Teochew people

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For the Teochew dialect, see Teochew dialect.
Teochew people
潮州人
潮州閩南人
Taksin the Great.jpg
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Total population
(estimated 25–30 million worldwide)
Regions with significant populations
Greater China (Guangdong, Hong Kong), Southeast Asia (Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia), North America (United States, Canada), Australasia (Australia, New Zealand), France
Languages
Teochew + language(s) of their country of residence
Religion
Predominantly Chinese folk religions (including Taoism, Confucianism, ancestral worship and others) and Mahayana Buddhism.
Related ethnic groups
Han Chinese
Teochew people
Chinese 潮州人
Literal meaning tide region people

The Chaozhou people (commonly known as Teochew or Chiuchow) are Chinese people, native to the Chaoshan region of eastern Guangdong province who speak the Teochew dialect. Today, most Teochew people live outside China in Southeast Asia, especially in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, and Indonesia. They can also be found almost anywhere in the world, including North America, Australia and France.[citation needed]

The Teochew speak Chinese Teochew dialect of Southern Min; Teochew cuisine is also distinctive. The ancestors of the Teochew people moved to present-day Chaoshan from the Central Plains of China in order to escape from a series of civil wars during the Jin Dynasty.[1]

Terms[edit]

Teochew can be romanised in a variety of schemes, and are known in Mandarin as cháo zhōu rén and Cantonese as Chiuchao yan. In referring to themselves as ethnic Chinese, Teochew people generally use Deung nang (唐人; Mandarin: Tangren), literally Tang Dynasty people, as opposed to Hang nang (漢人/汉人; Mandarin: Hanren), which means 'Han Dynasty people'.

Teochew people of the diaspora would generally use Hua nang (華人/华人; Mandarin: Huaren) to indicate Chinese heritage in a cultural sense. Huanang and huaren are broadly used by Chinese people living outside of China, referring to their maintaining a substantial cultural identity they consider to be Chinese. The Teochew people are those who speak the Teochew language and share some ancestry with Teochew.

Teochew people also commonly refer to each other as ga gi nang (自己人; Mandarin: zijiren) which means 'our own people'.[2]

History[edit]

Historically, these people were called Helao or Fulao (Hoklo), as they came mostly from Henan and Shanxi via Fujian,[1] with well-maintained language and customs from ancient north-central China.[3] As was recorded in pedigrees and ancient inscriptions, these people who had originally migrated to southern Fujian, especially from Quanzhou and Putian, made settlements toward Chaoshan in batches from Tang dynasty to Ming dynasty and soon spread all over the Chaoshan area.[4]

Geographic isolation and difficulty in traveling in the past made the Helao or Fulao become a relatively closed population.[citation needed] Recently, studies of genetic analysis supported that although all Han Chinese are indeed related and share a common root, the Teochew had closest links with the Minnan area of Fujian province and those from the Taihang Mountain range of north-central China.[1][5]

The Teochew people are known to Cantonese speakers as "Hoklo", literally meaning "men of Fujian", although the term “Teochew” was used in the Strait Settlements in the 19th century and early 20th century. "Teochew" is derived from Teochew prefecture (Chaozhou Fu) the departmental city where they originate.[6]

Teochew immigration to Singapore[edit]

From the 19th century, due to disadvantaged circumstances, significant numbers of Teochew people left their homeland for Singapore and a new life.[7]

Early Teochew settlers could trace their origins to eight counties/prefectures: Chao'an, Chenghai, Chaoyang, Jieyang, Raoping, Puning, Huilai and Nan'ao. In addition to these, new immigrants leaving from Port Swatow, there were Teochew people relocating to Singapore from Siam and Riau Islands.[citation needed]

Today, Teochew is the second largest spoken Chinese language used in Singapore.[citation needed] They are the second largest dialect group in Singapore at 21% of the Chinese Population. As a result, they play a significant role in the opposition party scenes with orators

Teochew in Taiwan[edit]

See also: 潮州裔臺灣人 (in Chinese)

Most of the Teochew descendants in Taiwan have already been "hokkienized" ("hoklonized"). They speak the Taiwanese Hokkien language instead of Teochew. Some of them consider themselves as being Hakka. However, there are still some Teochew in Chaojhou township (潮州鎮), in Pingtung County (屏東縣).[citation needed]

A 1926 Japanese census found that there were 134,800 people in Taiwan of Teochew ancestry.[8]

Culture[edit]

Chaozhou Opera

Throughout the history of over 1000 years, the region of Chaoshan, anciently named Teochew Prefecture, has bred and evolved a prestigious culture, which manifests its unique characteristics in language, opera, cuisine, tea practice, music and embroidery.

The Teochew dialect (潮州話) is considered[by whom?] one of the oldest Chinese dialects as it preserves many features from ancient Chinese that have been lost in some counterparts.[citation needed] It is spoken by roughly 10 million people in Chaoshan and more than five million outside the Chinese mainland.

Teochew opera (潮劇) is a traditional art form which has a history of more than 500 years and is now loved by 20 million Teochew people in over 20 countries and regions.[citation needed] Based on local folk dances and ballads, Teochew opera has formed its own style under the influence of Nanxi Opera. Nanxi is one of the oldest Chinese operas and originated in the Song Dynasty. The old form of choral accompaniment still preserves its special features[which?]. Clowns and females are the most distinctive characters in a Teochew opera, and fan-play and acrobatic skills are prominent.

Teochew music (潮州音樂) is popularly played in Chaoshan's teahouse scene. The Teochew string instrument, gong, drum and traditional Chinese flute, are typically involved in ensembles. The current Chaozhou drum music is said[by whom?] to be similar to the form of the Drum and Wind Music of the Han and Tang Dynasties.

Teochew woodcarving(潮州木雕) is a form of Chinese woodcarving originating in the Tang Dynasty. It is very popular in Chaoshan. Teochew people used a great deal of Teochew wood carving in their buildings.[citation needed]

Yingge Dance

Yingge dance(英歌)is a form of Chinese folk dance originating in the Ming Dynasty. It is one of the most representative form of folk arts.[citation needed]

Although few movies or television dramas have been made of the Teochew people, one such notable drama is the Singaporean 1995 drama series The Teochew Family.

Prominent Teochew people[edit]

The people in this may include those who are fullblooded to partial Teochew ancestry.

Entrepreneurs[edit]

Film directors[edit]

  • Mainland China
    • Zheng Zhengqiu (鄭正秋/郑正秋; Dên Zianciu) (1888–1935; Chaoyang, Guangdong), director; his film Nan Fu Nan Qi (難夫難妻/难夫难妻; Nang Hu Nang Ci) was the first feature film in China's history
    • Cai Chusheng (蔡楚生; Cua Cosên) (1906–1968; Chaoyang, Guangdong), director; his film Yu Guang Qu (漁光曲/渔光曲; Heu Guang Kêg) received the first international film prize in China's history
  • Hong Kong
    • Ringo Lam (林嶺東/林岭东; Lin Lindong; Lim Lingdang) (1954–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), director
    • Herman Yau (邱禮濤/邱礼涛; Qiu Litao; Yau Loito) (1961–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), director

Literary figures and artists[edit]

Mainland China
  • Da-Wen Sun (孫大文/孙大文) (Chaozhou, Guangdong), world authority in food engineering education and research
  • Xu Dishan (许地山) (1893–1941; Jieyang, Guangdong), philosopher
  • Hong Zicheng (洪子誠/洪子诚; Hong Zeshin) (1939–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), scholar in the field of the history of literature
  • Chen Pingyuan (陳平原/陈平原; Tan Pêngnguang) (1954–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), literary professor
Hong Kong
  • Tchan Fou-li (simplified Chinese: 陈复礼; traditional Chinese: 陳復禮; pinyin: Chen Fuli; 1916- ), founder of Chinese Photographic Association of Hong Kong and internationally known photographer
  • Zhao Tingyang (趙汀陽/赵汀阳; Dio Teng-iang) (1961–; Shantou, Guangdong), Chinese philosophy researcher
  • Jao Tsung-I (饒宗頤/饶宗颐; Rao Zongyi; Dziau Zong-i) (1917–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), Chinese scholar, poet, calligrapher and painter
  • Chua Lam (蔡澜/蔡瀾; Chai Lan; Cua Lam) (1941–; Chaozhou, Guangdong), columnist, food critic, and movie producer[10]
Canada
United States
  • Wena Poon (方慧娜) (1974–), born in Singapore, novelist

Politicians[edit]

Canada
  • Alice Wong(黄陳小萍, Minister of State for Seniors; the first Chinese-Canadian woman sitting in Cabinet
Singapore
Thailand
Malaysia

Sportspeople[edit]

Mainland China
United States
  • Michael Chang (1972–; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in the United States), former professional tennis player
Singapore

Entertainers[edit]

Mainland China
Hong Kong
  • Canti Lau (劉錫明/劉锡明; Liu Ximing; Liu Siahmêng) (1964–; Chaoyang, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor and singer
  • Sammul Chan (陳鍵鋒/陈键锋; Chén Jiànfēng; Chan Gin-fung) (1978–; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor, singer
  • Emil Chau (周華健/周华健; Zhou Huajian; Chiu Hua-giang) (1960–; Chaoyang, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor and singer
  • Matthew Ko (高鈞賢/高钧贤; Gao Junxian; Gao Jao-ghao) (1984–; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), model
  • Kwong Wa (江華/江华; Jiang Hua; Gang Hua) (1962–; Shantou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor and singer
  • Miriam Yeung (楊千嬅/杨千桦; Yang Qianhua; Yêng Cainhua) (1974–; Jieyang, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actress and singer
  • Sammi Cheng (鄭秀文/郑秀文; Zheng Xiuwen; Dên Siu-mung) (1972–; Chenghai, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actress and singer
  • Ada Choi (蔡少芬/蔡少芬; Cai Shaofen; Choi Siufun) (1973–; Chaoshan, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actress
  • Steven Ma (馬浚偉/马浚伟; Ma FengWei; Maa Zeonwai) (1971–; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor and singer
  • Stephen Wong Cheung-Hing (黃長興) (1978–; Shantou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor
Singapore
South Korea
  • Jang Yong[citation needed] (Korean: 張龍/장용; 張龍/张龙; Zhang Long; Dion Leng) (1945–; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in South Korea), actor
  • Richard Be

Others[edit]

  • Limahong (林鳳/林凤; Lin Feng; Lim Hong) (15??–15??; Raoping, Chaozhou, Guangdong), pirate[11]
  • Lê Văn Viễn (aka Bảy Viễn; Vien the seventh) (1904–70; Chaoshan, Guangdong; born in Vietnam), leader of a powerful Vietnamese criminal organisation—Bình Xuyên Organisation
  • Somdet Phrachao Taksin Maharaj (Thai: สมเด็จพระเจ้าตากสินมหาราช) or Somdet Phrachao Krung Thonburi (Thai: สมเด็จพระเจ้ากรุงธนบุรี; Chinese: 鄭昭; pinyin: Zhèng Zhāo; Teochew: Dênchao) (1734–1782; Chenghai, Shantou, Guangdong; born in Thailand), former King of Thailand
  • Henry Lau (1989–; born in Canada), singer from Super Junior-M who is currently active in South Korea[12]
  • Amber Liu (1992–; born in Los Angeles, California), singer from f(x) who is currently active in South Korea[12]

See also[edit]

  • Thai Chinese, the majority of whom are of Teochew descent.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Genetic background associated with related populations at high risk for esophageal cancer between Chaoshan and Taihang Mountain areas in China (PDF), ScienceDirect, 2007, pp. 474–480 
  2. ^ gaginang.org
  3. ^ 蔡, 金河 (2007), "由民俗活动看潮汕文化对中华传统文化的传承", 广东史志·视窗年 第6期 (6): 71–73. 
  4. ^ 广东潮州人的祖先来自福建?
  5. ^ 星破解漢人基因圖譜 南北華人基因差異微妙 Yahoo! News retrieved 2010-01-15
  6. ^ Kingsley Bolton, Christopher Hutton, Triad societies: western accounts of the history, sociology and linguistics of Chinese secret societies, pg 93.
  7. ^ Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan(2010). 潮州八邑会馆与義安公司的历史渊源. Retrieved 18 January 2010
  8. ^ Taiwan Sotoku Kanbo Chosaka (1928). 台灣在籍漢民族鄉貫別調查 [Investigation of the regions of origin of Han people in Taiwan]. Taihoku-shi (Taipei): Taiwan Sotoku Kanbo Chosaka. 
  9. ^ Woopidoo. Lee Ka Shing Biography. Retrieved 21 January 2010
  10. ^ Lam, C. (1996). Eating in Hong Kong 1997. World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd.
  11. ^ De Borja, M. R. and Douglass, W. A. (2005). Basques in the Philippines. Las Vegas: University of Nevada Press.
  12. ^ a b https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dMTU3UL-Hu8&feature=youtu.be&t=1m6s

External links[edit]