Clifford Parker Robertson III
September 9, 1923
|Died||September 10, 2011 (aged 88)|
Stony Brook, New York, U.S.
|Education||La Jolla High School|
|Alma mater||Antioch College|
(m. 1957; div. 1959)
(m. 1966; div. 1989)
|Service/||United States Merchant Marine|
|Years of service||1939-1945|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Clifford Parker Robertson III (September 9, 1923 – September 10, 2011) was an American actor and aviator whose career in film and television spanned half a century. Robertson portrayed a young John F. Kennedy in the 1963 film PT 109, and won the 1968 Academy Award for Best Actor for his role in the film Charly.
On television, Robertson portrayed retired astronaut Buzz Aldrin in the 1976 adaptation of Aldrin's autobiographic Return to Earth, played a fictional character based on Director of Central Intelligence Richard Helms in the 1977 miniseries Washington: Behind Closed Doors, and portrayed Henry Ford in Ford: The Man and the Machine (1987). His last well-known film appearances were as Uncle Ben in the 2002–2007 Spider-Man film trilogy.
Early life and education
Robertson was born in La Jolla, California, the son of Clifford Parker Robertson Jr. (1902–1968), and his first wife, Audrey Olga Robertson (née Willingham; 1903–1925). His Texas-born father was described as "the idle heir to a tidy sum of ranching money". Robertson once said, "[My father] was a very romantic figure – tall, handsome. He married four or five times, and between marriages he'd pop in to see me. He was a great raconteur, and he was always surrounded by sycophants who let him pick up the tab. During the Great Depression, he tapped the trust for $500,000, and six months later he was back for more."
Robertson's parents divorced when he was one, and his mother died of peritonitis a year later in El Paso, Texas, at the age of 21. He was raised by his maternal grandmother, Mary Eleanor "Eleanora" Willingham (née Sawyer, 1875–1957), in California, and rarely saw his father. He graduated in 1941 from La Jolla High School, where he was known as "The Walking Phoenix".
He served as a third mate in the U.S. Merchant Marine for six years (1939-1945) during World War II, before attending Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, and dropping out to work for a short time as a journalist.
Robertson studied at the Actors Studio, becoming a life member. In the early 1950s he worked steadily in television, including a stint as the lead of Rod Brown of the Rocket Rangers (1953–1954). He appeared in Broadway in Late Love (1953–1954) and The Wisteria Tree (1955), the latter written by Joshua Logan.
The film was a box office success and Robertson was promoted to Joan Crawford's co star in Autumn Leaves (1956), also at Columbia, playing her mentally unstable younger lover. This meant he had to pass up the chance to replace Ben Gazzara on Broadway in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof. However he did return to Broadway to appear in Orpheus Descending by Tennessee Williams, which only had a short run.
Robertson went to RKO to make two films: The Naked and the Dead (1958), an adaptation of the famous novel, co-starring Aldo Ray; and The Girl Most Likely (1958), a musical – the last film made by RKO Studios. Robertson received superb reviews for Days of Wine and Roses on TV with Piper Laurie.
He was in Columbia's Gidget (1959) appearing opposite Sandra Dee as the Big Kahuna. It was popular and led to two sequels, neither of which Robertson appeared in. Less successful was a war film at Columbia, Battle of the Coral Sea (1959).
Robertson had better luck on TV, appearing in "A Hundred Yards Over the Rim" for The Twilight Zone. He was the third lead in Paramount's All in a Night's Work (1961) and starred in Samuel Fuller's Underworld U.S.A. (1961) at Columbia.
Robertson supported Esther Williams in The Big Show (1961). He had his first film hit since Gidget with Columbia's The Interns (1962). After supporting Debbie Reynolds in My Six Loves (1963), Robertson was President John F. Kennedy's personal choice to play him in 1963's PT 109. The film was not a success at the box office.
Robertson appeared in a popular war film 633 Squadron (1964) then supported Lana Turner in a melodrama, Love Has Many Faces (1965). In 1965 he said his contract with Columbia was for one film a year.
In 1961 Robertson had played the lead role in a United States Steel Hour television production titled "The Two Worlds of Charlie Gordon", based on the novel Flowers for Algernon by Daniel Keyes. Frustrated at the progress of his career, Robertson optioned the rights to the teleplay and hired William Goldman to write a script. Before Goldman completed his work, Robertson arranged for Goldman to be hired to Americanize the dialogue for Masquerade (1965), a spy spoof which Robertson starred in, replacing Rex Harrison.
Robertson then made a war film, Up from the Beach (1965) for Fox and guest-starred on that studio's TV show, Batman (1966). He co-starred with Harrison in The Honey Pot (1967) for Joseph L. Mankiewicz then was in another war film, The Devil's Brigade (1968) with William Holden.
Robertson disliked Goldman's Algernon script and replaced the writer with Stirling Silliphant for what became Charly (1968). The film was another box office success and Robertson won the 1968 Academy Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of a mentally disabled man.
Robertson turned down roles in The Anderson Tapes, Straw Dogs (before Peckinpah was involved), and Dirty Harry. Instead Robertson co-wrote, starred in, and directed J. W. Coop (1972), another commercial disappointment despite excellent reviews.
Looking back on his career, Robertson said: "nobody made more mediocre movies than I did. Nobody ever did such a wide variety of mediocrity".
In 1969, immediately after winning the Academy Award for Charly, Robertson, a lifelong aviation enthusiast, attempted to produce and direct an aviation film, I Shot Down the Red Baron, I Think, featuring World War I aerial combat, using Lynn Garrison's Irish aviation facility. The comedic storyline portrayed the Red Baron as gay. The aircraft featured garish paint schemes. The film was never completed, or released.
Robertson played Cole Younger in The Great Northfield Minnesota Raid (1972) and a pilot in Ace Eli and Rodger of the Skies (1973). He appeared in the 1974 thriller Man on a Swing and the 1975 British drama Out of Season.
Robertson returned to supporting parts in Three Days of the Condor (1975), which was a big hit. He played the lead in Obsession (1976), a popular thriller from Brian De Palma and Paul Schrader, and in the Canadian drama, Shoot (1976). He was also one of several stars in Midway (1976).
Robertson turned to television for Washington: Behind Closed Doors (1977), then had the lead in a thriller, Dominique (1978). He returned to directing for The Pilot (1980), also playing the title role, an alcoholic flyer. Robertson played Hugh Hefner in Star 80 (1980). He attempted to make Charly II in 1980 but it did not happen.
From the 1980s and 1990s onwards, Robertson was predominantly a character actor. He played villains in Class (1983) and Brainstorm (1983). He did have the lead in Shaker Run (1985) in New Zealand, and Dreams of Gold: The Mel Fisher Story (1986) on TV.
He was a villain in Malone (1987), did Dead Reckoning (1990) on TV and supported in Wild Hearts Can't Be Broken (1991), Wind (1991), Renaissance Man (1994) and John Carpenter's Escape from L.A. (1996).
Late in his life Robertson's career had a resurgence. He appeared as Uncle Ben Parker in Sam Raimi's Spider-Man (2002), as well as in the sequels Spider-Man 2 (2004) and Spider-Man 3 (2007; his last acting role). He commented on his website: "Since Spider-Man 1 and 2, I seem to have a whole new generation of fans. That in itself is a fine residual." He also starred in and wrote 13th Child (2002) and appeared in Riding the Bullet (2004), both horror films.
Robertson's early television appearances included a starring role in the live space opera Rod Brown of the Rocket Rangers (1953–1954), as well as recurring roles on Hallmark Hall of Fame (1952), Alcoa Theatre (1959), and Playhouse 90 (1958, 1960), Outlaws (three episodes). Robertson also appeared as a special guest star on Wagon Train for one episode, portraying an Irish immigrant.
In 1958, Robertson portrayed Joe Clay in the first broadcast of Playhouse 90's Days of Wine and Roses. In 1960, he was cast as Martinus Van Der Brig, a con man, in the episode "End of a Dream" of Riverboat.
Other appearances included, 1958 "Wagon Train", The Twilight Zone episodes "A Hundred Yards Over the Rim" (1961) and "The Dummy" (1962), followed by The Eleventh Hour in the 1963 episode, "The Man Who Came Home Late". He guest-starred on such television series as The Greatest Show on Earth, Breaking Point and ABC Stage 67. He had starring roles in episodes of both the 1960s and 1990s versions of The Outer Limits. He was awarded an Emmy for his leading role in a 1965 episode, "The Game" of Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre. He appeared twice as a guest-villain on ABC's Batman as the gunfighter "Shame" (1966 and 1968), the second time with his wife, Dina Merrill, as "Calamity Jan".
In 1976, he portrayed a retired Buzz Aldrin in an adaptation of Aldrin's autobiography Return to Earth. The next year, he portrayed a fictional Director of Central Intelligence (based on Richard Helms) in Washington: Behind Closed Doors, an adaptation of John Ehrlichman's roman à clef The Company, in turn based on the Watergate scandal. In 1987, he portrayed Henry Ford in Ford: The Man and The Machine. From 1983 to 1984, he played Dr. Michael Ranson in Falcon Crest.
Young Eagles initiative
A certified private pilot, he was a longtime member of the Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA), working his way through the ranks in prominence and eventually co-founding the Young Eagles Program with EAA president Tom Poberezny. Robertson chaired the program from its 1992 inception to 1994 (succeeded by former test pilot Gen. Chuck Yeager). Along with educating youth around aviation, the initial goal of the Young Eagles was to fly one million children (many of them never having flown before) prior to the 100th Anniversary of Flight celebration on December 17, 2003. That goal was achieved on November 13, 2003. On July 28, 2016, the two millionth Young Eagle was flown by actor Harrison Ford.
Columbia Pictures scandal
In 1977, Robertson discovered that his signature had been forged on a $10,000 check payable to him, although it was for work he had not performed. He also learned that the forgery had been carried out by then-Columbia Pictures head David Begelman, and on reporting it he inadvertently triggered one of the biggest Hollywood scandals of the 1970s. Begelman was charged with embezzlement, convicted, and later fired from Columbia. Despite pressure to remain quiet, Robertson and his wife Dina Merrill spoke to the press. As a result, Hollywood producers blacklisted him.
In 1957, Robertson married actress Cynthia Stone, the former wife of actor Jack Lemmon. They had a daughter, Stephanie, before divorcing in 1959; he also had a stepson by this marriage, Chris Lemmon. In 1966, he married actress and Post Cereals heiress Dina Merrill, the former wife of Stanley M. Rumbough Jr.; they had a daughter, Heather (1969–2007), before divorcing. By this marriage, he also had stepchildren Stanley Hutton Rumbough, David Post Rumbough, and Nedenia Colgate Rumbough. He resided in Water Mill, New York.
One of Robertson's main hobbies was flying and, among other aircraft, he owned several de Havilland Tiger Moths, a Messerschmitt Bf 108, and a genuine World War II – era Mk.IX Supermarine Spitfire MK923. His first plane flight was in a Lockheed Model 9 Orion. As a 13-year-old he cleaned hangars for airplane rides. He met Paul Mantz, Art Scholl, and Charles Lindbergh while flying at local California airports. His piloting skills helped him get the part as the squadron leader in the British war film 633 Squadron. He entered balloon races, including one in 1964 from the mainland to Catalina Island that ended with him being rescued from the Pacific Ocean.
In 1969, during the civil war conflict in Nigeria, Robertson helped organize an effort to fly food and medical supplies into the area. He also organized flights of supplies to the ravaged country of Ethiopia when it experienced famine in 1978. Within the EAA, he founded the Cliff Robertson Work Experience in 1993, which offers youths the chance to work for flight and ground school instruction.
Robertson was flying a private Beechcraft Baron over New York City on the morning of September 11, 2001. He was directly above the World Trade Center climbing through 7,500 feet when the first Boeing 767 struck. He was instructed by air traffic control to land immediately at the nearest airport after a nationwide order to ground all civilian and commercial aircraft following the attacks.
On September 10, 2011, one day after his 88th birthday, Robertson died of natural causes in Stony Brook, New York. His body was cremated, and a private funeral was held at St. Luke's Episcopal Church in East Hampton, New York.
|1943||We've Never Been Licked||Adams||Uncredited|
|1956||Autumn Leaves||Burt Hanson|
|1958||The Girl Most Likely||Pete|
|The Naked and the Dead||Lieutenant Robert Hearn|
|Days of Wine and Roses||Joe Clay||Part of the Playhouse 90 anthology series|
|1959||Gidget||'The Big Kahuna'|
|Battle of the Coral Sea||Lieutenant Commander Jeff Conway|
|As the Sea Rages||Clements|
|The Untouchables||Frank Holloway||Episode: "The Underground Railway" (Season 1, Episode 12)|
|1960||Riverboat||Martinus Van Der Brig||Episode: "End of a Dream" (NBC-TV)|
|1961||The Twilight Zone||Christian Horn Sr.||Episode: "A Hundred Yards Over the Rim"|
|All in a Night's Work||Warren Kingsley Jr.|
|Underworld U.S.A.||'Tolly' Devlin|
|The Big Show||Josef Everard|
|1962||The Twilight Zone||Jerry Etherson||Episode: "The Dummy"|
|The Interns||Dr. John Paul Otis|
|1963||My Six Loves||Reverend Jim Larkin|
|PT 109||Lt. (j.g.) John F. Kennedy|
|The Outer Limits||Alan Maxwell||Episode: "The Galaxy Being" (Season 1, Episode 1)|
|Sunday in New York||Adam Tyler|
|1964||The Best Man||Joe Cantwell|
|633 Squadron||Wing Commander Roy Grant|
|1965||Love Has Many Faces||Pete Jordon|
|Up from the Beach||Sergeant Edward Baxter|
|1966, 1968||Batman||'Shame'||Episodes: Come Back, Shame/It's How You Play the Game, The Great Escape/The Great Train Robbery|
|1967||The Honey Pot||William McFly|
|1968||The Devil's Brigade||Major Alan Crown|
|Charly||Charlie Gordon||Academy Award for Best Actor|
National Board of Review Award for Best Actor
Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama
Nominated—Laurel Award for Best Male Dramatic Performance
|1970||Too Late the Hero||Lieutenant Sam Lawson|
|1971||J. W. Coop||J.W. Coop|
|1972||The Great Northfield Minnesota Raid||Cole Younger|
|1973||The Men Who Made the Movies: Alfred Hitchcock||Narrator|
|Ace Eli and Rodger of the Skies||Eli 'Ace' Walford|
|1974||Man on a Swing||Lee Tucker|
|A Tree Grows In Brooklyn||Johnny Nolan|
|1975||Out of Season||Joe Tanner||Entered into the 25th Berlin International Film Festival|
|Three Days of the Condor||J. Higgins|
|1976||Return to Earth||'Buzz' Aldrin|
|Midway||Commander Carl Jessop|
|Washington: Behind Closed Doors||William Martin||Adaptation of The Company; character based on Richard Helms|
|1979||The Little Prince
Martin The Cobbler
Rip Van Wynkle
The Diary of Adam and Eve
|Host; The pilot (Little Prince)||Package of Claymation shorts by Will Vinton|
|1980||The Pilot||Mike Hagan|
|1983||Falcon Crest||Dr. Michael Ranson||Season 3|
|Star 80||Hugh Hefner|
|1985||The Key To Rebecca||Major William Vandam||TV Movie|
|Shaker Run||Judd Pierson|
|1986||Dreams of Gold: The Mel Fisher Story||Mel Fisher|
|Ford: The Man and the Machine||Henry Ford|
|1990||Dead Reckoning||Daniel Barnard||TV movie|
|1991||Wild Hearts Can't Be Broken||Dr. Carver|
|The Ghosts of '87||Host|
|1994||Renaissance Man||Colonel James|
|1995||Waiting for Sunset or The Sunset Boys (Pakten)||Ted Roth|
|1996||Escape from L.A.||President Adam|
|1998||Melting Pot||Jack Durman|
|Assignment Berlin||Cliff Garret|
|The Outer Limits||Theodore Harris||Episode: "Joyride"|
|2001||Falcon Down||'Buzz' Thomas|
|Mach 2||Vice President Pike|
|13th Child||Mr. Shroud||Robertson was one of the writers of this film|
|2003||The Lyon's Den||Hal Malloy||4 episodes|
|2004||Spider-Man 2||Ben Parker||Cameo|
|Riding the Bullet||Farmer|
|2007||Spider-Man 3||Ben Parker||Cameo (final acting role)|
|2018||Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse||Ben Parker||Archival audio|
Robertson was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 2006. He received the Rebecca Rice Alumni Award from Antioch College in 2007. In addition to his Oscar and Emmy and several lifetime achievement awards from various film festivals, Robertson has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6801 Hollywood Blvd. He was also awarded the 2008 Ambassador of Good Will Aviation Award by the National Transportation Safety Board Bar Association in Alexandria, Virginia, for his leadership in and promotion of general aviation. In 2009, Robertson was inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame at the San Diego Air & Space Museum.
- Keepnews, Peter (September 11, 2011). "Cliff Robertson, Oscar-Winning Rebel, Dies at 88". The New York Times. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- California Births, 1905–1995 Familytreelegends.com
- Several obituaries have stated that Robertson was adopted by his parents. However, the California Birth Index of 1905–1995 states that Clifford P. Robertson was born to a mother whose maiden name was Willingham, in Los Angeles County, California, on September 9, 1923.
- Mother's birth and death information per records accessed on ancestry.com on September 12, 2011
- Father's birthplace accessed on ancestry.com on September 12, 2011
- Green, Michelle (December 5, 1983). "Cliff Robertson profile at". People. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
- Mother's death information per records accessed on ancestry.com on September 12, 2011
- Grandmother's name and dates accessed on ancestry.com on September 12, 2011
- Cliff Robertson biodata, FilmReference.com; accessed April 26, 2015.
- "Cliff Robertson/Hollywood Walk of Fame". Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- The National Museum of the Pacific War: Center for Pacific War Studies - Interview with Mr. Cliff Robertson. December 7, 2001. National Museum of the Pacific War. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
- "Cliff Robertson".
- Cliff Robertson biodata, yahoo.com; accessed April 26, 2015.
- Garfield, David (1980). "Appendix: Life Members of The Actors Studio as of January 1980". A Player's Place: The Story of The Actors Studio. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. p. 278. ISBN 0-02-542650-8.
- Schallert, E. (Aug 18, 1955). "Cliff robertson wins plum crawford lead; lance fuller starred". Los Angeles Times. ProQuest 166816412.
- Hoberman, J. (August 26, 2003). "Lights, Camera, Exploitation". Village Voice. Archived from the original on June 30, 2008. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
- Hopper, H. (Aug 8, 1965). "Cliff robertson: Career that's flying high". Los Angeles Times. ProQuest 155264948.
- "U.S. Steel Hour: "The Two Worlds of Charlie Gordon" (2/22/1961)". YouTube. Retrieved November 16, 2019.
- A. H. (July 16, 1972). "Cliff Robertson flies the 'coop' to glory". The New York Times. ProQuest 119540258.
- Bruce McCabe, G. S. (Sep 8, 1980). "CLIFF ROBERTSON BRINGING CHARLY BACK TO SOUTH BOSTON#". Boston Globe. ProQuest 293973554.
- "Cliff Robertson's Career Achievements" Archived 2011-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved November 14, 2007.
- "Berlinale: 1989 Juries". berlinale.de. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
- ""End of a Dream", Riverboat, September 19, 1960". Internet Movie Data Base. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
- "Harrison Ford Flies 2 Millionth Young Eagle". Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- "Cliff Robertson". The Telegraph. London. September 11, 2011.
- Lee, G. (Mar 28, 1980). "THE LONELY ORDEAL OF CLIFF ROBERTSON". Los Angeles Times. ProQuest 162762482.
- McClintick, David. Indecent Exposure: A True Story of Hollywood and Wall Street, William Morrow and Company, 1982.
- "Career Achievements". Official Website of Cliff Robertson. Archived from the original on October 6, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
- Hall, Bob. Southeastern Antiquing and Collecting Magazine. Cliff Robertson Collects Vintage AircraftArticle on Robertson's private aviation collection. 2004.
- First Cross-Country Soaring or (You Ain't John Wayne – Robertson) Archived 2010-11-16 at the Wayback Machine
- Gene Smith (December 1987). "Real Airport Kids Never Grow Up". Air Progress.
- "Cliff Robertson Work Experience". Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
- Official Cliff Robertson site Archived 2011-10-02 at the Wayback Machine
- "Cliff Robertson, who played JFK in 'PT-109', dies". Yahoo! News. September 11, 2011. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
- "US film actor Cliff Robertson dies aged 88". BBC. September 11, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- "Award Winners". 2010-08-28. Archived from the original on 2010-08-28. Retrieved 2019-09-23.
- Sprekelmeyer, Linda, editor. These We Honor: The International Aerospace Hall of Fame. Donning Co. Publishers, 2006. ISBN 978-1-57864-397-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cliff Robertson.|
- Official website
- Cliff Robertson at IMDb
- Cliff Robertson at the Internet Broadway Database
- Interview in the Archive of American Television
- Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre episode "The Game" at IMDb
- Warbird Registry entry on MK923
- "Cliff Robertson, 1923–2011: Actor, Writer, Producer and Director", a Special English presentation of Voice of America
- Biography in the National Aviation Hall of Fame