N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a class of ionotropic glutamate receptors. The NMDA receptor channel has been shown to be involved in long-term potentiation, an activity-dependent increase in the efficiency of synaptic transmission thought to underlie certain kinds of memory and learning. NMDA receptor channels are heterotetramers composed of two molecules of the key receptor subunit NMDAR1 (GRIN1) and two drawn from one or more of the four NMDAR2 subunits: NMDAR2A (GRIN2A), NMDAR2B (GRIN2B), NMDAR2C (GRIN2C), and NMDAR2D (GRIN2D). The NR2 subunit acts as the agonist binding site for glutamate, one of the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain.
NR2B has been associated with age- and visual-experience-dependent plasticity in the neocortex of rats, where an increased NR2B/NR2A ratio correlates directly with the stronger excitatory LTP in young animals. This is thought to contribute to experience-dependent refinement of developing cortical circuits.
Both mice and rats that were engineered to over-express GRIN2B in their brains have increased mental ability. The "Doogie" mouse had double the learning ability on one measure of learning.
Evt 101, a selective NR2B receptor antagonist. This compound was tested as a potentially fast-acting antidepressant. In 2011 it was voluntarily withdrawn from a Phase II clinical study in treatment-resistant depression due to an unsatisfactory toxicity profile.
^ abcInanobe A, Fujita A, Ito M, Tomoike H, Inageda K, Kurachi Y (June 2002). "Inward rectifier K+ channel Kir2.3 is localized at the postsynaptic membrane of excitatory synapses". American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. 282 (6): C1396–403. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00615.2001. PMID11997254.
Schröder HC, Perovic S, Kavsan V, Ushijima H, Müller WE (1998). "Mechanisms of prionSc- and HIV-1 gp120 induced neuronal cell death". Neurotoxicology. 19 (4–5): 683–8. PMID9745929.
Nagy J (June 2004). "The NR2B subtype of NMDA receptor: a potential target for the treatment of alcohol dependence". Current Drug Targets. CNS and Neurological Disorders. 3 (3): 169–79. doi:10.2174/1568007043337409. PMID15180478.
Magnuson DS, Knudsen BE, Geiger JD, Brownstone RM, Nath A (March 1995). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat activates non-N-methyl-D-aspartate excitatory amino acid receptors and causes neurotoxicity". Annals of Neurology. 37 (3): 373–80. doi:10.1002/ana.410370314. PMID7695237. S2CID24405132.
Mandich P, Schito AM, Bellone E, Antonacci R, Finelli P, Rocchi M, Ajmar F (July 1994). "Mapping of the human NMDAR2B receptor subunit gene (GRIN2B) to chromosome 12p12". Genomics. 22 (1): 216–8. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1366. PMID7959773.
Adams SL, Foldes RL, Kamboj RK (January 1995). "Human N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor modulatory subunit hNR3: cloning and sequencing of the cDNA and primary structure of the protein". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1260 (1): 105–8. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(94)00189-a. PMID7999784.
Lannuzel A, Lledo PM, Lamghitnia HO, Vincent JD, Tardieu M (November 1995). "HIV-1 envelope proteins gp120 and gp160 potentiate NMDA-induced [Ca2+]i increase, alter [Ca2+]i homeostasis and induce neurotoxicity in human embryonic neurons". The European Journal of Neuroscience. 7 (11): 2285–93. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.1995.tb00649.x. PMID8563977. S2CID27201873.
Corasaniti MT, Melino G, Navarra M, Garaci E, Finazzi-Agrò A, Nisticò G (September 1995). "Death of cultured human neuroblastoma cells induced by HIV-1 gp120 is prevented by NMDA receptor antagonists and inhibitors of nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase". Neurodegeneration. 4 (3): 315–21. doi:10.1016/1055-8330(95)90021-7. PMID8581564.
Hess SD, Daggett LP, Crona J, Deal C, Lu CC, Urrutia A, Chavez-Noriega L, Ellis SB, Johnson EC, Veliçelebi G (August 1996). "Cloning and functional characterization of human heteromeric N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 278 (2): 808–16. PMID8768735.
Toggas SM, Masliah E, Mucke L (January 1996). "Prevention of HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal damage in the central nervous system of transgenic mice by the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine". Brain Research. 706 (2): 303–7. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(95)01197-8. PMID8822372. S2CID44260060.