Gro Harlem Brundtland
|Gro Harlem Brundtland|
|22nd Prime Minister of Norway|
3 November 1990 – 25 October 1996
|Preceded by||Jan Syse|
|Succeeded by||Thorbjørn Jagland|
9 May 1986 – 16 October 1989
|Preceded by||Kåre Willoch|
|Succeeded by||Jan Syse|
4 February 1981 – 14 October 1981
|Preceded by||Odvar Nordli|
|Succeeded by||Kåre Willoch|
|Director-General of the World Health Organization|
13 May 1998 – 21 July 2003
|Preceded by||Hiroshi Nakajima|
|Succeeded by||Lee Jong-wook|
|Leader of the Labour Party|
12 September 1979 – 25 October 1996
|Preceded by||Reiulf Steen|
|Succeeded by||Thorbjørn Jagland|
|Minister of the Environment|
1 July 1974 – 19 March 1979
|Prime Minister||Trygve Bratteli
|Preceded by||Tor Halvorsen|
|Succeeded by||Rolf Arthur Hansen|
20 April 1939
|Spouse(s)||Arne Olav Brundtland|
|Alma mater||University of Oslo
Gro Harlem Brundtland (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈɡruː ˈhɑːɭem ˈbrʉntlɑnː]; born Gro Harlem, 20 April 1939) is a Norwegian politician, who served three terms as Prime Minister of Norway (1981, 1986–89, and 1990–96) and as Director-General of the World Health Organization from 1998 to 2003. She is also known for having chaired the Brundtland Commission which presented the Brundtland Report on sustainable development.
Educated as a physician, Brundtland joined the Labour Party and entered the government in 1974 as Minister of the Environment. She became the first female Prime Minister of Norway on 4 February 1981, but left office already on 14 October 1981; she returned as Prime Minister on 9 May 1986 and served until 16 October 1989. She finally returned for her third term on 3 November 1990. From 1981 to 1992 she was leader of the Labour Party. After her surprise resignation as Prime Minister in 1996, she became an international leader in sustainable development and public health, and served as Director-General of the World Health Organization and as UN Special Envoy on Climate Change from 2007 to 2010. She is also deputy chair of The Elders and a former Vice-President of the Socialist International.
Brundtland belonged to the moderate wing of her party and supported Norwegian membership in the European Union during the 1994 referendum. As Prime Minister Brundtland became widely known as the "mother of the nation." Brundtland received the 1994 Charlemagne Prize, and has received many other awards and recognitions.
From 1966 to 1969, she worked as a physician at the Directorate of Health (Helsedirektoratet), and from 1969 she worked as a doctor in Oslo's public school health service.
She was Norwegian Minister for Environmental Affairs from 1974 to 1979.
Prime Minister of Norway
Brundtland became Norway's first female Prime Minister in 1981. She served as Prime Minister from February to October.
Brundtland became Norwegian Prime Minister for two further, and more durable, terms. The second ministry was from 9 May 1986 until 16 October 1989 and this cabinet became known worldwide for its high proportion of female ministers: nearly half, or eight of the total eighteen ministers, were female. The third ministry was from 3 November 1990 to 25 October 1996.
Brundtland became leader of the Labour Party in 1981 and held the office until resigning in 1992, during her third term as Prime Minister. In 1996, she resigned as Prime Minister and retired completely from Norwegian politics. Her successor as both Labour Party leader in 1992 and as Prime Minister in 1996 was Thorbjørn Jagland.
In 1983, Brundtland was invited by then United Nations Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar to establish and chair the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), widely referred to as the Brundtland Commission. She developed the broad political concept of sustainable development in the course of extensive public hearings, that were distinguished by their inclusiveness. The commission, which published its report, Our Common Future, in April 1987, provided the momentum for the 1992 Earth Summit/UNCED, which was headed by Maurice Strong, who had been a prominent member of the commission. The Brundtland Commission also provided momentum for Agenda 21.
During her third ministry, the Norwegian government in 1993 took the initiative to sponsor secret peace talks between the Government of Israel led by Yitzchak Rabin - like Brundtland, leader of a Labour Party - and the PLO led by Yasser Arafat. This culminated with the signing of the Oslo Accords. For several years afterwards Norway continued to have a high-profile involvement in promoting Israeli-Palestinian peace, though increasingly displaced by the United States from its role as the mediator.
After the end of her term as PM, Brundtland was then elected Director-General of the World Health Organization in May 1998. In this capacity, Brundtland adopted a far-reaching approach to public health, establishing a Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, chaired by Jeffrey Sachs, and addressing violence as a major public health issue. Brundtland spearheaded the movement, now worldwide, to achieve the abolition of cigarette smoking by education, persuasion, and increased taxation. Under her leadership, the World Health Organization was one of the first major employers to make quitting smoking a condition of employment. Under Brundtland's leadership, the World Health Organization was criticized  for increased drug-company influence on the agency.
Brundtland was recognized in 2003 by Scientific American as their 'Policy Leader of the Year' for coordinating a rapid worldwide response to stem outbreaks of SARS. Brundtland was succeeded on 21 July 2003 by Jong-Wook Lee. In 1994, Brundtland was awarded the Charlemagne Prize of the city of Aachen.
In 2006 Brundtland was a member of the Panel of Eminent Persons who reviewed the work of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). In May 2007, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon named Brundtland, as well as Ricardo Lagos (the former president of Chile), and Han Seung-soo (the former foreign minister of South Korea), to serve as UN Special Envoys for Climate Change.
Brundtland's hallmark political activities have been chronicled by her husband, Arne Olav Brundtland, in his two bestsellers, Married to Gro (ISBN 82-516-1647-6) and Still married to Gro (ISBN 82-05-30726-1).
Gro Harlem Brundtland is a member of the Council of Women World Leaders, an international network of current and former women presidents and prime ministers whose mission is to mobilize collective action on issues of critical importance to women and equitable development.
Brundtland serves as Deputy Chair of The Elders, a group of world leaders convened by Nelson Mandela, Graça Machel and Desmond Tutu in order to tackle some of the world's toughest problems. Mandela announced the launch of the group on 18 July 2007 in Johannesburg, South Africa. Brundtland has been active in The Elders’ work, participating in a broad range of the group’s initiatives. She has travelled with Elders delegations to Cyprus, the Korean Peninsula, Ethiopia, India and the Middle East. Brundtland has also been involved in The Elders’ initiative on child marriage, including the founding of Girls Not Brides: The Global Partnership to End Child Marriage.
Brundtland has attended the Bilderberg meetings in 1982 and 1983. Her husband attended in 1991.
Assassination attempt by Breivik
Brundtland narrowly escaped assassination by Anders Behring Breivik on 22 July 2011. She had been on the island of Utøya hours before the massacre there to give a speech to the AUF camp; Breivik stated that he originally intended Brundtland to be the main target of the attack (along with Eskil Pedersen and Jonas Gahr Støre), but he had been delayed while travelling from Oslo. Breivik arrived on Utøya about two hours after Brundtland had left.
During his trial in 2012, Breivik revealed detailed assassination plans for Brundtland. He told the court that he had planned to handcuff her and then record himself reading out a prepared text detailing her "crimes", before decapitating her on camera using a bayonet and uploading the footage to the internet. Breivik said that while Brundtland had been his main target, he had still planned to massacre everyone else on the island.
She married Arne Olav Brundtland on 9 December 1960. They had four children; one is now deceased. They own a house in the south of France.
Brundtland was operated on for uterine cancer in 2002 at Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål. In 2008 it became known that during 2007 she had received two treatments at Ullevål, paid for by Norwegian public expenditures. Since she had previously notified the Norwegian authorities that she had changed residence to France, she was no longer entitled to Norwegian social security benefits. Following media attention surrounding the matter, Brundtland decided to change residence once more, back to Norway, and she also announced that she would be paying for the treatments herself. Brundtland has claimed to suffer from electrical sensitivity which causes headaches when someone uses a mobile phone near her.
Brundtland has received many awards and honours, including
- Indira Gandhi Prize (1988)
- Charlemagne Prize (1994)
- Thomas Jefferson Foundation Medal in Architecture (2008)
- Tang Prize in Sustainable Development (2014)
- Honorary member of the Norwegian Association for Women's Rights (2016)
- Member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters
- The National German Sustainability Award
- "UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon Appoints Special Envoys on Climate Change". United Nations. 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-03.
- Gro Harlem Brundtland
- Claire Doole (21 October 1998). "WHO declares war on tobacco firms". BBC news. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Wilson, Duff (26 June 2005). "New blood-pressure guidelines pay off — for drug companies". Seattle Times (26 June 2005). Retrieved 21 February 2017.
- Edith M. Lederer, Associated Press (10 May 2007). "U.N. Envoys Seek Input on Climate Change". Time. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- Morten Ulekleiv; Gunn Kari Hegvik; Lars Kristian Tranøy (12 December 2007). "Pepsi-Gro slår tilbake: - Latterlig". Verdens Gang. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- "Brundtland, Gro Harlem". Club de Madrid. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- "Kofi Annan appointed Chair of The Elders". The Elders. 10 May 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- "Gro Harlem Brundtland". The Elders. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- "Norway shooting: killer 'confirms Gro Harlem Brundtland was main target'". The Telegraph. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- Line Brustad (18 November 2011). "Breiviks hovedmål: Gro, Jonas og Eskil". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- Haroon Siddique; Helen Pidd (19 April 2012). "News blog: Anders Behring Breivik trial, day four - Thursday 19 April". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- "Breivik trial: Phone delay 'caused more deaths'". BBC news. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- Alf Bjarne Johnsen (10 January 2008). "Betalte operasjon i 2002". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian).
- Alf Bjarne Johnsen (7 January 2008). "Gro flytter hjem". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- Aud Dalsegg (9 March 2002). "Får hodesmerter av mobilstråling". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- "International Leader in Environmental Issues to Receive 2008 Thomas Jefferson Foundation Medal in Architecture, Law, Citizen Leadership, and Global Innovation". University of Virginia. 15 February 2008.
- 2014 Tang Prize in Sustainable Development Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- Tang Prize laureate calls for more sustainable development efforts
- "Gro Harlem Brundtland utnevnt til æresmedlem av Norsk Kvinnesaksforening". Norwegian Association for Women's Rights. 21 May 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
- "Gruppe 7: Medisinske fag" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- The National German Sustainability Award Archived 20 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
- Wilsford, David, ed. Political leaders of contemporary Western Europe: a biographical dictionary (Greenwood, 1995) pp 49–56.
- Skard, Torild (2014). "Gro Harlem Brundtland". Women of Power: Half a Century of Female Presidents and Prime Ministers Worldwide. Bristol: Policy Press. ISBN 9781447315780.
- Brundtland, Gro Harlem (2002) "Madam Prime Minister: A Life in Power and Politics". New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, ISBN 0-374-53002-5, primary source
|Library resources about
Gro Harlem Brundtland
|By Gro Harlem Brundtland|
- Media related to Gro Harlem Brundtland at Wikimedia Commons
- Quotations related to Gro Harlem Brundtland at Wikiquote
|Minister of the Environment
Rolf Arthur Hansen
|Prime Minister of Norway
|Prime Minister of Norway
|Prime Minister of Norway
|Party political offices|
|Leader of the Labour Party
|Director-General of the World Health Organization