouse 90 anthology series
1959 Gidget 'The Big Kahuna'
Battle of the Coral Sea Lieutenant Commander Jeff Conway
As the Sea Rages Clements
The Untouchables Frank Holloway Episode: "The Underground Railway" (Season 1, Episode 12)
1960 Riverboat Martinus Van Der Brig Episode: "End of a Dream" (NBC-TV)
1961 The Twilight Zone Christian Horn Sr. Episode: "A Hundred Yards Over the Rim"
All in a Night's Work Warren Kingsley Jr.
Underworld U.S.A. 'Tolly' Devlin
The Big Show Josef Everard
1962 The Twilight Zone Jerry Etherson Episode: "The Dummy"
The Interns Dr. John Paul Otis
1963 My Six Loves Reverend Jim Larkin
PT 109 Lt. (j.g.) John F. Kennedy
The Outer Limits Alan Maxwell Episode: "The Galaxy Being" (Season 1, Episode 1)
Sunday in New York Adam Tyler
1964 The Best Man Joe Cantwell
633 Squadron Wing Commander Roy Grant
1965 Love Has Many Faces Pete Jordon
Masquerade David Frazer
Up from the Beach Sergeant Edward Baxter
1966, 1968 Batman 'Shame' Episodes: Come Back, Shame/It's How You Play the Game, The Great Escape/The Great Train Robbery
1967 The Honey Pot William McFly
1968 The Devil's Brigade Major Alan Crown
Charly Charlie Gordon Academy Award for Best Actor
National Board of Review Award for Best Actor
Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama
Nominated—Laurel Award for Best Male Dramatic Performance
1970 Too Late the Hero Lieutenant Sam Lawson
1971 J. W. Coop J.W. Coop
1972 The Great Northfield Minnesota Raid Cole Younger
1973 The Men Who Made the Movies: Alfred Hitchcock Narrator
Ace Eli and Rodger of the Skies Eli 'Ace' Walford
The Man Without a Country Philip Nolan Made-for-television drama produced by Norman Rosemont
1974 Man on a Swing Lee Tucker
A Tree Grows in Brooklyn Johnny Nolan
1975 Out of Season Joe Tanner Entered into the 25th Berlin International Film Festival
Three Days of the Condor J. Higgins
1976 Return to Earth Buzz Aldrin
Shoot Rex
Midway Commander Carl Jessop
Obsession Michael Courtland
1977 Fraternity Row Narrator
Washington: Behind Closed Doors William Martin Adaptation of The Company; character based on Richard Helms
1979 The Little Prince
Martin The Cobbler
Rip Van Wynkle
The Diary of Adam and Eve
Host; The pilot (Little Prince) Package of Claymation shorts by Will Vinton
Dominique David Ballard
1980 The Pilot Mike Hagan
1982 Two of a Kind Frank Minor
1983 Falcon Crest Dr. Michael Ranson Season 3
Star 80 Hugh Hefner
Class Mr. Burroughs
Brainstorm Alex Terson
1985 The Key to Rebecca Major William Vandam TV movie
Shaker Run Judd Pierson
1986 Dreams of Gold: The Mel Fisher Story Mel Fisher
1987 Malone Charles Delaney
Ford: The Man and the Machine Henry Ford
1990 Dead Reckoning Daniel Barnard TV movie
1991 Wild Hearts Can't Be Broken Dr. Carver
1992 Wind Morgan Weld
The Ghosts of '87 Host
1994 Renaissance Man Colonel James
1995 Waiting for Sunset or The Sunset Boys (Pakten) Ted Roth
1996 Escape from L.A. President Adam
1998 Melting Pot Jack Durman
Assignment Berlin [de] Cliff Garret
1999 Family Tree Larry
The Outer Limits Theodore Harris Episode: "Joyride"
2001 Falcon Down 'Buzz' Thomas
Mach 2 Vice President Pike
2002 Spider-Man Ben Parker
13th Child Mr. Shroud Robertson was one of the writers of this film
2003 The Lyon's Den Hal Malloy 4 episodes
2004 Spider-Man 2 Ben Parker Cameo
Riding the Bullet Farmer
2007 Spider-Man 3 Ben Parker Cameo (final acting role)
2018 Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse Archival audio
2023 Spider-Man: Across the Spider-Verse Archival footage from Spider-Man


Robertson was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 2006. He received the Rebecca Rice Alumni Award from Antioch College in 2007. In addition to his Oscar and Emmy and several lifetime achievement awards from various film festivals,[37] Robertson has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6801 Hollywood Blvd. He was also awarded the 2008 Ambassador of Good Will Aviation Award by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Bar Association in Alexandria, Virginia, for his leadership in and promotion of general aviation. In 2009, Robertson was inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame at the San Diego Air & Space Museum,[38] and was part of the Living Legends of Aviation.


  1. ^ Several obituaries have stated that Robertson was adopted by his parents. However, the California Birth Index of 1905–1995 states that Clifford P. Robertson was born to a mother whose maiden name was Willingham, in Los Angeles County, California, on September 9, 1923. He was adopted by his maternal grandmother upon his mother's death.[4]


  1. ^ a b c d e Keepnews, Peter (September 11, 2011). "Cliff Robertson, Oscar-Winning Rebel, Dies at 88". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 11, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
  2. ^ "IMDb". IMDb. Archived from the original on 2020-06-04. Retrieved 2018-06-29.
  3. ^ California Births, 1905–1995 Archived 2011-11-15 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b c d Green, Michelle (December 5, 1983). "Cliff Robertson profile at". People. Archived from the original on March 11, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  5. ^ Mother's birth and death information per records accessed on on September 12, 2011
  6. ^ Father's birthplace accessed on on September 12, 2011
  7. ^ Mother's death information per records accessed on on September 12, 2011
  8. ^ Grandmother's name and dates accessed on on September 12, 2011
  9. ^ "Cliff Robertson/Hollywood Walk of Fame". Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on December 1, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
  10. ^ The National Museum of the Pacific War: Center for Pacific War Studies - Interview with Mr. Cliff Robertson. December 7, 2001. Archived April 17, 2021, at the Wayback Machine National Museum of the Pacific War. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
  11. ^ a b Cliff Robertson biodata Archived 2011-05-22 at the Wayback Machine,; accessed April 26, 2015.
  12. ^ Garfield, David (1980). "Appendix: Life Members of The Actors Studio as of January 1980". A Player's Place: The Story of The Actors Studio. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. p. 278. ISBN 0-02-542650-8.
  13. ^ Logan, Joshua (1978). Movie stars, real people and me. Bantam Doubleday Dell. pp. 7–8. ISBN 9780440062585.
  14. ^ Schallert, E. (Aug 18, 1955). "Cliff robertson wins plum crawford lead; lance fuller starred". Los Angeles Times. ProQuest 166816412.
  15. ^ Hoberman, J. (August 26, 2003). "Lights, Camera, Exploitation". Village Voice. Archived from the original on June 30, 2008. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  16. ^ Hopper, H. (Aug 8, 1965). "Cliff robertson: Career that's flying high". Los Angeles Times. ProQuest 155264948.
  17. ^ "U.S. Steel Hour: "The Two Worlds of Charlie Gordon" (2/22/1961)". YouTube. Archived from the original on January 16, 2020. Retrieved November 16, 2019.
  18. ^ a b A. H. (July 16, 1972). "Cliff Robertson flies the 'coop' to glory". The New York Times. ProQuest 119540258.
  19. ^ Bruce McCabe, G. S. (Sep 8, 1980). "CLIFF ROBERTSON BRINGING CHARLY BACK TO SOUTH BOSTON#". The Boston Globe. ProQuest 293973554.
  20. ^ Horovitz, Bruce (April 19, 1993). "AT&T Appears Eager to Call Up a New Image". The Los Angeles Times. p. 56.
  21. ^ "Cliff Robertson's Career Achievements" Archived 2011-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved November 14, 2007.
  22. ^ "Berlinale: 1989 Juries". Archived from the original on February 15, 2016. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
  23. ^ "Cliff Robertson". The Telegraph. London. September 11, 2011. Archived from the original on May 26, 2021. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
  24. ^ Lee, G. (Mar 28, 1980). "THE LONELY ORDEAL OF CLIFF ROBERTSON". Los Angeles Times. ProQuest 162762482.
  25. ^ McClintick, David. Indecent Exposure: A True Story of Hollywood and Wall Street, William Morrow and Company, 1982.
  26. ^ "Career Achievements". Official Website of Cliff Robertson. Archived from the original on October 6, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
  27. ^ "Cliff Robertson obituary: Oscar-winning actor - Page 2 - latimes". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2017-05-22. Retrieved 2020-04-16.
  28. ^ a b Hall, Bob. Southeastern Antiquing and Collecting Magazine. Cliff Robertson Collects Vintage AircraftArticle on Robertson's private aviation collection Archived 2004-12-10 at the Wayback Machine. 2004.
  29. ^ First Cross-Country Soaring or (You Ain't John Wayne – Robertson) Archived 2010-11-16 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ Gene Smith (December 1987). "Real Airport Kids Never Grow Up". Air Progress.
  31. ^ "National Aviation Hall of Fame article on Cliff Robertson". Archived from the original on 2007-06-18. Retrieved 2006-09-26.
  32. ^ "Cliff Robertson Work Experience". Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  33. ^ Official Cliff Robertson site Archived 2011-10-02 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ "Harrison Ford Flies 2 Millionth Young Eagle". Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  35. ^ "Cliff Robertson, who played JFK in 'PT-109', dies". Yahoo! News. September 11, 2011. Archived from the original on December 17, 2011. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  36. ^ "US film actor Cliff Robertson dies aged 88". BBC. September 11, 2011. Archived from the original on September 11, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
  37. ^ "Award Winners". 2010-08-28. Archived from the original on 2010-08-28. Retrieved 2019-09-23.
  38. ^ Sprekelmeyer, Linda, editor. These We Honor: The International Aerospace Hall of Fame. Donning Co. Publishers, 2006. ISBN 978-1-57864-397-4.

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