December 1972

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December 14, 1972: Eugene Cernan becomes the last person to walk on the Moon

The following events occurred in December 1972:

December 1, 1972 (Friday)[edit]

  • India and Pakistan exchanged prisoners of war taken during the 1971 war between the two nations. In all, 542 Pakistanis and 639 Indians were repatriated.[1]
  • Died: Antonio Segni, 81, former President and former Prime Minister of Italy.

December 2, 1972 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Australian federal election, 1972: The Australian Labor Party (ALP), led by Gough Whitlam, won 67 of the 125 seats in the House of Representatives, to take control of the government from the coalition of the Liberal Party (headed by Prime Minister William McMahon) and the Country Party, removing the Liberals from a majority for the first time in 23 years. The Liberals retained control of the Senate.[2] Whitlam was sworn in as Prime Minister three days later and introduced dramatic economic, social and political reforms, including withdrawal of troops from Vietnam, freeing imprisoned draft protesters, and setting up ties with China, North Vietnam and East Germany.[3]
  • One of the most spectacular examples of a sinkhole was formed in a matter of hours in Shelby County, Alabama. The "December Giant", also known as the "Golly Hole" sank to a depth of 150 feet and left a 450-by-350-foot-wide (140 by 110 m) crater.[4]
  • Died:

December 3, 1972 (Sunday)[edit]

  • A Spantax Airlines jet crashed shortly after takeoff from Tenerife, killing all 155 persons on board. Of the 148 passengers, 143 were West German travelers returning to Munich following the end of a South Atlantic Ocean liner cruise.[5]
  • Born: Tré Cool (Frank Edwin Wright III), drummer and backup singer for the group Green Day, in Frankfurt, West Germany.
  • Died: Bill Johnson, 100, American jazz musician

December 4, 1972 (Monday)[edit]

  • Steven Stayner, age 7, was kidnapped while walking home from school in Merced, California. For more than seven years, Steven would lived as "Dennis Parnell" with his kidnapper, Kenneth Parnell, until Parnell kidnapped another child, Timmy White. Stayner would be reunited with his family at age 14 after he and White went to the police in Ukiah, California. The story became a book and a 1988 television movie, with the title I Know My First Name Is Steven.[6]
  • Ramón Ernesto Cruz, who had been elected President of Honduras in 1971, was overthrown in a coup led by the Army. General Oswaldo López Arellano, who had handed power over to Cruz following the election, returned to office as President.[7]

December 5, 1972 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Screening of all passengers and carry-on luggage would be required in all American airports by January 5, 1973, under emergency regulations announced the United States Department of Transportation. Federal funds would pay for the equipment, and the additional personnel would be paid for by the airlines and airport operators.[8] There had been 29 hijackings in the United States in 1972. In 1973 there were two.[9]
  • A United States appellate court panel set aside a regulation that would have required airbags in motor vehicles made on or after August 15, 1975.[10]
  • A U.S. government spokesman, who asked not to be identified, announced that for the first time in United States history, the fertility rate had dropped below the zero population growth (ZPG) standard of 2.11 births for every woman, from 2.28 in 1971 to 2.04 in 1972.[11]

December 6, 1972 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The United Nations, through UNESCO, voted to fund the restoration of Borobudur, a Buddhist shrine constructed in the 9th century in Indonesia. The work was completed in 1983.[12]
  • Died: Janet Munro, 38, British actress, of alcohol-related myocarditis

December 7, 1972 (Thursday)[edit]

December 8, 1972 (Friday)[edit]

  • United Airlines Flight 553 Boeing 737 from Washington to Chicago crashed at 2:29 p.m. while attempting to land at Chicago Midway Airport during an ice storm. Killed were 43 of 61 persons on board, and two people in a house at 3722 W. 70th Place. The dead included Dorothy Hunt (wife of Watergate conspirator E. Howard Hunt), CBS News reporter Michelle Clark, and Illinois Congressman George W. Collins.[16]
  • Florida became the first state, since the June 29 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Furman v. Georgia, to reinstate capital punishment. Governor Reubin Askew signed the bill into law a week after it had passed both houses of the State Legislature.
  • Dr. Mahmoud Hamshari, the PLO representative in France, was fatally wounded by a bomb, planted near his telephone by agents of Israel's Mossad, in retaliation for his suspected role in the 1972 Munich Massacre. After the explosive had been placed during Hamshari's absence, an agent telephoned him and asked enough questions to confirm his identity. The bomb was then detonated by remote control, possibly by a signal through the telephone line.[17]

December 9, 1972 (Saturday)[edit]

December 10, 1972 (Sunday)[edit]

December 11, 1972 (Monday)[edit]

  • Mankind landed on the Moon for the sixth and last time, as the Apollo 17 lunar module Challenger touched down at 1955 GMT at the Taurus-Litrow crater at 1:54 pm Houston time (1954 GMT).[23][24]
  • Soviet and Chinese soldiers clashed at the border, with several of the Soviet soldiers being killed.[25]
  • "Don't Buy Farah Day" was declared by the Amalgamated Clothing Workers union, which asked Americans nationwide to boycott the non-union Farah Manufacturing, in protest over low wages and benefits paid by one of the largest clothing makers in the United States. During the course of a strike that lasted from May 1972 to March 1974, Farah's sales dropped by twenty million dollars.[26]
  • Born: Daniel Alfredsson, Swedish NHL player, in Gothenburg

December 12, 1972 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • A boatload with 65 Haitian refugees, mostly black, landed in Florida, the first "boat people" to flee from Haiti to the United States. Landings were sporadic until 1978, when thousands of Haitians, fleeing the Duvalier regime, began seeking sanctuary in the U.S.[27]
  • MCA Inc. unveiled Disco-Vision, a videodisc system to rival RCA's SelectaVision. The picture quality was poor and the system never went on sale.[28]
  • Born: Chris Senn, professional skateboarder, in Grass Valley, CA

December 13, 1972 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • North Vietnam's negotiators walked out of the Paris Peace Talks. President Nixon issued an ultimatum to the North Vietnamese to return to the talks within 72 hours, or face severe measures. On December 18, the United States began Operation Linebacker II, the most massive aerial bombardment ever made of North Vietnam.[29]
  • Born: Chris Grant, Australian rules football star, in Daylesford, Victoria

December 14, 1972 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Shortly after midnight Eastern Standard Time, American astronaut Eugene Cernan climbed into the lunar module Challenger, following after Harrison Schmitt, having been the last person to have set foot on the moon; the scheduled end of the moonwalk had been 0433 GMT (11:33 pm December 13 EST). At 2255 GMT (5:55 pm EST), the cabin of the Challenger lunar module lifted off from the surface of the Moon with Cernan and Schmitt, to return to lunar orbit.[30]
  • Willy Brandt was re-elected as Chancellor of West Germany, needing 247 votes in the 493 member Bundestag, and receiving 269.[31]
  • Born: Miranda Hart, English comedian and actress, in Torquay.

December 15, 1972 (Friday)[edit]

  • The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) was created by a 112–0 vote of the UN General Assembly.[32]
  • The Commonwealth of Australia Conciliation and Arbitration Commission issued a decision requiring equal pay for women.[33]
  • Died:
    • Adrian Stokes, 70, British writer, painter and art critic
    • Bob Mosher, 57, sitcom writer (Leave it To Beaver, The Munsters)

December 16, 1972 (Saturday)[edit]

  • At the village of Wiriamu in Mozambique, at that time a colony of Portugal, Portuguese troops executed a massacre of the residents —men, women and children— in retaliation for the ambush of a patrol the day before. At least 328 bodies were buried later, although observers concluded that the number of persons killed was more than 400. Like Lidice, Wiriamu was razed. Unlike Lidice, it was never rebuilt.[34]
  • The Apollo 17 orbiter began its return to Earth, as the America became the last manned spacecraft to orbit the Moon.[35]
  • Six people were killed in a small plane crash in Cheektowaga, New York. The pilot of a twin engine Cessna 421 was unable to return to the Buffalo Niagara International Airport and slammed into two homes killing his two passengers and 3 people on the ground.

December 17, 1972 (Sunday)[edit]

December 18, 1972 (Monday)[edit]

  • Operation Linebacker II, described more generally as the Christmas Bombing and sometimes as "The Eleven-Day War", began at 2:51 pm as the first of 87 B-52 bombers, piloted by Major Bill Stocker, lifted off from Andersen AFB in Guam.[38] These were joined by 42 more B-52s flying from Thailand, along with 400 fighters and refueling tankers.[39] At 7:40 pm Hanoi time, from an altitude of 35,000 feet, the bombers began dropping their payloads on targets in North Vietnam, and were met by hundreds of SAM missiles and some MiG-21 fighters.[40] There were 121 bombing runs in the first 24 hours.[41]
  • Neilia Hunter Biden, the wife of U.S. Senator-elect (and future U.S. Vice-President) Joe Biden was killed in a traffic accident, along with the couple's 13-month-old daughter, Naomi. Mrs. Biden's car was struck by a tractor-trailer at 2:30 pm as she pulled into an intersection near Hockessin, Delaware. The Bidens' two sons, aged three and four, were injured.[42]

December 19, 1972 (Tuesday)[edit]

December 20, 1972 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Neil Simon's play The Sunshine Boys, was first performed, at the Broadhurst Theatre on Broadway.[44]
  • The Northrop M2-F3, the "wingless airplane", made its final flight, achieving an altitude of 71,500 feet.[45]
  • The last Australian servicemen to have served in the Vietnam War were brought home.[46]
  • North Central Airlines Flight 575 was cleared for takeoff by an air traffic controller at Chicago's O'Hare Airport, but Delta Air Lines Flight 954 had not yet cleared the runway. Eleven of the 41 people on board the North Central DC-9 were killed in the collision.[47]

December 21, 1972 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The Grundlagenvertrag, or Basic Treaty, between the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), was signed in East Berlin. The two nations agreed to "develop normal good-neighbourly relations" and to "reaffirm the inviolability now and in the future of the border existing between them", as well as resolving that "neither of the two States can represent the other".[48]
  • Died: General Paul Hausser, 92, "Papa" of the German Waffen SS

December 22, 1972 (Friday)[edit]

December 23, 1972 (Saturday)[edit]

  • At 12:29 a.m., an earthquake of 6.2 magnitude leveled the Managua, the capital of Nicaragua, and killed more than 10,000 people, destroyed 589 city blocks, and left 400,000 homeless.[52]
  • Braathens Flight 239, a Norwegian airplane flight from Ålesund to Oslo, crashed while attempting a landing, killing 40 of the 45 persons on board.
  • The Pittsburgh Steelers beat the Oakland Raiders 13–7, on a last second play that became known as "The Immaculate Reception". The term was used on WTAE-TV's 11 o'clock news by Steelers announcer Myron Cope, who gave credit to a fan, Michael Ord, for coining it, and Sharon Levosky, a friend of Ord's, who called Cope.[53] With 0:22 left, the Steelers trailed 7–6, and were at fourth and 10 on their own 40-yard line. Terry Bradshaw threw a pass that was deflected, and then caught by Franco Harris, who ran 60 yards for the winning touchdown.[54]

December 24, 1972 (Sunday)[edit]

December 25, 1972 (Monday)[edit]

  • An unpublished decree took effect in the U.S.S.R., making it illegal for Soviet residents to meet with foreigners "for the purpose of disseminating false or slanderous information about the Soviet Union", a definition that covered most dissidents.[57]
  • Yuri Andropov, the Director of the KGB, recommended that the Soviet Politburo allocate $100,000 in U.S. currency to influence the March parliamentary elections in Chile. The Politburo approved the transfer on February 7, 1973.[58]
  • Born: Qu Yunxia, Chinese middle-distance runner; holder of women's 1500 m world record (3:50.46) since 1993
  • Died: Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, 94, Indian freedom-fighter and last Governor-General of India (1948–50)

December 26, 1972 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • In what has been described as the airstrike that "decided the entire air war over North Vietnam", Operation Linebacker II saw 220 American aircraft strike targets over a fifteen-minute period, destroying a missile assembly facility, and crippling radar stations and airbases. The North Vietnamese agreed to resume peace talks after three more days of bombing.[59] The bombings on the day after Christmas also destroyed residences and businesses on Hanoi's Kham Tien Street, killing 215 civilians.[60]
  • The Santiago, Chile, newspaper El Mercurio broke the story that the 16 survivors of the Uruguayan plane crash in the Andes mountains had turned to cannibalism to avoid starvation.[61]
  • Died: Harry S. Truman, 88, the 33rd President of the United States, died at 7:50 am in Kansas City.[62]

December 27, 1972 (Wednesday)[edit]

December 28, 1972 (Thursday)[edit]

  • At the age of 20, Prince Vajiralongkorn was designated as Crown Prince of Thailand by his father, King Bhumibol Adulyadej.[67]
  • Kim Il-sung, who was already the (since 1948) Prime Minister of North Korea and General Secretary of its Workers' Party, became the nation's first President, when the office was created as part of a new Constitution.[68]
  • Born: Patrick Rafter, Australian tennis player, ranked No. 1 in the world 1999; U.S. Open champion 1997 and 1998; in Pembroke, Bermuda

December 29, 1972 (Friday)[edit]

  • At 11:42 p.m., Eastern Air Lines Flight 401 crashed into the Everglades in Florida, killing 101 of 176 on board.[69] The cockpit crew had been preoccupied with checking the L-1011's landing gear when a light on the instrument panel had failed to come on. Distracted, nobody realized that the autopilot had become disengaged, and that they were slowly losing altitude. The last recorded words were the co-pilot saying "We did something to the altitude. We're still at 2000, right?" and the pilot responding, "Hey, what's happening here?" [70] Ghosts of the dead are said to have been seen by others, as described in John G. Fuller's bestseller Ghost of Flight 401.
  • Edward Lorenz proposed the now-famous butterfly effect in a paper delivered to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, entitled "Predictability: Does the Flap of a Butterfly's Wings in Brazil Set Off a Tornado in Texas?" [71]
  • Life magazine's final weekly issue carried the December 29, 1972, date, though it was on newsstands the week before, the first issue having been on November 23, 1936.
  • The U.S. Army received its last draftees. After the close of the Vietnam War conscription of Americans into the service ceased, and all services were composed of volunteers.[72]
  • The takeover of Israel's embassy in Thailand, by Palestinian terrorists, ended peacefully after intervention by Egypt's ambassador and Thai officials. The four Arab gunmen, granted safe passage to Cairo, released their Israeli hostages, including the ambassador. Before everyone departed, the Egyptian and Israeli ambassadors, the four gunmen and five diplomats all ate dinner together inside the embassy.[73]
  • Died: Joseph Cornell, 69, American sculptor and philosopher.

December 30, 1972 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The "Christmas Bombing" of North Vietnam halted by order of U.S. President Nixon, after the North Vietnamese agreed to resume negotiations with Henry Kissinger beginning on January 8.[74] A total of 20,370 tons of bombs were dropped on North Vietnam over eleven days.[75] In an oft-quoted passage from The Lessons of Vietnam, Sir Robert Thompson wrote "after eleven days of those B-52 attacks on the Hanoi area, you had won the war! It was over!" South Vietnam would be conquered by the North forty months later.
  • Born: Kerry Collins, American NFL quarterback, in Lebanon, Pennsylvania

December 31, 1972 (Sunday)[edit]


  1. ^ "Developments in the Subcontinent— The Post-Bangladesh Phase", by Mohammed Ayoob, in Self Reliance and National Resilience (Abhinav Publications, 2003), p18
  2. ^ Australian Government and Politics Database, University of Western Australia
  3. ^ Jonathan King, Great Moments in Australian History (Allen & Unwin, 2009), pp287–288
  4. ^ Sandra Friend, Sinkholes (Pineapple Press, 2002), p21; "Science Newsfront", by Arthur Fisher, Popular Science (July 1973), p28
  5. ^ "Holiday Jetliner Disaster Kills 155", Oakland Tribune, December 4, 1972, p3
  6. ^ Mike Echols, I Know My First Name Is Steven (Pinnacle Books, 1991). p36; "Vast Hunt on For Missing Merced Boy", Oakland Tribune, December 8, 1972, p30
  7. ^ "Honduras President Is Ousted", Oakland Tribune, December 4, 1972, p6
  8. ^ "U.S. Order To Deter Hijacking", Oakland Tribune, December 5, 1972, p1
  9. ^ Amitai Etzioni, The Spirit of Community: The Reinvention of American Society (Simon & Schuster, 1994), p168
  10. ^ "Court Bars Care Airbags Use in 1975,", Oakland Tribune, December 5, 1972
  11. ^ "U.S. Births Go Below Zero Rate", Oakland Tribune, December 5, 1972, p1
  12. ^ UNESCO Report
  13. ^ "Apollo in Fiery Trip To Moon", Oakland Tribune, December 7, 1972, p1,
  14. ^ Ron Vernon, Beneath Our Feet: The Rocks of Planet Earth (Cambridge University Press, 2000), p8
  15. ^ "Assassin Tries to Kill Marcos' Wife", Oakland Tribune, December 7, 1972, p1
  16. ^ "Chicago Jet Toll Grows To 55 Dead", Oakland Tribune, December 9, 1972, p1; "3 area residents reported dead, 4 missing, 7 homes destroyed in crash that killed 45", Southtown Economist (Chicago), December 10, 1972, p1
  17. ^ Ami Pedahzur, The Israeli Secret Services and the Struggle Against Terrorism (Columbia University Press, 2009), p43
  18. ^ "Month-Long Search of Arctic Climaxes in Pilot's Rescue", Salt Lake Tribune, December 10, 1972, p1
  19. ^ "Tanaka Party Retains Japan Rule", Salt Lake Tribune, December 11, 1972, p1
  20. ^ Jonathan Power, Like Water on Stone: The Story of Amnesty International (Northeastern University Press, 2001), pp113–114
  21. ^ Keith Elliot Greenberg, Pro Wrestling: From Carnivals to Cable TV (LernerSports, 2000) pp61–62
  22. ^ Russell O. Wright, Dominating the Diamond: The 19 Baseball Teams with the Most Dominant Single Seasons, 1901–2000 (McFarland, 2002), p141
  23. ^ Eugene Cernan with Don Davis, The Last Man on the Moon: Astronaut Eugene Cernan and America's Race in Space (St. Martin's Griffin, 2000)
  24. ^ "Apollo 17 Lands on Moon— 'We Is Here'", Salt Lake Tribune, December 12, 1972, p1
  25. ^ Raymond L. Garthoff, Détente and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations from Nixon to Reagan (Brookings Institution, 1994), p358
  26. ^ "Farah Strike (1972–1974)", in Latinas in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia (Indiana University Press, 2006) pp249–250
  27. ^ Felix Masud-Piloto, From Welcomed Exiles to Illegal Immigrants: Cuban Migration to the U.S., 1959–1995 (Rowman & Littlefield, 1996), p115
  28. ^ Albert Abramson, The History of Television, 1942 to 2000 (McFarland, 2003), p148
  29. ^ Walter J. Boyne, The Influence of Air Power upon History (Pelican 2003), p338
  30. ^ "'We're on Our Way,' Shout 2 Astros Leaving Moonship", Salt Lake Tribune, December 15, 1972, p1
  31. ^ Heinrich August Winkler, Germany: The Long Road West, 1933–1990 (Oxford University Press, 2007), p283
  32. ^ W. Langeraar, Surveying and Charting of the Seas (Elsevier, 1984), p587
  33. ^ "Equal Pay Case 1972", Fair Work Australia website
  34. ^ M.S. Gill, Human Rights, Human Wrongs (Sarup & Sons, 2004), pp87–88
  35. ^ "Space Trio on Their Way Back", Salt Lake Tribune, December 17, 1972, p1
  36. ^ "Loss of Six Left This Back Sick!", Salt Lake Tribune, December 18, 1972, p31
  37. ^
  38. ^ Brig. Gen. James R. McCarthy, et al., Linebacker II: A View from the Rock (Office of Air Force History, 1985), p52
  39. ^ Joe Christy, American Aviation: An Illustrated History (Tab Books, 1994), pp278–279
  40. ^ István Toperczer, MiG-21 Units of the Vietnam War (Osprey, 2001) p76
  41. ^ "Bombers Raid North, Sustain Heavy Loss", Salt Lake Tribune, December 19, 1972, p1
  42. ^ "Sen.-Elect Biden's Wife, Child Are Killed In Crash", The Daily Times (Salisbury, MD), December 19, 1972, p1
  43. ^ Global Environment Outlook 3 (Earthscan, 2002), p292
  44. ^ Neil Simon, The Sunshine Boys: A Comedy in Two Acts (Samuel French, Inc., 1973), p3
  45. ^ R. Dale Reed and Darlene Lister, Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story (University of Kentucky Press, 2002), p150
  46. ^ David Wilson, The Brotherhood of Airmen: The Men and Women of the RAAF in Action, 1914–Today (Allen & Unwin, 2005), p186
  47. ^ "11 Are Killed in Crash of Airliner in Chicago", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, December 21, 1972, p1
  48. ^ International Law Reports (Volume 78), (Cambridge University Press, 1988), p153
  49. ^ "16 Survive for 10 Weeks High in Andes After Air Crash—Rescue Effort Starts", Salt Lake Tribune, December 23, 1972, p1
  50. ^ Adventure Island website
  51. ^ Đặng-Thùy-Trâm, Last Night I Dreamed of Peace: The Diary of Dang Thuy Tram (Harmony Books 2007), p32
  52. ^ "Quake Levels Managua", Oakland Tribune, December 24, 1972, p1; Bernard Diederich, Somoza and the Legacy of U.S. Involvement in Central America (Markus Wiener Publishers, 2007), p93
  53. ^ "Backtalk: An Immaculate Explanation of the Truth" by Myron Cope, New York Times, December 21, 1997
  54. ^ Lew Freedman, Pittsburgh Steelers: The Complete Illustrated History (MBI Pub. Co., 2009), p78
  55. ^ "Nixon Lengthens Halt in Bombing", Oakland Tribune, December 25, 1972, p1
  56. ^ M. G. Chitkara, Mohajir's Pakistan (APH Publishing, 1996), p34
  57. ^ Leonard Schroeter, The Last Exodus (University of Washington Press, 1979), p33
  58. ^ Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The World Was Going Our Way: The KGB and the Battle for the Third World (Basic Books, 2005), p80
  59. ^ John Darrell Sherwood, Fast Movers: America's Jet Pilots and the Vietnam Experience (St Martin's, 1999), p. xix.
  60. ^ William S. Logan, Hanoi: Biography of a City (University of New South Wales Press, 2000), p170.
  61. ^ "Plane Crash Cannibalism Triggers Questions, Anger", Oakland Tribune, December 27, 1972, p1
  62. ^ "Death Ends Colorful Career Of Ex-President Truman", Salt Lake Tribune, December 27, 1972, p1
  63. ^ "Unleaded Gasoline Ordered for 1974", Oakland Tribune, December 28, 1972, p1
  64. ^ "Crash Kills 19 on Church Ski Bus", Oakland Tribune, December 27, 1972, p1
  65. ^ Sŭng-hŭm Kil and Chung-in Moon, Understanding Korean Politics: An Introduction (University of New York Press, 2001), p327
  66. ^ "The 1972 Constitution and Top Communist Leaders" by Chong-sik Lee, in Political Leadership in Korea (University of Washington Press, 1976), p192
  67. ^ Thailand Country Study Guide (International Business Publications, 2007), p48
  68. ^ Jürgen Kleiner, Korea: A Century of Change (World Scientific, 2001), p281
  69. ^ "170 Aboard In Florida Jet Crash", Oakland Tribune, December 30, 1972, p1
  70. ^
  71. ^ Edward N. Lorenz, The Essence of Chaos (University of Washington Press, 1995), pp181–184
  72. ^ Jerold E. Brown, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Army (Greenwood Press, 2001), p11
  73. ^ "4 Arab Terrorists Free Israelis, Fly to Cairo"
  74. ^ "Peace Talks To Resume—Nixon Halts Bombing", Oakland Tribune, December 31, 1972, p1
  75. ^ Strategic Air Warfare: An Interview with Generals Curtis E. LeMay, Leon W. Johnson, David A. Burchinal, and Jack J. Catton (Office of Air Force History, 1988), p126
  76. ^ "Andorra— Heads of State", in Heads of States and Governments Since 1945, by Harris M. Lentz (Routledge, 2014) p31
  77. ^ Steven A. Riess, Encyclopedia of Major League Baseball Clubs (Greenwood Press, 2006), p323
  78. ^ Albert F. Celoza, Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism (Praeger 1997), p50