List of countries by incarceration rate

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A map of incarceration rates by country[1]

This is a list of countries by incarceration rate.[1]

Incarceration totals and rates[edit]

The table source does not list an incarceration rate for the United Kingdom as a whole. In the list see United Kingdom: England & Wales, United Kingdom: Northern Ireland, United Kingdom: Scotland. A rate for the United Kingdom as a whole can be calculated by adding up the prison populations, and then dividing by the combined population of the UK.

For info on North Korea, see notes below. The World Prison Brief (WPB) may or may not incorporate juvenile incarceration numbers into the totals for each country. See the individual WPB country pages for more information.[1]

"Notes" column links to notes section below the chart.
"c." (circa) indicates "approximately". Sorting will not work correctly if it is in front of the number. So it has been removed from Egypt, Honduras, Mauritania, and Namibia prison population numbers.

Main table[edit]

Incarceration populations and rates. From World Prison Brief.[1]




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Country (or dependent territory,
subnational area, etc.)
Incarceration
Rate per
100,000
population
Prison

Population

Notes
 Afghanistan 87 30,748
 Albania 177 5,045
 Algeria 151 63,000
 American Samoa (USA) 345 193
 Andorra 64 49
 Angola 93 24,000
 Anguilla (United Kingdom) 367 55
 Antigua and Barbuda 321 305
 Argentina 230 103,209
 Armenia 76 2,267
 Aruba (Netherlands) 165 170
 Australia 170 43,032 Notes
 Austria 98 8,692
 Azerbaijan 235 23,319
 Bahamas 442 1,778
 Bahrain 234 3,485
 Bangladesh 52 88,211
 Barbados 300 874
 Belarus 343 32,500
 Belgium 95 10,883
 Belize 356 1,297
 Benin 68 7,890
 Bermuda (United Kingdom) 319 209
 Bhutan 145 1,119
 Bolivia 158 18,195
 Bosnia and Herzegovina: Federation 73 1,722
 Bosnia and Herzegovina: Republika Srpska 62 743
 Botswana 208 4,343
 Brazil 348 746,532
 Brunei Darussalam 307 1,365
 Bulgaria 125 9,028
 Burkina Faso 39 7,812
 Burundi 85 10,832
 Cambodia 220 36,600
 Cameroon 124 30,701
 Canada 107 39,579
 Cape Verde (Cabo Verde) 296 1,549
 Cayman Islands (United Kingdom) 365 240
 Central African Republic 16 764
 Chad 59 8,700
 Chile 232 42,921
 China 120 1,700,000 Notes
 Colombia 246 123,005
 Comoros 27 225
 Congo (Republic of) 27 1,240
 Cook Islands (New Zealand) 229 48
 Costa Rica 374 19,226
 Cote d'Ivoire 82 21,186
 Croatia 79 3,217
 Cuba 510 57,337 Notes
 Curaçao (Netherlands) 236 377
 Cyprus (Republic of) 86 762
 Czech Republic 197 21,048
 Democratic Republic of Congo 29 20,550
 Denmark 63 3,635
 Djibouti 66 600
 Dominica 289 211
 Dominican Republic 237 26,045
 Ecuador 233 40,006
 Egypt 116 106,000
 El Salvador 590 38,114
 Equatorial Guinea 63 500
 Estonia 187 2,487
 Ethiopia 127 113,727
 Faeroe Islands (Denmark) 12 6
 Fiji 210 1,889
 Finland 53 2,910
 France 105 70,818
 French Guiana/Guyane (France) 243 726
 French Polynesia (France) 204 591
 Gabon 241 4,476
 Gambia 31 691
 Georgia 262 9,740
 Germany 77 63,851
 Ghana 52 15,463
 Gibraltar (United Kingdom) 165 56
 Greece 95 10,216
 Greenland (Denmark) 249 139
 Grenada 426 460
 Guadeloupe (France) 204 915
 Guam (USA) 381 628
 Guatemala 143 25,414
 Guernsey (United Kingdom) 127 83
 Guinea (Republic of) 28 3,782
 Guinea Bissau 10 196
 Guyana 284 2,216
 Haiti 80 8,882
 Honduras 229 20,506
 Hong Kong (China) 106 7,935
 Hungary 173 16,947
 Iceland 37 131
 India 34 466,084
 Indonesia 99 266,584
 Iran 294 240,000
 Iraq 126 45,000
 Ireland, Republic of 79 3,950
 Isle of Man (United Kingdom) 125 106
 Israel 234 19,376
 Italy 101 60,769
 Jamaica 138 3,866
 Japan 39 48,802
 Jersey (United Kingdom) 129 139
 Jordan 198 20,060
 Kazakhstan 156 29,081
 Kenya 102 51,130
 Kiribati 113 129
 Kosovo/Kosova 95 1,648
 Kuwait 117 4,662
 Kyrgyzstan 161 10,142
 Laos 130 9,000
 Latvia 183 3,522
 Lebanon 144 6,966
 Lesotho 92 2,073
 Liberia 50 2,426
 Libya 139 9,100
 Liechtenstein 31 12
 Lithuania 221 6,138
 Luxembourg 105 652
 Macau (China) 233 1,569
 Madagascar 93 24,928
 Malawi 76 14,778
 Malaysia 230 74,000
 Maldives 499 1,852
 Mali 33 5,209
 Malta 131 660
 Marshall Islands 66 35
 Martinique (France) 215 827
 Mauritania 53 2,321
 Mauritius 203 2,613
 Mayotte (France) 131 350
 Mexico 163 203,364
 Micronesia, Federated States of 127 132
 Moldova (Republic of) 194 6,855
 Monaco 83 32
 Mongolia 110 3,398
 Montenegro 183 1,141
 Morocco 237 85,767
 Mozambique 63 19,832
 Myanmar (formerly Burma) 171 92,000
 Namibia 295 7,400
 Nauru 140 14
 Nepal 79 23,775
 Netherlands 61 10,464
 New Caledonia (France) 189 535
 New Zealand 201 9,893
 Nicaragua 332 20,918
 Niger 44 9,570
 Nigeria 36 72,627
 North Macedonia 112 2,330
 Northern Mariana Islands (USA) 482 270
 Norway 60 3,190
 Oman 36 1,300
 Pakistan 38 77,275
 Palau 345 76
 Panama 401 16,953
 Papua New Guinea 62 5,087
 Paraguay 199 13,607
 Peru 278 90,934
 Philippines 179 215,000
 Poland 195 74,130
 Portugal 125 12,789
 Puerto Rico (USA) 313 10,475
 Qatar 53 1,150
 Republic of (South) Korea 109 55,198
 Reunion (France) 120 1,073
 Romania 107 20,578
 Russian Federation 363 523,928
 Rwanda 511 65,000
 Samoa 204 400
 San Marino 6 2
 Sao Tome e Principe 116 253
 Saudi Arabia 197 61,000
 Senegal 68 11,547
 Serbia 156 10,852
 Seychelles 415 409
 Sierra Leone 60 4,732
 Singapore 199 11,737
 Sint Maarten (Netherlands) 153 62
 Slovakia 195 10,665
 Slovenia 69 1,451
 Solomon Islands 78 477
 South Africa 275 163,015
 South Sudan 50 7,000
 Spain 124 58,457
 Sri Lanka 105 23,355
 St. Kitts and Nevis 393 220
 St. Lucia 280 527
 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 426 469
 Sudan 52 21,000
 Suriname 183 1,000
 Swaziland/eSwatini 258 3,453
 Sweden 61 6,210
 Switzerland 81 6,943
 Syria 60 10,599
 Taiwan 258 60,956
 Tajikistan 121 9,317
 Tanzania 59 35,803
 Thailand 531 367,993
 Timor-Leste (formerly East Timor) 52 695
 Togo 66 5,109
 Tonga 166 176
 Trinidad and Tobago 292 3,999
 Tunisia 195 22,663
 Turkey 324 264,842
 Turkmenistan 552 30,452
 Tuvalu 110 11
 Uganda 124 55,229
 Ukraine 148 52,863
 United Arab Emirates 104 9,826
 United Kingdom: England & Wales 140 83,329 Notes
 United Kingdom: Northern Ireland 78 1,489 Notes
 United Kingdom: Scotland 149 8,126 Notes
 United States of America 655 2,121,600 Notes
 Uruguay 295 10,243
 Uzbekistan 150 43,900
 Vanuatu 72 202
 Venezuela 178 57,096
 Vietnam 128 123,697
 Virgin Islands (United Kingdom) 470 134
 Virgin Islands (USA) 542 577
 Yemen 53 14,000
 Zambia 123 22,823
 Zimbabwe 114 19,382

Remand. Pre-trial detainees. Percent of prison population[edit]

Remand (detention) as a percent of the total incarcerated population.


Pre-trial detainees (percent). From World Prison Brief.[1]


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Country (or dependent territory,
subnational area, etc.)
Pre-trial
Detainees (%)
 Afghanistan 31.3
 Albania 44.9
 Algeria 12.0
 American Samoa (USA) 14.9
 Andorra 42.2
 Angola 45.8
 Anguilla (United Kingdom) 45.5
 Antigua and Barbuda 37.0
 Argentina 45.9
 Armenia 37.1
 Aruba (Netherlands) 16.6
 Australia 33.0
 Austria 21.3
 Azerbaijan 15.1
 Bahamas 42.0
 Bahrain 25.7
 Bangladesh 81.3
 Barbados 56.2
 Belarus 15.4
 Belgium 35.6
 Belize 30.1
 Benin 75.8
 Bermuda (United Kingdom) 9.6
 Bolivia 69.9
 Bosnia and Herzegovina: Federation 12.5
 Bosnia and Herzegovina: Republika Srpska 14.4
 Botswana 24.5
 Brazil 32.8
 Brunei Darussalam 7.1
 Bulgaria 21.1
 Burkina Faso 36.7
 Burundi 49.8
 Cambodia 71.9
 Cameroon 58.1
 Canada 38.7
 Cape Verde (Cabo Verde) 31.7
 Cayman Islands (United Kingdom) 29.6
 Central African Republic 70.2
 Chad 63.4
 Chile 33.5
 Colombia 31.7
 Comoros 29.0
 Congo (Republic of) 60.0
 Cook Islands (New Zealand) 14.6
 Costa Rica 13.3
 Cote d'Ivoire 40.7
 Croatia 28.3
 Curaçao (Netherlands) 41.0
 Cyprus (Republic of) 30.0
 Czech Republic 8.5
 Democratic Republic of Congo 73.0
 Denmark 35.5
 Djibouti 20.0
 Dominica 23.7
 Dominican Republic 60.0
 Ecuador 33.9
 Egypt 9.9
 El Salvador 26.6
 Estonia 20.1
 Ethiopia 14.9
 Faeroe Islands (Denmark) 26.8
 Fiji 25.9
 Finland 23.6
 France 29.6
 French Guiana/Guyane (France) 25.9
 French Polynesia (France) 14.4
 Gabon 80.2
 Gambia 22.2
 Georgia 18.5
 Germany 20.4
 Ghana 12.2
 Gibraltar (United Kingdom) 26.8
 Greece 31.1
 Greenland (Denmark) 32.5
 Grenada 15.2
 Guadeloupe (France) 26.9
 Guam (USA) 45.1
 Guatemala 46.7
 Guernsey (United Kingdom) 19.3
 Guinea (Republic of) 60.0
 Guinea Bissau 67.9
 Guyana 35.6
 Haiti 66.8
 Honduras 53.1
 Hong Kong (China) 24.5
 Hungary 18.2
 Iceland 17.6
 India 69.4
 Indonesia 23.8
 Iran 25.1
 Iraq 35.2
 Ireland, Republic of 19.0
 Isle of Man (United Kingdom) 6.6
 Israel 25.2
 Italy 31.0
 Jamaica 23.1
 Japan 11.3
 Jersey (United Kingdom) 28.1
 Jordan 36.9
 Kazakhstan 18.1
 Kenya 48.0
 Kiribati 5.4
 Kosovo/Kosova 18.1
 Kuwait 10.0
 Kyrgyzstan 16.6
 Laos 67.0
 Latvia 27.9
 Lebanon 64.7
 Lesotho 19.5
 Liberia 63.0
 Libya 90.0
 Liechtenstein 75.0
 Lithuania 11.8
 Luxembourg 41.0
 Macau (China) 18.9
 Madagascar 56.4
 Malawi 17.9
 Malaysia 26.7
 Mali 52.8
 Malta 31.0
 Marshall Islands 11.4
 Martinique (France) 27.3
 Mauritania 38.2
 Mauritius 48.7
 Mayotte (France) 56.1
 Mexico 39.2
 Micronesia, Federated States of 16.7
 Moldova (Republic of) 16.6
 Monaco 56.3
 Mongolia 34.4
 Montenegro 27.4
 Morocco 39.1
 Mozambique 33.1
 Myanmar (formerly Burma) 15.1
 Namibia 54.0
 Nauru 25.0
 Nepal 58.9
 Netherlands 28.9
 New Caledonia (France) 14.2
 New Zealand 35.4
 Nicaragua 21.4
 Niger 53.8
 Nigeria 69.9
 North Macedonia 8.4
 Norway 22.9
 Oman 5.6
 Pakistan 62.1
 Palau 4.1
 Panama 43.8
 Papua New Guinea 34.4
 Paraguay 77.9
 Peru 39.3
 Philippines 75.1
 Poland 11.5
 Portugal 17.9
 Puerto Rico (USA) 13.0
 Qatar 44.0
 Republic of (South) Korea 34.5
 Reunion (France) 14.0
 Romania 10.2
 Russian Federation 18.7
 Rwanda 7.5
 Samoa 14.0
 San Marino 83.3
 Sao Tome e Principe 32.8
 Saudi Arabia 58.7
 Senegal 39.7
 Serbia 15.0
 Seychelles 20.8
 Sierra Leone 29.5
 Singapore 11.9
 Sint Maarten (Netherlands) 18.1
 Slovakia 14.5
 Slovenia 26.0
 Solomon Islands 48.2
 South Africa 29.3
 South Sudan 28.9
 Spain 16.2
 Sri Lanka 60.2
 St. Kitts and Nevis 30.5
 St. Lucia 53.5
 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 24.3
 Sudan 20.4
 Suriname 50.0
 Swaziland/eSwatini 18.1
 Sweden 30.6
 Switzerland 42.2
 Syria 50.5
 Taiwan 4.4
 Tajikistan 15.0
 Tanzania 51.0
 Thailand 15.7
 Timor-Leste (formerly East Timor) 23.2
 Togo 62.9
 Tonga 7.4
 Trinidad and Tobago 59.7
 Tunisia 52.0
 Turkey 43.1
 Turkmenistan 14.0
 Tuvalu 0.0
 Uganda 49.8
 Ukraine 35.9
 United Arab Emirates 38.2
 United Kingdom: England & Wales 11.5
 United Kingdom: Northern Ireland 33.7
 United Kingdom: Scotland 19.0
 United States of America 21.6
 Uruguay 69.7
 Uzbekistan 10.0
 Vanuatu 15.3
 Venezuela 63.0
 Vietnam 12.4
 Virgin Islands (United Kingdom) 37.0
 Virgin Islands (USA) 36.4
 Yemen 70.1
 Zambia 28.0
 Zimbabwe 18.6

Notes[edit]

Return to top of main table.

Europe[edit]

Prison population of Europe is approximately 1.2 million[2] of total 743 million population.[3]

Australia[edit]

With a prison population of 42,000 and a total 2018 population of 25 million, Australia has an incarceration rate of 171 per 100,000 population, or 222 per 100,000 adult population.[4]

In addition to its standard prisons, Australia also operates a separate system of immigration prisons to detain foreigners who have breached the terms of, or lack a visa.[5] Some of these immigration detention centres are used to indefinitely detain[6] asylum seekers and refugees, including children[7], often without trial, sometimes for several years.[6] Immigration detainees are not included in the data for prison population and incarceration rates.[8]

Additionally, the number of prisoners and incarceration rate differs for each Australian state and territory, with some having much higher or lower incarceration rates than the national average.

In addition to adult prisoners, on an average night in June 2017, there was 964 minors imprisoned in Australia.[9]

China[edit]

According to the World Prison Brief, China had an incarceration rate of 118 per 100,000 as of mid-2015 (for 1,649,804 sentenced prisoners in Ministry of Justice prisons only). The World Prison Brief states that in addition to the sentenced prisoners, there may be more than 650,000 held in detention centers. "A total prison population of 2,300,000 would raise the incarceration rate to 164 per 100,000."[10]

After 2015 there was a great increase in the number of people in the Xinjiang re-education camps. In May 2018, Randall Schriver of the United States Department of Defense claimed that "at least a million but likely closer to three million citizens" were imprisoned in detention centers in a strong condemnation of the "concentration camps".[11][12][13] In August 2018, a United Nations human rights panel said that it had received many credible reports that 1 million ethnic Uyghurs in China have been held in "re-education camps".[14][15]

Cuba[edit]

In January 2020, a former high ranking judge in Cuba leaked secret Cuban government documents that showed the regime had the highest incarceration rate in the world at over 90,000 prisoners, with thousands in prison on dubious charges. Documents reviewed by the New York Times showed 92% of individuals tried in the country are found guilty. Nearly 4,000 every year are accused of being "antisocial" or "dangerous", which are terms used by the government to charge those that have committed no crime but are viewed by the regime as a risk to the status quo. Those charges have a 99.5% conviction rate. These individuals face summary trials with no right to a defense or to present evidence, according to the former judge. The documents show individuals being sentenced for several years in prison under the category of "anti-social", which can include actions like not belonging to state associated civic organizations or being unemployed. The crime "description" is often identical, appearing to be copy and pasted by police.[16] The high incarceration rate in the secret documents is consistent with dissident group claims that the Cuban government's 2012 one-time release of inmate population numbers, when they reported 57,000 inmates, was false. [17]

According to Human Rights Watch, the Cuban government employs arbitrary detention to harass and intimidate regime critics, independent activists, political opponents, and others. Human Rights Watch's 2018 report noted "Cubans who criticize the government face the threat of criminal prosecution. They do not benefit from due process guarantees, such as the right to fair and public hearings by a competent and impartial tribunal. In some cases, detainees are released after receiving official warnings, which prosecutors can later use in subsequent criminal trials to show a pattern of “delinquent” behavior."[18]

India[edit]

The prison population of India was 433,003 as of December 31, 2016, according to the World Prison Brief.[19] According to the National Prison Portal website when viewed on 22 October 2019, the prison population of India is around 473,000.[20]

North Korea[edit]

Little information exists regarding North Korea's incarceration rate. In 2012, the U.S. Committee for Human Rights in North Korea estimated 150,000 to 200,000 are incarcerated, based on testimonies of defectors from the state police bureau, which roughly equals 600–800 people incarcerated per 100,000.[21] For more information, see Prisons in North Korea.

United Kingdom[edit]

The main chart source only provides rates for the constituent parts of the UK.[1] In the above table see Scotland, Northern Ireland, and England and Wales. If they are not listed separately, then they can be found listed under the UK listing.

United States[edit]

Juveniles in residential
placement, 1997–2015. US[22]
Year Male Female Total

1997 90,771 14,284 105,055
1999 92,985 14,508 107,493
2001 89,115 15,104 104,219
2003 81,975 14,556 96,531
2006 78,998 13,723 92,721
2007 75,017 11,797 86,814
2010 61,359 9,434 70,793
2011 53,079 8,344 61,423
2013 46,421 7,727 54,148
2015 40,750 7,293 48,043

The incarceration rate (per 100,000 population of all ages) is for inmates held in adult facilities in the United States. It does not include inmates in the custody of correctional facilities operated by departments of corrections in U.S. territories (American Samoa, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and U.S. commonwealths (Northern Mariana Islands and Puerto Rico).[23][24]

In addition, there were 48,043 juveniles in juvenile detention in 2015.[22] For more juvenile detention information and numbers, see Youth incarceration in the United States.

The incarceration rate in the U.S. varies greatly by U.S. state. See: List of U.S. states and territories by incarceration and correctional supervision rate.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Highest to Lowest. World Prison Brief (WPB). Use dropdown menu to choose lists of countries by region, or the whole world. Use menu to select highest-to-lowest lists of prison population totals, prison population rates, percentage of pre-trial detainees / remand prisoners, percentage of female prisoners, percentage of foreign prisoners, and occupancy rate. Column headings in WPB tables can be clicked to reorder columns lowest to highest, or alphabetically. For detailed information for each country click on any country name in lists. See also the WPB main data page and click on the map links and/or the sidebar links to get to the region and country desired. Data for the whole Wikipedia list was last retrieved on 17 Feb 2020. Some numbers may be adjusted here later according to later info. Please update the table here only from this WPB source. For a quick method to fully update the table see the relevant section ("conversion examples") of Commons:Convert tables and charts to wiki code or image files.
  2. ^ "Highest to Lowest - Prison Population Total | World Prison Brief". www.prisonstudies.org.
  3. ^ "Population of Europe (2019) - Worldometers". www.worldometers.info.
  4. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. "Main Features - Summary of findings". www.abs.gov.au.
  5. ^ Sarah.Dillon, (8 November 2013). "Immigration detention and human rights". www.humanrights.gov.au.
  6. ^ a b Doherty, Ben (17 May 2016). "Australia's indefinite detention of refugees illegal, UN rules". the Guardian.
  7. ^ "All children to be off Nauru by year's end". The Sydney Morning Herald. 1 November 2018.
  8. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. "Main Features - Summary of findings". www.abs.gov.au.
  9. ^ "Youth detention population in Australia 2017, Summary - Australian Institute of Health and Welfare".
  10. ^ China. By World Prison Brief.
  11. ^ "US accuses China of using 'concentration camps' against Muslim minority". www.theguardian.com. 4 May 2018.
  12. ^ "China putting minority Muslims in 'concentration camps,' U.S. says". www.reuters.com. 4 May 2018.
  13. ^ "In Push for Trade Deal, Trump Administration Shelves Sanctions Over China's Crackdown on Uighurs". www.nytimes.com. 4 May 2018.
  14. ^ "China Uighurs: One million held in political camps, UN told". BBC. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  15. ^ "U.N. says it has credible reports that China holds million Uighurs in secret camps". Reuters. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  16. ^ Robles, Frances (13 January 2020). "Ex-Judge Reveals Secrets Of How Cuba Suppresses Dissent". The New York Times.
  17. ^ "Cuba says prison population at more than 57,000". BBC News. 23 May 2012.
  18. ^ "Cuba. Events of 2018". Human Rights Watch.
  19. ^ India. By World Prison Brief.
  20. ^ "Welcome to National Prison Portal". eprisons.nic.in. Retrieved 2019-10-22.
  21. ^ The Hidden Gulag: The Lives and Voices of "Those Who are Sent to the Mountains", 2nd ed. By David Hawk. Published April 10, 2012 by Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. ISBN 0615623670.
  22. ^ a b Sickmund, M., Sladky, T.J., Kang, W., & Puzzanchera, C.. "Easy Access to the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement". Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Click "National Crosstabs" at the top, and then choose the census years. Click "Show table" to get the total number of juvenile inmates for those years. Or go here for all the years. And here.
  23. ^ United States of America. By World Prison Brief.
  24. ^ Correctional Populations in the United States, 2016 (NCJ 251211). Published April 2018 by U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). By Danielle Kaeble and Mary Cowhig, BJS statisticians. See PDF. Appendix table 1 on page 11 has rates and counts by state. See page 1 "highlights" section for the "1 in ..." numbers. See table 4 on page 4 for a timeline of nationwide incarceration rates. See appendix table 3 on page 13, for "Persons held in custody in state or federal prisons or in local jails, 2000, 2010, and 2015–2016". That table also has incarceration rates. See appendix table 2 on page 12 for the number or persons incarcerated in territorial prisons, military facilities, and jails in Indian country.

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