Heart Sutra

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A reproduction of the palm-leaf manuscript in Siddham script, originally held at Hōryū-ji Temple, Japan; now located in the Tokyo National Museum at the Gallery of Hōryū-ji Treasure. It may be the earliest extant Sanskrit manuscript dated to the 7th-8th century CE.[1] The manuscript contains the Heart Sutra, the Uṣṇīṣa Vijaya Dhāraṇī Sūtra and a Sanskrit syllabary.
Chinese text of the Heart Sūtra by Yuan dynasty artist and calligrapher Zhao Mengfu (1254–1322 CE)

The Heart Sūtra (Sanskrit Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya or 心經 Xīnjīng) is a popular sutra in Mahāyāna Buddhism. Its Sanskrit title, Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya, can be translated as "The Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom". The Heart Sūtra is often cited as the best-known and most popular Buddhist scripture.[2][3] It is especially popular in East Asia and is highly respected by Tibetan Buddhism.[4] It was also highly respected during the Pala Empire (ca. 750-1163 CE) located in today’s Bangladesh and Northern India.[5] The text has been translated into English dozens of times from both Chinese, Sanskrit and Tibetan as well as other source languages.[6][7][8]

Introduction[edit]

The Heart Sūtra (Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya), belongs to the Perfection of Wisdom (Prajñāpāramitā) section of the Mahāyāna Buddhist Canon (often called the mother of all Buddhas),[9][10] is along with the Diamond Sutra, the most prominent representative of the genre; the versions preserved in the Chinese language Tripitakas, Tibetan and Mongolian language Kangyurs as well as the Sanskrit language texts of Newar Buddhism are regarded as canonical by all the surviving Mahayana Buddhist traditions. The text exists in two versions, a long and a short version. The earliest extant version is the short version. The Chinese Buddhist canon includes both long and short versions, and both versions also exist in Sanskrit.[11] In the current Tibetan canon only the long version is preserved;[12][13] although Tibetan translations of the short version predating the current canonical version have been found at Dunhuang.

The Chinese version of the short text attributed to Xuanzang (T251) has 260 Chinese characters;[14] the equivalent Sanskrit version has 14 lines.[15] This makes it one of the shortest texts in the Perfection of Wisdom genre, which contains scriptures in lengths up to 100,000 lines; the shortest text in the Perfection of Wisdom genre is the Perfection of Wisdom in One Letter (Ekākṣarīprajñāpāramitā). The Heart Sūtra is often said to contain the entire meaning of the longer Sutras.[16]

This sutra is classified by Edward Conze as belonging to the third of four periods in the development of the Prajñāpāramitā canon, although because it contains a mantra (sometimes called a dhāraṇī), it does overlap with the final, tantric phase of development according to this scheme, and is included in the tantra section of at least some editions of the Kangyur.[17] Conze estimates the sutra's date of origin to be 350 CE; some others consider it to be two centuries older than that.[18]

The version attributed to Tripitaka Master Xuanzang (c. 602-664) (Taisho 251) is the standard text used by Buddhist temples throughout the world using Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese and translations from thereof. It is chanted (with minor modification)[19] in sinoxenic pronunciations on a daily basis by the Sangha of most East Asian schools of Mahayana Buddhism (and if present by the laity as well) as part of the daily Morning Liturgy.[20][21][22] In Japan, the Heart Sutra is recited by members of the Tendai School, the Shingon School, the Rinzai Zen School, the Sōtō Zen School and the Jōdo-shū School.[23] The Heart Sutra is recited by most Korean schools of Buddhism especially the Chogye Seon School, the Taego Seon School and the Won School. The Heart Sutra is one of the most popular sutras in Vietnamese Buddhism. The Tibetan/Mongolian versions are extensively studied by the various Tibetan Buddhist schools, and is also chanted. Tibetan Buddhism also treats the Heart Sutra as a tantric text and has a tantric ceremony associated with it.[24] The Heart Sutra is and was also chanted by Newar Buddhists and was also chanted during the Pala Empire period in India.[25][26] The text has been translated into many languages, and dozens of English translations and commentaries have been published, along with an unknown number of informal versions on the internet.

Origins[edit]

Gridhakuta (also known as Vulture's Peak) located in Rajgir Bihar India (in ancient times known as Rājagṛha or Rājagaha (Pali) - Site where Buddha taught the Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya (Heart Sutra) and other Prajñāpāramitā sutras.

According to Huili's biography, Xuanzang learned the sutra from an inhabitant of Sichuan, and subsequently chanted it during times of danger on his journey to the West (i.e. India).[27]

The earliest extant dated text of the Heart Sutra is a stone stele dated to 661 CE. It was engraved three years before the death of Tripitaka Master Xuanzang by a monk located in Yueyang County located very nearby Daci'en Monastery where Xuanzang was doing his translation work at the time. It is part of the Fangshan Stone Sutra and located in Yunju Temple nearby Beijing. The second oldest extant dated text of the Heart Sutra is another stone stele located at Yunju Temple. It is dated to 669 CE. The third earliest extant dated text of the Heart Sūtra is a stone stele dated to 672 CE; formerly believed to be the oldest extant text which now stands in the Beilin Museum, Xian.[28] All of the above stone steles have the same descriptive inscription : "(Tripitaka Master) Xuanzang was commanded by Emperor Tang Taizong to translate the Heart Sutra". As one of the steles was engraved while Xuanzang was still living, can there be any doubt as to the veracity of the statement?[29]

A palm-leaf manuscript found at the Horyuji Temple (See image top right) is traditionally dated to 609 CE and may be the earliest extant but undated Sanskrit manuscript of the Heart Sutra; it was brought to Japan in 609 CE, the actual text may date from even earlier. Jan Nattier doubts the traditional date, based on the reliability of the sources.[30] However it is dated to circa 7th-8th Century CE by the Tokyo National Museum where it is currently kept.[31]

Scholarship[edit]

Modern Scholarship[edit]

The earliest version of the Heart Sutra may have been translated by Zhi Qian in 222-250 CE; however because it was already lost by Xuanzang's time whether it was actually a translation of the Heart Sutra is unknown.[32] Edward Conze (based on Matsumoto Tokumyo's 1932 study Die Prajñāpāramitā-Literatur: nebst einem Specimen der Suvikrāntavikrāmi-Prajñāramitā) acknowledges that T250, the text attributed to Kumārajīva (fl. 4th Century), may be the work of his student;but Conze accepts it as the earliest extant Chinese version of the Heart Sutra.[33] John McRae and Jan Nattier have argued that this translation was created by someone else, much later, based on Kumārajīva's Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (Great Treatise on the Perfection of Wisdom).[34] Xuanzang's version of the Heart Sutra (T251) in the Chinese Tripiṭaka is the first extant version to use the title "Heart Sūtra" (心經 xīnjīng).[35] Fukui Fumimasa has argued that 心經 or Heart Sutra may mean dhāraṇī sutra.[36]

Conze states that approximately 90% of the Heart Sutra is derivable from the larger Prajñāpāramitā Sūtras including the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 25,000 lines or the Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 8,000 lines or Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra and the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 100,000 lines or Śatasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra.[37][38] Nattier on the other hand, hypothesize only 40% of the extant text of the Heart Sutra is a quotation from a commentary on the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 25,000 lines or the Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (Great Treatise on the Perfection of Wisdom) written by Nāgārjuna and translated by Kumārajīva;the balance was newly composed.[39] Based on textual patterns in the extant Sanskrit and Chinese versions of the Heart Sūtra, the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra or Great Treatise on the Perfection of Wisdom and the Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra or Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 25,000 lines, Nattier has argued that the supposedly earliest extant version of the Heart Sutra (Taisho 250 translated by Kumārajīva or another text (so far unknown) that Xuanzang supposedly received from an inhabitant of Sichuan prior to his travels to India) was probably first composed in China in the Chinese language from a mixture of material derived from Kumārajīva's Chinese translation of the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra or Great Treatise on the Perfection of Wisdom and new composition (60% of the text). Xuanzang's version of this text (Taisho 251) was later translated into Sanskrit (or back-translated, in the case of some of the sutra). Excluding the new composition, Kumarajiva's version of the Heart Sutra (T250) matches the corresponding parts of Kumārajīva's translation of the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra or Great Treatise on the Perfection of Wisdom almost exactly; the other, Xuanzang's version (T251) are missing two lines (one from the beginning and one from the middle) with a number of other differences including one different line and differences in terminology. The corresponding extant Sanskrit texts (ie. Heart Sutra and Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 25,000 lines), while agreeing in meaning, differ in virtually every word.[40]It is unusual for Avalokiteśvara to be in the central role in a Prajñāpāramitā text. Early Prajñāpāramitā texts involve Subhuti, who is absent from both versions of the Heart Sūtra. The Buddha is only present in the longer version of the Heart Sutra.[41] This could be considered evidence that the text is Chinese in origin.[12] Jan Nattier points out that this mantra exists in several variations and is associated with several different Prajñāpāramitā texts.[12] Nattier states that there is no direct or indirect evidence (such as a commentary) of a Sanskrit version before the 8th century,[42] and she dates the first evidence (in the form of commentaries by Xuanzang's disciples Kuiji and Woncheuk, and Dunhuang manuscripts) of Chinese versions to the 7th century. Nattier believes that the corroborating evidence supports a Chinese version at least a century before a Sanskrit version.[43]

Detail refutation of Nattier's hypothesis on the basis of historical accounts and comparison with the extant Sanskrit Buddhist manuscript fragments have been made primarily by scholars from East Asia. Amongst these scholars are Professors Harada Waso and Fukui Fumimasa.[44][45][46][47] Harada rejects Nattier's claims that the central role of Avalokiteśvara points to a Chinese origin for the Heart Sutra. Harada notes that the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā or Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 8,000 lines (one of two claimants to oldest sutra in the prajñāpāramitā division of the Canon) has Subhuti, Sariputra as well as Ananda as speakers.[48] Harada's hypothesis also notes the blending of Prajñāpāramitā and Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattvas in Mahayana Buddhist belief beginning from at least Faxian and Xuanzang's time (i.e. 4th - 5th century CE and 7th century CE); and therefore Avalokiteśvara's presence in the Heart Sutra is quite natural.[49] In the long version of the Heart Sutra, Buddha, Avalokiteśvara and Sariputra are present and it is through the power of Buddha that Sariputra asks Avalokiteśvara for advice on the practice of the Perfection of Wisdom.[50] Avalokiteśvara is also present as the speaker in one other prajñāpāramitā sutra.[51][52][53] Lopez allows for the possibility that earlier Sanskrit commentaries of the Heart Sutra before the 8th century existed but were later lost.[54] Furthermore Li states that of the Indic Palm-leaf manuscript (patra sutras) or sastras brought over to China, most were either lost or not translated.[55] Red Pine, a practicing American Buddhist, for example, favours the idea of a lost manuscript of the Large Perfection of Wisdom Sutra (Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra) with the alternate Sanskrit wording, allowing for an original Indian composition.[56] The original Sanskrit manuscript from which Xuanzang translated the Heart Sutra may still be extant and located at the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda.[57][58]

Critical editions[edit]

There have been several critical editions of the Sanskrit text of the Heart Sūtra, including Müller (1881) and Vaidya (1961).[59] To date, the definitive Sanskrit edition is Conze's, [60]originally published in 1948, reprinted in 1967 and revised in 1973. Conze had access to 12 Nepalese manuscripts; seven manuscripts and inscriptions from China; two manuscripts from Japan; as well as several translations from the Chinese Canon and one from the Tibetan.[61] There is a great deal of variation across the manuscripts in the title, the maṅgala verses, and within the text itself. Many of the manuscripts are corrupt or simply carelessly copied.

Jonathan Silk (1994) produced a critical edition of the Tibetan Kanjur version.[62] The Kanjur only contains the long text, in two recensions, however a number of short texts in Tibetan were found at Dunhuang. Several studies have been published in Chinese and Japanese.[63]

There is no published critical edition of the Chinese versions.

Text[edit]

Title[edit]

The title of the Heart Sutra varies depending on place and time. However with the exception of the no longer extant Zhi Qian’s translation into Chinese, for which we only know the title (which when back-translated into Sanskrit is ‘’Mahāprajñāpāramitā-dhāraṇī-sūtra’’) and Kumarajiva’s translation into Chinese which when back-translated into Sanskrit is ‘’Mahāprajñāpāramitā–mahāvidyā-sūtra’’, the rest of the extant Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan and other language manuscripts' titles all include the words “hṛdaya” usually translated as “heart” and “prajñāpāramitā” usually translated as “perfection of wisdom”. None of the extant Sanskrit versions have the word “sūtra” in their titles.[64] Examples of Sanskrit titles include: 1. āryaprajñāpāramitāhṛdayaṃ 2. ārya-pañcaviṃśatikā-prajñāpāramitā-hṛdaya nāma dhāraṇī both used in the 18th- 19th century Nepalese Sanskrit manuscripts used by Conze in his 1948 study and 3. prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya used by the Hōryū-ji Temple Sanskrit text dated by the Tokyo National Museum to the 7th – 8th century CE and also a Tibetan version’s Sanskrit title.[65][66] 4. bhagavatīprajñāpāramitāhṛdaya is another Tibetan version’s Sanskrit title.

In the Tibetan text the title is given first in Sanskrit and then in Tibetan: Sanskrit: भगवतीप्रज्ञापारमिताहृदय (Bhagavatīprajñāpāramitāhṛdaya), Tibetan: བཅོམ་ལྡན་འདས་མ་ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པའི་སྙིང་པོWylie: bcom ldan 'das ma shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i snying po

In other languages, the commonly used title is an abbreviation of Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayasūtraṃ : i.e. The Prajñāhṛdaya Sūtra. They are as follows: e.g. Korean: Banya Shimgyeong (반야심경 / 般若心經); Japanese: Hannya Shingyō (はんにゃしんぎょう / 般若心経); Vietnamese:Bát-nhã tâm kinh (chữ Nho: 般若心經).

Sanskrit manuscript of the Heart Sūtra, written in the Siddhaṃ script. Bibliothèque nationale de France

Content[edit]

Various commentators divide this text into different numbers of sections. In the long version, we have the traditional opening "Thus have I heard" and Buddha along with a community of bodhisattvas and monks gathered with Avalokiteśvara and Sariputra at Gridhakuta (a mountain peak located at Rajgir, the traditional site where all the Perfection of Wisdom teachings were given) , when through the power of Buddha, Sariputra asks Avalokiteśvara for advice on the practice of the Perfection of Wisdom. The sutra then describes the experience of liberation of the bodhisattva of compassion, Avalokiteśvara, as a result of vipassanā gained while engaged in deep meditation to awaken the faculty of prajña (wisdom). The insight refers to apprehension of the fundamental emptiness (śūnyatā) of all phenomena, known through and as the five aggregates of human existence (skandhas): form (rūpa), feeling (vedanā), volitions (saṅkhāra), perceptions (saṃjñā), and consciousness (vijñāna).

The specific sequence of concepts listed in lines 12-20 ("...in emptiness there is no form, no sensation, ... no attainment and no non-attainment") is the same sequence used in the Sarvastivadin Samyukta Agama; this sequence differs in comparable texts of other sects. On this basis, Red Pine has argued that the Heart Sūtra is specifically a response to Sarvastivada teachings that, in the sense "phenomena" or its constituents, are real.[67] Lines 12-13 enumerate the five skandhas. Lines 14-15 list the twelve ayatanas or abodes.[68] Line 16 makes a reference to the eighteen dhatus or elements of consciousness, using a conventional shorthand of naming only the first (eye) and last (conceptual consciousness) of the elements.[69] Lines 17-18 assert the emptiness of the Twelve Nidānas, the traditional twelve links of dependent origination.[70] Line 19 refers to the Four Noble Truths.

Avalokiteśvara addresses Śariputra, who was the promulgator of abhidharma according to the scriptures and texts of the Sarvastivada and other early Buddhist schools, having been singled out by the Buddha to receive those teachings.[71] Avalokiteśvara famously states, "Form is empty (śūnyatā). Emptiness is form", and declares the other skandhas to be equally empty – that is, dependently originated. Avalokiteśvara then goes through some of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings such as the Four Noble Truths and explains that in emptiness none of these notions apply. This is interpreted according to the two truths doctrine as saying that teachings, while accurate descriptions of conventional truth, are mere statements about reality – they are not reality itself – and that they are therefore not applicable to the ultimate truth that is by definition beyond mental understanding. Thus the bodhisattva, as the archetypal Mahayana Buddhist, relies on the perfection of wisdom, defined in the Mahāprajñāpāramitā Sūtra to be the wisdom that perceives reality directly without conceptual attachment thereby achieving nirvana. All Buddhas of the three ages (past, present and future) rely on the Perfection of Wisdom to reach unexcelled complete Enlightenment. The Perfection of Wisdom is the all powerful Mantra, the great enlightening mantra, the unexcelled mantra, the unequalled mantra, able to dispel all suffering. This is true and not false.[72] The Perfection of Wisdom is then condensed in the mantra with which the sutra concludes: Gate Gate Pāragate Pārasamgate Bodhi Svāhā. In the long version, Buddha praises Avalokiteśvara for giving the exposition of the Perfection of Wisdom and all gathered rejoice in its teaching. Many schools traditionally have also praised the sutra by uttering three times the equivalent of "Mahāprajñāpāramitā" after the end of the recitation of the short version.[73]

Mantra[edit]

The Heart Sūtra mantra in different languages:

  • Sanskrit IAST: gate gate pāragate pārasaṃgate bodhi svāhā, Devanagari: गते गते पारगते पारसंगते बोधि स्वाहा, IPA: ɡəteː ɡəteː paːɾəɡəteː paːɾəsəŋɡəte boːdʱɪ sʋaːɦaː

This was transliterated by other Mahayana Buddhist traditions in China and Tibet, and then spread to other regions such as Korea, Vietnam, and Japan. Classical transliterations of the mantra include:

  • Chinese: 揭谛揭谛,波罗揭谛,波罗僧揭谛,菩提萨婆诃 / 揭諦揭諦,波羅揭諦,波羅僧揭諦,菩提薩婆訶; pinyin: Jiēdì, jiēdì, bōluó jiēdì, bōluósēng jiēdì, pútí suōpóhē; Japanese: 羯諦羯諦、波羅羯諦、波羅僧羯諦、菩提薩婆訶; rōmaji: Gyatei gyatei haragyatei harasōgyatei boji sowaka; Korean: 아제 아제 바라아제 바라승아제 모지 사바하; romaja: Aje aje bara-aje baraseung-aje moji sabaha; Vietnamese: Yết đế, yết đế, Ba la yết đế, Ba la tăng yết đế, Bồ đề tát bà ha
  • Tibetan: ག༌ཏེ༌ག༌ཏེ༌པཱ༌ར༌ག༌ཏེ༌པཱ༌ར༌སཾ༌ག༌ཏེ༌བོ༌དྷི༌སྭཱ༌ཧཱ། (gate gate paragate parasangate bodi soha)

Exegesis[edit]

Two commentaries of the Heart Sutra were composed by pupils of 玄奘 Xuánzàng, 원측 (圓測) [Woncheuk] and 窺基 [Kuījī], in the late 7th or early 8th century. These appear to be the earliest extant commentaries on the text. Both been translated into English (Hyun Choo 2006; Shih & Lusthaus 2006). They approach the text as a Yogācāra document.

The chief Tang Dynasty commentaries have all now been translated into English.

Chinese Title English Title Taisho Tripitaka No.[74] Author
《般若波羅蜜多心經幽贊》 ( 2 卷)[5] Comprehensive Commentary on the Prañāpāramitā Heart Sutra[6] T1710 【唐 窺基撰】 [Tang Dynasty. Kuījī 窺基]
《般若波羅蜜多心經 贊》 ( 1 卷) [7] Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sutra Commentary[75] T1711 【唐 圓測撰】[Tang Dynasty. Woncheuk 원측 / 圓測 (pinyin :Yuáncè) ]
《般若波羅蜜多心經 略疏》 ( 1 卷) [8] Brief Commentary on the Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sutra[76] T1712 【唐 法藏述】 [Tang Dynasty. Fǎzáng 法藏]
《般若心經疏》( 1 卷) [9] A Commentary on the Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sutra M522 【唐·靖邁撰】[Tang Dynasty. Jìngmài 靖邁]
《般若心経秘鍵》( 1 卷) [10] Secret Key to the Heart Sutra T2203A 【平安·空海】[Heian. Kūkai 空海]
《心經直說》( 1 卷) [11] Straightforward Explanation of the Heart Sutra M542 【明·德清撰】[Ming Dynasty. Déqīng 德清]
《心經說》( 29 卷) (參11 卷)[12] Explanation of the Heart Sutra M1452 (Scroll 11) 【明·紫柏撰】[Ming Dynasty. Zǐbǎi 紫柏]
《心經釋要》( 1 卷) [13] Explanation of the Keypoints to the Heart Sutra M555 【明·蕅益智旭撰】[Ming Dynasty. Jiùyì zhìxù 蕅益智旭]
《般若心経毒語》[77] Zen Words for the Heart[78] ? 【德川 白隠慧鶴】[Tokugawa. Hakuin Ekaku 白隠慧鶴]

Eight Indian commentaries survive in Tibetan translation and have been the subject of two books by Donald Lopez.[79] These typically treat the text either from a Madhyamaka point of view, or as a tantra. The Eight Indian Commentaries are:

Sanskrit Title English Title Peking Tripitaka No.[80][81] Author
Āryaprajñāpāramitāhṛdayaṭīkā Vast Explanation of the Noble Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom No. 5217 Vimalamitra (f. ca. 797 CE -810 CE)
Prajñāhṛdayaṭīkā Atīśa's Explanation of the Heart Sutra No. 5222 Atīśa (982 CE - 1045 CE)
Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayamaṭīkā Commentary on the 'Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom No. 5221 Kamalaśīla (740 CE - 795 CE)
Mantravivṛtaprajñāhṛdayavṛtti Commentary on the Heart Sutra as Mantra No. 5840 Śrīsiṃha (probably 8th - 9th century CE)[82]
Āryaprajñāpāramitāhṛdayavyākhyā Explanation of the Noble Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom No. 5218 Jñānamitra
Āryaprajñāpāramitāhṛdayaṭīkā Vast Commentary on the Noble Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom No. 5220 Praśāstrasena
Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayārthamaparijñāna Complete Understanding of the Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom No. 5223 Śrī Mahājana
Bhagavatīprajñāpāramitāhṛdayathapradīpanāmaṭīkā Commentary on the Bhagavati Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom Sutra, Lamp of the Meaning No. 5219 Vajrāpaṇi

Other notable traditional commentaries include those by Kūkai (9th Century, Japan) who treats the text as a tantra.,[83] and Hakuin[84]

The text has become increasingly popular amongst exegetes as a growing number of translations and commentaries attest. The Heart Sutra was already popular in Chan and Zen Buddhism, but has become a staple for Tibetan Lamas as well.

Translations[edit]

The first English translation was presented to the Royal Asiatic Society in 1863 by Samuel Beal. He used a Chinese text corresponding to T251 and a 9th Century commentary by "Tai Teen" [ca. 815 CE], "republished in 1850 by a scholar (Tau jin), named Woo Tsing Tseu".[85] In 1881 Max Müller published a Sanskrit text based on the Hōryū-ji manuscript along an English translation.[86]

The Heart Sutra has been translated into modern languages very often.

Selected English Translations[edit]

There are more than 40 published English translations of the Heart Sutra from Sanskrit, Chinese, and Tibetan, beginning with Beal (1865). Almost every year new translations and commentaries are published. The following is a representative sample.

Author Title Publisher Notes Year ISBN
Geshe Rabten Echoes of Voidness Wisdom Includes the Heart Sutra with Tibetan commentary 1983 ISBN 0-86171-010-X
Donald S. Lopez, Jr. The Heart Sutra Explained SUNY The Heart Sutra with a summary of Indian commentaries 1987 ISBN 0-88706-590-2
Thich Nhat Hanh The Heart of Understanding

"Translation amended 2014". Retrieved 2017-02-26. 

Parallax Press The Heart Sutra with a Vietnamese Thiền commentary 1988 ISBN 0-938077-11-2
Norman Waddell Zen Words for the Heart: Hakuin's Commentary on the Heart Sutra Shambhala Publications Hakuin Ekaku's commentary on Heart Sutra 1996 ISBN 9781570621659
Donald S. Lopez, Jr. Elaborations on Emptiness Princeton The Heart Sutra with eight complete Indian and Tibetan commentaries 1998 ISBN 0-691-00188-X
Edward Conze Buddhist Wisdom: The Diamond Sutra and The Heart Sutra Random House The Diamond Sutra and The Heart Sutra, along with commentaries on the texts and practices of Buddhism 2001 ISBN 978-0375726002
Chan Master Sheng Yen There Is No Suffering: A Commentary on the Heart Sutra Dharma Drum Publications Heart Sutra with Modern Commentary on Heart Sutra from Major Chan Master From Taiwan China 2001 ISBN 1-55643-385-9
Tetsugen Bernard Glassman Infinite Circle: Teachings in Zen Shambhala Publications Translations and commentaries of The Heart Sutra and The Identity of Relative and Absolute as well as Zen precepts 2003 ISBN 9781590300794
Geshe Sonam Rinchen Heart Sutra: An Oral Commentary Snow Lion Concise translation and commentary from a Tibetan Buddhist perspective 2003 ISBN 9781559392013
Red Pine The Heart Sutra: the Womb of Buddhas Counterpoint Heart Sutra with commentary 2004 ISBN 978-1593760090
14th Dalai Lama Essence of the Heart Sutra Wisdom Publications Heart Sutra with commentary by the 14th Dalai Lama 2005 ISBN 978-0-86171-284-7
Geshe Tashi Tsering Emptiness: The Foundation of Buddhist Thought Wisdom Publications A guide to the topic of emptiness from a Tibetan Buddhist perspective, with English translation of the Heart Sutra 2009 ISBN 978-0-86171-511-4
Karl Brunnholzl The Heart Attack Sutra: A New Commentary on the Heart Sutra Shambhala Publications Modern commentary 2012 ISBN 9781559393911
Doosun Yoo Thunderous Silence: A Formula For Ending Suffering: A Practical Guide to the Heart Sutra Wisdom Publications English translation of the Heart Sutra with Korean Seon commentary 2013 ISBN 978-1614290537
Kazuaki Tanahashi The Heart Sutra: A Comprehensive Guide to the Classic of Mahayana Buddhism Shambhala Publications English translation of the Heart Sutra with history and commentary 2015 ISBN 978-1611800968

Recordings[edit]

Japanese recitation

The Heart Sūtra has been set to music a number of times.[87] Many singers solo this sutra.[88] The Buddhist Audio Visual Production Centre (佛教視聽製作中心) produced a Cantonese album of recordings of the Heart Sūtra in 1995 featuring a number of Hong Kong pop singers, including Alan Tam, Anita Mui and Faye Wong and composer by Andrew Lam Man Chung (林敏聰) to raise money to rebuild the Chi Lin Nunnery.[89] Other Hong Kong pop singers, such as the Four Heavenly Kings sang the Heart Sūtra to raise money for relief efforts related to the 921 earthquake.[90] An alternative Mandarin version was performed by Faye Wong in 2009 at the Famen Temple[91] and its recording subsequently used as a theme song in the blockbusters Aftershock (2010)[92][93] and Xuanzang (2016).[94] Shaolin Monk Shifu Shi Yan Ming also recites the Sutra at the end of the song "Life Changes" by the Wu-Tang Clan, in remembrance of the deceased member ODB. The outro of the b-side song Ghetto Defendant by the British first wave punk band The Clash also features the Heart Sūtra, recited by American beat poet Allen Ginsberg. A slightly edited version is used as the lyrics for Yoshimitsu's theme in the PlayStation 2 game Tekken Tag Tournament. An Indian styled version was also created by Bombay Jayashri title named - Ji Project. It was also recorded and arranged by Malaysian singer/composer Imee Ooi. An Esperanto translation of portions of the text furnished the libretto of the cantata La Koro Sutro by American composer Lou Harrison.[95]

Popular culture[edit]

In the centuries following the historical Xuanzang, an extended tradition of literature fictionalizing the life of Xuanzang and glorifying his special relationship with the Heart Sūtra arose, of particular note being the Journey to the West[96] (16th century/Ming dynasty). In chapter nineteen of Journey to the West, the fictitious Xuanzang learns by heart the Heart Sūtra after hearing it recited one time by the Crow's Nest Zen Master, who flies down from his tree perch with a scroll containing it, and offers to impart it. A full text of the Heart Sūtra is quoted in this fictional account. The mantra of the Heart Sūtra was used as the lyrics for the opening theme song of the 2011 Chinese television series Journey to the West. In episode 4 of Haganai Next, Yukimura chants this while on a roller coaster.

Use of Heart Sutra Amongst Non-Buddhist Schools[edit]

Influence on Philosophy[edit]

Schopenhauer, in the final words of his main work, compared his doctrine to the Śūnyatā of the Heart Sūtra. In Volume 1, § 71 of The World as Will and Representation, Schopenhauer wrote: "…to those in whom the will [to continue living] has turned and has denied itself, this very real world of ours, with all its suns and Milky Ways, is — nothing."[97] To this, he appended the following note: "This is also the Prajna–Paramita of the Buddhists, the 'beyond all knowledge,' in other words, the point where subject and object no longer exist."[98]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Calligraphy: Ancient India and Japanese Sutras, Textiles: Banner and Banner legs – The Gallery of Hōryū-ji Treasure". Tokyo National Museum. Retrieved 2017-11-03. Calligraphy: Heart Sutra and Usnisa Vijaya Dharani Sutra in Sanskrit, Late Gupta dynasty, 7th–8th century (Important Cultural Property) 
  2. ^ Yifa 2006, pg. 9
  3. ^ Lopez 1996 pg. 239
  4. ^ Minghua(Upasaka) (明華居士) (2015-05-20). "Xīn jīng jiǎn jiè" 心經簡介. 學佛網 (tr to English: Learning Buddhism Web). 在藏傳的經論中經常提到:“佛說八萬四千法門中,般若法門最為殊勝。” (tr. into English : It is often mentioned in the Tibetan Kangyur and Tengyur "Among the eighty four thousand Dharma Teachings taught by the Buddha, the Prajñāpāramitā Dharma Teaching is the most excellent." 
  5. ^ Lopez 1988, pg. 4
  6. ^ Ven. Yifa et. al.’s translation is an example of a translation from the Chinese version of the Heart Sutra.
  7. ^ Conze 1974 has both versions of the Heart Sutra translated from Sanskrit into English.
  8. ^ Gelong Thubten Tsultrim’s (or George Churinoff) translation is an example of a translation from the Tibetan version of the Heart Sutra.
  9. ^ "Dào xíng bo re jīng" 道行般若經 [Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā or Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 8,000 lines] (PDF). College of Liberal Arts, National Taiwan University – Digital Library and Museum of Buddhist Studies. Taisho 224 (in Chinese). p. 75. 阿難。般若波羅蜜是怛薩阿竭呵羅訶三耶三佛母。 (tr. to English: Ananda, The Perfection of Wisdom is the mother of Tathagatas, Arahants and Samyaksam-Buddhas) 
  10. ^ "Xīn jīng gài lùn" 心經槩論 [Commentarial Survey of the Heart Sūtra]. CBETA 漢文大藏經 (tr. to English: CBETA (Chinese Buddhist Electronic Tripitaka Association) Chinese Buddhist Tripitaka). Manjizoku 545 (in Chinese). p. 1. 三世諸佛之母也。(tr. to English: (The Perfection of Wisdom) is the mother of Buddhas of the three ages (ie. Past, Present and Future).) 
  11. ^ Conze 1948, pp 33-37
  12. ^ a b c Nattier 1992
  13. ^ Silk 1994
  14. ^ "Bo re bō luó mì duō xīn jīng" 般若波羅蜜多心經 [Prajñāpāramitā-hṛdaya-sūtra or Heart Sutra]. CBETA 漢文大藏經 (tr. to English: CBETA (Chinese Buddhist Electronic Tripitaka Association) Chinese Buddhist Tripitaka). Taisho Tripitaka 251 (in Chinese). Translated by Xuanzang. 
  15. ^ Conze 1948, pg 3
  16. ^ Heart of Wisdom: An Explanation of the Heart Sutra, Tharpa Publications (4th. ed., 2001), page 2, ISBN 978-0-948006-77-7
  17. ^ Conze 1960
  18. ^ Lopez 1988, pg. 5
  19. ^ There are two major differences between the way Xuanzang’s Heart Sutra is chanted and Taisho 251.
    The first set of differences concerns the different transliteration of the mantra.
    The Sanskrit mantra Gate Gate Pāragate Pārasaṃgate Bodhi Svāhā is transliterated in Taisho 251 as 揭諦 揭諦 般羅揭諦 般羅僧揭諦 菩提僧莎訶.
    The mantra in Taisho 251 comes from Tripitaka Koreana 50; however Taisho 251 notes in a footnote transliteration variants :
    1. 般羅揭諦 has transliterated variant of 波羅揭諦
    2.般羅僧揭諦 has transliterated variant of 波羅僧揭諦
    3.菩提僧莎訶 has transliterated variant 菩提薩婆訶.
    These transliteration variations matches the mantra as transliterated by the Song Dynasty Tripitaka which was later transmitted to Yuan Dynasty Tripitaka then transmitted to Ming Dynasty Tripitaka then transmitted to the Qing Dynasty Tripitakas and finally to the various Modern Chinese Tripitakas in China, Taiwan and Vietnam. The Taisho 251 variant transliteration of the mantra are used in China, Korea, Vietnam and sometimes also in Japan.
    Within Japan there is an additional mantra transliteration variation where 羯 is used instead of 揭.
    This transliteration variation is from Taisho 2009 which dates from the Tokugawa period (1600-1868); in addition, there is a Dunhuang manuscript from the British Library Or.8210/S.92 c.? To 11th Century CE which uses '羯' instead of '揭'; nevertheless there are also many manuscripts that use ‘揭.’
    The second difference comes from Taisho 251’s phrase “遠離顛倒夢想” which translates as 'escaping [all] upside-down dream-like thinking', where ‘all’ is implied;this phrase is used in China, Korea and Vietnam. In Japan a variant of the phrase which is not footnoted in Taisho 251 is used. The phrase is “ 遠離一切顛倒夢想” which translates as 'escaping all upside-down dream-like thinking', where ‘all’ is explicitly stated.
    The Japanese variant comes from Taisho 2009 which dates from the Tokugawa period (1600-1868); in addition, there is a Nara period manuscript which contains this variant dating to c.755 CE, located in the Smithsonian Museum; nevertheless there are also many other manuscripts, as well as the 672 CE Beilin Museum Heart Sutra Stele, which uses Taisho 251's usage. The minor differences has no effect on the meaning and effectiveness of the Heart Sutra.
  20. ^ 早課 :早课是全寺僧众于每日清晨(约在寅丑之间,凌晨3点到6点之间)齐集大殿,念诵《楞严咒》、《大悲咒》、“十小咒”、《心经》...tr to English from Baike's article on Morning Liturgy (in PRC): The Morning Recitation is chanted on a daily basis by all the Sangha members of the Buddhist temple who gather together from 3 AM to 6 AM to chant the Shurangama Mantra, the Nīlakaṇṭha dhāraṇī, the Ten Small dhāraṇīs and the Heart Sutra...
  21. ^ 佛光山早課 tr into English : A video of part of the Morning Recitation as chanted (in Chinese) by Taiwan's Foguangshan (Buddha's Light Mountain) including the Heart Sutra
  22. ^ Sagely City of Ten Thousand Buddhas Daily Recitation Book
  23. ^ "Hannya shingyō to kaku shūha" 般若心経と各宗派 [The Heart Sutra and The Different Schools]. 写経のススメ! (in Japanese). Retrieved 2017-11-03. English Summary of Contents: The webpage lists the practices of the major schools of Japanese Buddhism re: Heart Sutra. In addition to the above, it also states that Jōdo Shinshū does not use the Heart Sutra. The Jōdo Shinshū Ōtani-ha School also does not use the Heart Sutra. The Nichiren School which relies on the Lotus Sutra does not chant any other sutra besides the Lotus Sutra. 
  24. ^ Lopez 1996, pp. 216-238
  25. ^ Lopez 1996 We can assume, at least, that the sutra was widely known during the Pala period (c. 750-1155 in Bengal and c. 750-1199 in Bihar). pg. 239
  26. ^ Lopez 1996, pp 18=20 cf footnote 8 : “…it suggests that the Heart Sutra was recited at Vikramalaśīla (or Vikramashila)(located in today's Bihar, India) and Atisa (982 CE - 1054 CE) appears to be correcting his pronunciation from ‘’ha rūpa ha vedanā’’ to ‘’a rūpa a vedanā’’ to, finally, the more familiar ‘’na rūpa na vedanā’’, saying that because it is the speech of Avalokita, there is nothing wrong to saying ‘’na’’.”
  27. ^ Nattier 1992, pp. 179-80
  28. ^ Tanahashi, p.81.
  29. ^ Gao you (2016-09-27). "Fáng shān shí jīng 《 xīn jīng 》 kān kè yán jiū chéng guǒ fā bù bèi rèn wéi shì xiàn cún zuì zǎo bǎn běn , wéi xuán zàng suǒ yì" 房山石经 《心经》 刊刻研究成果发布 被认为是现存最早版本,为玄奘所译 [Fangshan’s Stone Sutra's "Heart Sutra" : Announcement of Results of Research into Engraved Stone Stele - Presumed to be Earliest Extant Copy - Translated by Xuanzang]. 国家文物局 State Administration of Cultural Heritage (in Chinese). Retrieved 2017-10-24. 而房山石经中唐高宗显庆六年 (661年) 镌刻的 《心经》 是现存最早的版本, 镌刻时玄奘尚在世, 三年以后才圆寂。 这部石经明确题署: “三藏法师玄奘奉诏译”,而且造经功德主来自邻近长安的栎阳县, 距离玄奘当时所在的大慈恩寺不远。同时, 唐高宗总章二年(669 年)镌刻的《心经》, 同样题署“三藏法师玄奘奉诏译”。 此外, 西安碑林收藏的咸亨三年(672 年)弘福寺沙门怀仁集王羲之书《大唐三藏圣教序》 后面的 《心经》, 也题署“玄奘奉诏译”。 由此可以确证: 玄奘翻译了 《心经》, 而且是“奉”唐太宗的“诏”命翻译的。 (tr. to English: …amongst Fangshan Stone Sutra Steles, the engraved stone stele of the Heart Sutra dated to 661 CE is the earliest extant copy of (Xuanzang’s 649 translation of) the Heart Sutra, made while Xuanzang was still alive, as he passed away three years after the engraving. This stone sutra stele explicitly states in its colophon : “Tripitaka Master Xuanzang was ordered to translate”;moreover the merits for engraving the stele came mainly from Yueyang County nearby Chang’an (today’s Xian), which is very close to Daci’en Monastery where Xuanzang was translating sutras at the time. Also there is another engraved stone stele of the Heart Sutra located at Fangshan dated to 669 CE which also has the same colophon inscription i.e. “Tripitaka Master was ordered to translate”. In addition we have the Hongfu Temple’s (another temple where Tripitaka Master Xuanzang translated sutras) Master Huairen’s “Foreword of the Holy Teaching of the Tripitaka of the Great Tang” (written by Emperor Tang Taizong reign 626 CE - 649 CE) and on the reverse the “Heart Sutra” (both) written in Wang Xizhi’s collected calligraphy dated to 672 CE now kept in Xian's Stele Forest which is also inscribed with “Xuanzang was ordered to translate”. Therefore these examples certified that Xuanzang did indeed translate the Heart Sutra and furthermore was ordered to do so by Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty.) 
  30. ^ Nattier 1992, pp 208-209 n.39
  31. ^ "Calligraphy: Ancient India and Japanese Sutras, Textiles: Banner and Banner legs – The Gallery of Hōryū-ji Treasure". Tokyo National Museum. Retrieved 2017-11-03. Calligraphy: Heart Sutra and Usnisa Vijaya Dharani Sutra in Sanskrit, Late Gupta dynasty, 7th–8th century (Important Cultural Property) 
  32. ^ Nattier 1992, p 183.
  33. ^ Conze 1967, p. 154 cf footnote 2.
  34. ^ Nattier 1992, pp. 186-7.
  35. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 8
  36. ^ Fukui 1987
  37. ^ Conze 1967, p. 166 "We have been able to trace roughly nine-tenths of the Hrdaya to the longer Prajnaparamita Sutras."
  38. ^ Conze 1967, cf pp 157-165 for sections of the text and corresponding attributions.
  39. ^ Nattier (1992), pp 186-7.
  40. ^ Nattier 1992, pp. 159, 167
  41. ^ Nattier 1992, pg. 156
  42. ^ Nattier 1992, pg. 173
  43. ^ Nattier 1992, pp. 173-4
  44. ^ Harada 2017 Talk:Heart Sutra#Harada
  45. ^ Harada 2002, pp.17-62
  46. ^ Harada 2010
  47. ^ Fukui 1987
  48. ^ Harada Waso (原田和宗). Hannya shingyō no seiritsu shiron 般若心経成立史論 [History of the Establishment of Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayasūtraṃ] (in Japanese). p. 73. 『八千頌般若』では部派仏教の伝統に抵触しない世尊、大比丘眾(特にスブーテイ、シャーリプトラ、アーナンダ等)、弥勒、天部といった登場人物たちによって過激を<般若波羅蜜多>思想が討義されている。(English tr to follow) 
  49. ^ Harada Waso (原田和宗). Hannya shingyō no seiritsu shiron 般若心経成立史論 [History of the Establishment of Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayasūtraṃ] (in Japanese). pp. 77–78. いずれにしても『陀羅尼集経』卷第一「釈迦仏頂三昧陀羅尼品」では<仏頂尊>信仰を核とする<般若波羅蜜多(般若菩薩)>信仰と<観音菩薩>信仰との併合が看取されるのは事実である。このこと、4‐5世紀のインドの大乗仏教徒たちが「般若波羅蜜」や「観世音菩薩」などを一緒に信仰し供養していた事実を伝える法顕による目擊談とも一致する。 (English tr to follow) 
  50. ^ Lopez 1988, p 19.
  51. ^ Lopez 1988, p 188 cf footnote 14 “Avalokiteśvara also appears in the tantric Prajñāpāramitā text, the Svalpākṣarā prajñāpāramitāsūtra .”
  52. ^ "Fó shuō shèng fó mǔ xiǎo zì bo re bō luó mì duō jīng" 佛說聖佛母小字般若波羅蜜多經 [Svalpākṣarā prajñāpāramitāsūtra] (PDF). College of Liberal Arts, National Taiwan University – Digital Library and Museum of Buddhist Studies. Taisho 258 (in Chinese). Translated by Tian Xizai (天息災). 982. 
  53. ^ Conze 1974, pp. 144-147. The Perfection of Wisdom in a Few Words (also known as Svalpākṣarā prajñāpāramitāsūtra).
  54. ^ Lopez 1988, p 12 “The absence of Indian commentaries from an earlier period could simply be ascribed to the loss of the sastras to the familiar elements of monsoon water and Muslim fire;it could be speculated that many early ‘’Heart Sutra’’ commentaries are simply no longer in existence.“
  55. ^ Li Xuezhu (李学竹). "Zhōng guó zàng xué - Zhōng guó fàn wén bèi yè gài kuàng" 中国藏学-中国梵文贝叶概况 [China Tibet Studies-The State of Sanskrit Language Palm Leaf Manuscripts in China]. Baidu文库 (Website tr. to English: Baidu Library) (in Chinese). p. 54. Retrieved 2017-11-10. 在现存的汉文大藏经中,将近1500部6000卷佛教典籍译的梵文贝叶经,如果包括译后失专或未翻译的经典内,传到汉地的梵文贝叶经至少在5000部以上。(tr. to English: In the currently extant Chinese Tripitakas, there are close to 1500 sections of 6000 scrolls worth of Sanskrit patra sutras translated into Chinese. If we include the translations that are no longer extant and the sutras and sastras that were never translated, the Indic patra sutras and śāstras that arrived in China would be at the very least over 5000 sections of patra sutras / śāstras.) 
  56. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 25
  57. ^ Li Xuezhu (李学竹). "Zhōng guó zàng xué - Zhōng guó fàn wén bèi yè gài kuàng" 中国藏学-中国梵文贝叶概况 [China Tibet Studies-The State of Sanskrit Language Palm Leaf Manuscripts in China]. Baidu文库 (Website tr. to English: Baidu Library) (in Chinese). p. 55. Retrieved 2017-11-10. 所以有人猜想玄奘大师所取回的贝叶经可能就藏在大雁塔的地宫。(tr. to English: Therefore there are people (scholars) who conjecture that the (657) patra sutras Xuanzang brought back may be stored in an underground chamber of the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda.) 
  58. ^ Gěng cōng (耿聪) (2008-05-12). "Zhuān jiā : Xuánzàng dài huí de zhēn bǎo kě néng zàng yú Xī ān Dà yàn tǎ xià" 专家:玄奘带回的珍宝可能藏于西安大雁塔下 [Experts : Treasures Brought Back by Xuanzang Possibly Stored Underneath the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda]. 人民网图片 (Website tr. to English: people.cn) (in Chinese). Retrieved 2017-11-28. 陕西)省社科院宗教研究所所长王亚荣日前介绍,和法门寺宝塔下有地宫一样,大雁塔下也藏有千年地宫。据推测,玄奘自印度取经归来后,所带回的珍宝有很多藏在大雁塔下的地宫里。...对于大雁塔有地宫一说,...解守涛介绍,去年,相关部门对大雁塔的内部结构进行探测时,探地雷达曾经探测出大雁塔地下有空洞...(tr. to English: (Shaanxi Province) Academy of Social Science Head of Religious Research Wang Yarong yesterday briefed underneath the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda is an underground chamber over 1000 years old just like the one underneath Famen Temple’s True Relic Pagoda. Based on her hypothesis, Xuanzang after returning from India, stored many of the treasures he brought back in the underground chamber of the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda....Regarding the hypothesis on the underground chamber in the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Jie Shoutao mentioned last year, the relevant departments while investigating the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda using radar detected a hollow area underneath the pagoda...) 
  59. ^ Vaidya, P.L (1961) Mahāyāna-sūtra-saṃgrahaḥ ( part 1). The Mithila Institute of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Sanskrit Learning.
  60. ^ Attwood (2015) cf Attwood for critique of Conze's edition.
  61. ^ Conze 1948: 49-50; 1967: 154
  62. ^ Silk, Jonathan A. (1994) The Heart Sūtra in Tibetan: a Critical Edition of the Two Recensions Contained in the Kanjur. Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien, Universität Wien.
  63. ^ Zwalf, W. (1985). Buddhism, Art and Faith. p. 61, 64. London: British Museum. Also International Dunhuang Project. (Record has no date).
  64. ^ Many of the prajñāpāramitā division sutras do not have the word "sutra" in the Sanskrit titles including Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā, Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā and Śatasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā, etc., Other divisions of the sutra section also lack the word "sutra" in their Sanskrit titles. The Heart Sutra is not unique in this respect. (cf. since this website doesn't allow direct linking - select sutra/prajñāpāramitā to look at catalog titles [1]) and cf [2]
  65. ^ cf. Tibetan titles of prajñāpāramitā division of Kangyur- exp. The Essence of the Perfection of Wisdom (Heart Sutra): since this website doesn't allow direct linking - select sutra/prajñāpāramitā to look at catalog titles [3]
  66. ^ But we have the following exception: Harada Waso (原田和宗). Hannya shingyō no seiritsu shiron 般若心経成立史論 [History of the Establishment of Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayasūtraṃ] (in Japanese). p. 26. 最も名高い空海 『般若心経秘鍵』 の科文は以下のとうり。 仏說摩訶般若波羅蜜多心経 (空海による還梵提号: buddhā-bhasa-mahā-prajñāpāramitā-hṛdayasūtraṃ.) (tr to English: The most famous Kūkai in his (commentary on the Heart Sutra written in 818 CE Taisho 2203A) called "Secret Key to the Heart Sutra" (original located at the SAT Daizōkyō Text Database: [4])states The Buddha Speaks the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra (the title Kūkai uses to translate back into Sanskrit is : buddhā-bhasa-mahā-prajñapāramitā-hṛdayasūtraṃ.)) cf Footnote 1 
  67. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 9
  68. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 100
  69. ^ Pine 2004, pp. 105-6
  70. ^ Pine 2004, pg. 109
  71. ^ Pine 2004, pp. 11-12, 15
  72. ^ Yifa (Venerable), Owens, M.C., Romaskiewicz, P.M. (2005). Prajnaparamita Heart Sutra (PDF). p. 7. 
  73. ^ BTTS 2013, p 46. cf bottom of page.
  74. ^ If listing starts with 'T' and followed by number then it can be found in the Taisho Tripitaka; if listing starts with 'M' and followed by number then it can be found in the Manjizoku Tripitaka; '?' indicates either not found or unable to find in Tripitaka
  75. ^ Translated in Hyun Choo, B. (2006) An English Translation of the Banya paramilda simgyeong chan: Wonch’uk’s Commentary on the Heart Sūtra (Prajñāpāramitā-hṛdaya-sūtra). International Journal of Buddhist Thought & Culture. 6: 121-205.
  76. ^ Minora 1978 (cf references)
  77. ^ It is widely available in Japanese Book Markets.
  78. ^ cf Waddell (2013) in references for English translation.
  79. ^ (Lopez (1988) and Lopez (1996))
  80. ^ von Staël-Holstein, Baron A. (1999). Silk, Jonathan A., ed. "On a Peking Edition of the Tibetan Kanjur Which Seems to be Unknown in the West". Journal of International Association of Buddhist Studies. 22 (1): 216. cf footnote (b)-refers to Ōtani University (大谷大学) copy (ed.) of Peking Tripitaka which according to Sakurabe Bunkyō, was printed in China 1717/1720. 
  81. ^ "Zàng wén dà záng jīng" 藏文大藏經 [The Tibetan Tripitaka]. 全球龍藏館 Universal Sutra of Tibetan Dragon. Retrieved 2017-11-17. 北京版。又名嵩祝寺版。清康熙二十二年(1683)據西藏霞盧寺寫本在北京嵩祝寺刊刻,先刻了甘珠爾。至雍正二年(1724)續刻了丹珠爾。早期印本大部為硃刷,也稱赤字版。版片毀於光緒二十六年庚子之役。(tr. to English: Beijing (Peking Tripitaka) ed., is also known as Sōngzhù Temple ed. In 1683, Beijing's Sōngzhù Temple started carving woodblocks for the Kangyur based on manuscripts from Tibet's Xiálú Temple. It continued to carved woodblocks of the Tengyur in 1724. The early impressions were printed in vermillion ink and are also known as the 'Vermillion Text Edition.' The woodblocks were destroyed in 1900 during the Boxer Rebellion.) 
  82. ^ "Vairotsana".  One of his students was Vairotsana who f. 8th-9th century CE)
  83. ^ Hakeda (1972)
  84. ^ Waddell 1996
  85. ^ Beal (1865: 25-28)
  86. ^ Müller (1881)
  87. ^ DharmaSound (in web.archive.org): Sūtra do Coração in various languages (mp3)
  88. ^ 心经试听下载, 佛教音乐专辑心经 - 一听音乐网
  89. ^ "佛學多媒體資料庫". Buda.idv.tw. Retrieved 2013-03-16. 
  90. ^ "經典讀誦心經香港群星合唱迴向1999年, 台灣921大地震". Youtube.com. 2012-08-10. Retrieved 2013-03-16. 
  91. ^ Faye Wong sings at Buddhist Event
  92. ^ 《大地震》片尾曲引爭議 王菲尚雯婕誰是主題曲
  93. ^ 般若波罗密多心经
  94. ^ 黄晓明《大唐玄奘》MV曝光 王菲版《心经》致敬
  95. ^ "Lou Harrison obituary" (PDF). Esperanto magazine. 2003. Retrieved December 15, 2014.  (text in Esperanto)
  96. ^ Yu, 6
  97. ^ …ist denen, in welchen der Wille sich gewendet und verneint hat, diese unsere so sehr reale Welt mit allen ihren Sonnen und Milchstraßen — Nichts.
  98. ^ Dieses ist eben auch das Pradschna–Paramita der Buddhaisten, das 'Jenseit aller Erkenntniß,' d.h. der Punkt, wo Subjekt und Objekt nicht mehr sind. (Isaak Jakob Schmidt, "Über das Mahâjâna und Pradschnâ-Pâramita der Bauddhen". In: Mémoires de l'Académie impériale des sciences de St. Pétersbourg, VI, 4, 1836, 145-149;].)

References[edit]

  • Attwood, Jayarava (2015). Heart Murmurs: Some Problems with Conze’s Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya. Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies 8, 28-48.
  • Attwood, Jayarava. (2017a). ‘Epithets of the Mantra’ in the Heart Sutra. Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies, 12, 26–57. http://jocbs.org/index.php/jocbs/article/view/155
  • Beal, Samuel. (1865) The Paramita-hridaya Sutra. Or. The Great Paramita Heart Sutra. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No.2 Dec 1865, 25-28
  • BTTS (Buddhist Text Translation Society) (2013). Daily Recitation Handbook : Sagely City of Ten Thousand Buddhas.
  • Bühler, G (1881). 'Palaeographical Remarks on the Horiuzi Palm-Leaf Manuscripts' in Müller (1881), p. 63-95.
  • Buswell, Robert E. (ed). (2003) Encyclopedia of Buddhism MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 0-02-865718-7
  • Conze, Edward (1948). Text, Sources, and Bibliography of the Prajñāpāramitā-hṛdaya. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 80(1-2): 33-51.
  • Conze, Edward. (2000) Prajnaparamita Literature Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers ISBN 81-215-0992-0 (originally published 1960 by Mouton & Co.)
  • Conze, Edward (1967). ‘The Prajñāpāramitā-Hṛdaya Sūtra’ in Thirty Years of Buddhist Studies: Selected Essays, Bruno Cassirer. p. 147-167.
  • Conze, Edward (1974). The Short Prajñāpāramitā Texts. London and Totowa NJ: Luzac and Company, Ltd. and Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 0-87471-192-4
  • Conze, Edward. (1975). Buddhist Wisdom Books: Containing the "Diamond Sutra" and the "Heart Sutra" (New edition). Thorsons. ISBN 0-04-294090-7
  • Fukui Fumimasa 福井 文雅 (1987). Hannya shingyō no rekishiteki kenkyū 般若心経の歴史的研究. 東京: Shunjūsha 春秋社. ISBN 4-393-11128-1 (in Japanese)
  • Gelong Thubten Tsultrim (or George Churinoff) (2008). The Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom FPMT.
  • Hakeda, Y.S. (1972) Kūkai, Major works: Translated and with an account of his life and a study of his thought. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Harada Waso (2002), [14] Bonbun 『komoto hannya shingyō』 wayaku 梵文『小本・般若心経』和訳 [An Annotated Translation of The Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya], Association of Esoteric Buddhist Studies, Vol.2002, No.209, pp. L17-L62 (in Japanese)
  • Harada Waso 原田和宗 (2010). Hannya shingyō no seiritsu shiron 「般若心経」の成立史論」 (title tr into English - History of the Establishment of Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayasūtram). 東京: Daizō-shuppan 大蔵出版. ISBN 9784804305776 (in Japanese)
  • Harada Waso (2017) 'A Partial English Summary of Harada Waso's works on The Heart Sūtra -- courtesy of Pat457'
  • Hyun Choo, B. (2006) 'An English Translation of the Banya paramilda simgyeong chan: Wonch'uk's Commentary on the Heart Sūtra (Prajñāpāramitā-hṛdaya-sūtra)' International Journal of Buddhist Thought & Culture. February 2006, Vol.6, pp. 121–205.
  • Kelsang Gyatso, Geshe (2001). Heart of Wisdom: An Explanation of the Heart Sutra, Tharpa Publications, (4th. ed.). ISBN 978-0-948006-77-7
  • Kimura, Takayasu (2007). Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Vol. I-1, Tokyo: Sankibo Busshorin 2007. online [Input by Klaus Wille, Göttingen, April 2010]. (In Sanskrit)
  • Lopez, Donald S., Jr. (1988). The Heart Sutra Explained: Indian and Tibetan Commentaries. State Univ of New York Pr. ISBN 0-88706-589-9
  • Lopez, Donald S., Jr. (1996). Elaborations on Emptiness: Uses of the Heart Sūtra. New Jersey: Princeton University Press,
  • Luk, Charles (1991). The Secrets of Chinese Meditation, Samuel Weiser. ISBN 978-0-87728-066-8
  • Lusthaus, Dan (2003). The Heart Sūtra in Chinese Yogācāra: Some Comparative Comments on the Heart Sūtra Commentaries of Wŏnch’ŭk and K’uei-chi. International Journal of Buddhist Thought & Culture 3, 59-103.
  • Minghua(Upasaka)(明華居士). 心經簡介(title tr. Into English : A Simplified Introduction to the Heart Sutra). 學佛網 (website title tr. Into English : Learning Buddhism Web). (In Chinese)
  • Minora Kiyota (1978). Mahayana Buddhist Meditation: Theory and Practice Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press. (esp. Cook, Francis H. ‘Fa-tsang’s Brief Commentary on the Prajñāpāramitā-hṛdaya-sūtra.’ pp. 167-206.)
  • Müller, Max (1881). ‘The Ancient Palm Leaves containing the Prajñāpāramitā-Hṛidaya Sūtra and Uṣniṣa-vijaya-Dhāraṇi.’ in Buddhist Texts from Japan (Vol 1.iii). Oxford University Press. Online
  • Nattier, Jan (1992). 'The Heart Sūtra: A Chinese Apocryphal Text?'. Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 15 (2), 153-223.
  • Pine, Red (2004). The Heart Sutra: The Womb of the Buddhas (2004) Shoemaker 7 Hoard. ISBN 1-59376-009-4
  • Shih, Heng-Ching & Lusthaus, Dan (2006). A Comprehensive Commentary on the Heart Sutra (Prajnaparamita-hyrdaya-sutra). Numata Center for Buddhist Translation & Research.
  • Silk, Jonathan A. (1994) The Heart Sūtra in Tibetan: a Critical Edition of the Two Recensions Contained in the Kanjur. Arbeitskreis für Tibetische und Buddhistische Studien, Universität Wien.
  • Tanahashi, Kazuki (2014). The Heart Sutra: A Comprehensive Guide to the Classic of Mahayana Buddhism. Shambala.
  • Waddell, Norman (2013).Zen Words for the Heart. Shambala. (English tr. of Hakuin's Commentary on the Heart Sutra : 般若心経毒語).
  • Wayman, Alex (1990). 'Secret of the Heart Sutra.' in Buddhist insight: essays Motilal Banarsidass., 1990. pp. 307–326. ISBN 81-208-0675-1.
  • Yifa (Ven.) (2005), Owens, M.C., Romaskiewicz, P.M. Prajnaparamita Heart Sutra, Buddha's Light Publishing.
  • Yu, Anthony C. (1980). The Journey to the West. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-97150-6. First published 1977.
  • Zaoke 早課 (article title tr into English - Morning Recitation). [15] (In Chinese)
  • Zaoke2 佛光山早課 (title tr into English : Video of Foguangshan (Buddha's Light Mountain) Morning Recitation including Heart Sutra (warning - also has advertisements) [16](In Chinese)

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Documentary[edit]

Translations[edit]