Age of majority

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"Legal age" redirects here. For other uses, see Legal age (disambiguation).

The age of majority is the threshold of adulthood as it is conceptualized (and recognized or declared) in law. It is the chronological moment when minors cease to legally be considered children and assume control over their persons, actions, and decisions, thereby terminating the legal control and legal responsibilities of their parents or guardian over and for them. Most countries set majority at 18. The word majority here refers to having greater years and being of full age; it is opposed to minority, the state of being a minor. The law in a given jurisdiction may never actually use the term "age of majority" and the term thereby refers to a collection of laws bestowing the status of adulthood. The age of majority is a legally fixed age, concept, or statutory principle, which may differ depending on the jurisdiction, and may not necessarily correspond to actual mental or physical maturity of an individual.

Age of majority should not be confused with the age of sexual consent, marriageable age, school leaving age, drinking age, driving age, voting age, smoking age, etc., which all may sometimes be independent of, and set at a different age from, the age of majority.

Although a person may attain the age of majority in a particular jurisdiction, he or she may still be subject to age-based restrictions regarding matters such as the right to vote or stand for elective office, act as a judge, and many others.

Explanation[edit]

Age of majority can be confused with a similar concept, the age of license,[1] which also pertains to the threshold of adulthood but in a much broader and more abstract way. As a legal term of art, "license" means "permission", and it can implicate a legally enforceable right or privilege. Thus, an age of license is an age at which one has legal permission from government to do something. The age of majority, on the other hand, is legal recognition that one has grown into an adult.[2]

Age of majority pertains solely to the acquisition of control over one's person, decisions and actions, and the correlative termination of the legal authority and responsibility of the parents (or guardian(s), in lieu of parent(s)) over the child’s person and affairs generally.

Many ages of license are correlated to the age of majority, but they are nonetheless legally distinct concepts. One need not have attained the age of majority to have permission to exercise certain rights and responsibilities. Some ages of license are actually higher than the age of majority. For example, the age of license to purchase alcoholic beverages is 21 in all U.S. states. Another example is the voting age, which prior to the 1970s was 21, while the age of majority was 18 in most states. In the Republic of Ireland the age of majority is 18, but one must be over 21 years of age to stand for election to the Houses of the Oireachtas.[3] Also, in Portugal the age of majority is 18, but one must be at least 25 years of age to run for public office.[4] A child who is legally emancipated by a court of competent jurisdiction automatically attains to his or her maturity upon the signing of the court order. This is distinct from the legal process by which a child might be taken into foster care and/or made a ward of the court. Foster care and court wardship do not confer maturity upon the child so separated from his or her parents (or guardians). Only emancipation confers the status of maturity before a person has actually reached the age of majority.

Almost all jurisdictions automatically confer emancipation (and with it, the status of majority) upon otherwise minor individuals who are married. Some do likewise for minors who are on active duty in the armed forces.[5]

Countries and subdivisions[edit]

The following list the age of majority in countries (or administrative divisions) as appropriate:

Age 8[edit]

Age 14[edit]

Age 15[edit]

Age 16[edit]

Age 17[edit]

Age 18[edit]

Age 19[edit]

Age 20[edit]

Age 21[edit]

Religion[edit]

In the Catholic Church, the age of majority is 18 years.[69] In Judaism, after a Bar and Bat Mitzvah at age 13, a person is considered an adult.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Although the age of majority in New Zealand is 20, most rights granted at the age of majority in other nations, such as emancipation from parents, marriage without parental permission, ability to enter into a binding contract, and voting are granted at 18.[64]

References[edit]

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  5. ^ Statutory and Judicial Emancipation of Minors in the United States, 2001–2002 analysis by law students of Northeastern University
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  25. ^ Cambodia's Law
  26. ^ Cambodia -- Age of Consent
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  33. ^ Indian Majority Act
  34. ^ Ley De La Juventud
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  50. ^ http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1969/39/section/1
  51. ^ Age of Legal Capacity (Scotland) Act 1991
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  53. ^ "Age of Majority Act (Northern Ireland) 1969". Legislation.gov.uk. 26 May 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2011. 
  54. ^ HOUSE OF KEYS OFFICIAL REPORT 123 (14). 7 March 2006. p. 694. ISSN 1742-2264. Archived from the original on 2012-03-24. 
  55. ^ Age of Majority (Jersey) Law 1999
  56. ^ The Age of Majority (Alderney) Law, 2001, guernseylegalresources.gg.
  57. ^ "Age of Majority". Minors.uslegal.com. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  58. ^ a b "Section 26-1-1 — :: Chapter 1 – GENERAL PROVISIONS. :: Title 26 – INFANTS AND INCOMPETENTS. :: 2006 Alabama Code :: Alabama Code :: US Codes and Statutes :: US Law :: Justia". Law.justia.com. 22 July 1975. Retrieved 29 September 2011. 
  59. ^ a b "Nebraska Age of Majority Law – Age of Majority – Minors". Minors.uslegal.com. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  60. ^ "Puerto Rico Emancipation Law". youthrights.net. 
  61. ^ "dgsn.dz". 
  62. ^ :::: 법률지식정보시스템 ::::. Likms.assembly.go.kr. Retrieved on 11 April 2012.
  63. ^ Age of Majority Act 1970. Section 4.
  64. ^ Citizen's Advice Bureau. Legal ages and ID. 1 June 2011.
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  66. ^ Interpol report on Azerbaijan[dead link]
  67. ^ Ordonnance 62-041 du 19 septembre 1962 relative aux dispositions générales de droit interne et de droit international privé
  68. ^ Mississippi Age of Majority Law - Age of Majority - Minors
  69. ^ Can. 97, § 1 CIC.