Bruce at the Deutsches Jazzfestival, 2007
|Birth name||John Symon Asher Bruce|
14 May 1943|
Bishopbriggs, Lanarkshire, Scotland
|Died||25 October 2014
|Genres||Rock, blues, jazz|
|Instruments||Bass guitar, vocals, piano, keyboards, guitar, harmonica, cello, upright bass|
|Associated acts||Cream, Blues Incorporated, the Graham Bond Organization, John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers, Manfred Mann, The Tony Williams Lifetime, West, Bruce & Laing, Ringo Starr & His All-Starr Band, Kip Hanrahan, BBM, Gary Moore, Rocket 88|
|Warwick Thumb Signature
Warwick Jack Bruce CRB
John Symon Asher "Jack" Bruce (14 May 1943 – 25 October 2014) was a Scottish musician, composer and vocalist, known primarily for his multi-faceted contributions to the legendary British supergroup Cream, which included guitarist-singer Eric Clapton and drummer-founder Ginger Baker. In March, 2011, Rolling Stone readers selected him as the eighth greatest bass guitarist of all time. "Most musicians would have a very hard time distinguishing themselves if they wound up in a band with Eric Clapton and Ginger Baker," the magazine said at the time, "but Jack Bruce was so gifted on the bass that he did it with ease."
Bruce maintained a solo career that spanned several decades and also played in several musical groups. Although recognized first and foremost as a vocalist, bassist and songwriter, he also played double bass, harmonica, piano and cello. He was trained as a classical cellist and considered himself a jazz musician, although much of his catalogue of compositions and recordings tended toward blues and rock and roll.
Bruce was born on 14 May 1943 in Bishopbriggs, Lanarkshire, to Betty (Asher) and Charlie Bruce, musical parents who moved frequently, resulting in the young Bruce attending 14 different schools, ending up at Bellahouston Academy. He began playing the jazz bass in his teens and won a scholarship to study cello and musical composition at the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama while playing in Jim McHarg's Scotsville Jazzband to support himself. The academy disapproved of its students playing jazz. "They found out", Bruce told Musician correspondent Jim Macnie, "and said 'you either stop, or leave college.' So I left college."
After leaving school he toured Italy, playing double bass with the Murray Campbell Big Band. In 1962 Bruce became a member of the London-based band Blues Incorporated, led by Alexis Korner, in which he played the upright bass. The band also included organist Graham Bond, saxophonist Dick Heckstall-Smith and Ginger Baker. In 1963 the group broke up and Bruce went on to form the Graham Bond Quartet with Bond, Baker and guitarist John McLaughlin. They played an eclectic range of music genres, including bebop, blues and rhythm and blues. As a result of session work at this time, Bruce switched from the upright bass to the electric bass guitar. The move to electric bass happened as McLaughlin was dropped from the band; he was replaced by Heckstall-Smith on saxophone and the band pursued a more concise R&B sound and changed their name to the Graham Bond Organisation. They released two studio albums and several singles but were not commercially successful.
During the time that Bruce and Baker played with the Graham Bond Organisation, they were known for their hostility towards each other. There were numerous stories of the two sabotaging each other's equipment and fighting on stage. Relations grew so bad between the two that Bruce left the group in August 1965.
After leaving, Bruce recorded a solo single, "I'm Gettin Tired", for Polydor Records. He joined John Mayall and his Bluesbreakers group, which featured guitarist Eric Clapton. Although his stay was brief; the Universal Deluxe double album Blues Breakers with Eric Clapton contains all the known tracks featuring Bruce.
After the Bluesbreakers, Bruce had his first commercial success as a member of Manfred Mann in 1966, including "Pretty Flamingo" which reached number one in the UK singles chart (one of two number one records of his career - the other being an uncredited bass part on The Scaffold's "Lily the Pink") as well as the free-wheeling and ground-breaking jazz-rock of Instrumental Asylum. When interviewed on the edition of the VH1 show Classic Albums which featured Disraeli Gears, Mayall said that Bruce had been lured away by the lucrative commercial success of Manfred Mann, while Mann himself recalled that Bruce attended recording sessions without having rehearsed but played songs straight through without error, commenting that perhaps the chord changes seemed obvious to Bruce.
While with Manfred Mann, Bruce again collaborated with Eric Clapton as a member of Powerhouse, which also featured the Spencer Davis Group vocalist Steve Winwood credited as "Steve Anglo". Three tracks were featured on the Elektra sampler album What's Shakin'. Two of the songs, "Crossroads" and "Steppin' Out", became staples in the live set of his next band.
In July 1966 Bruce, Eric Clapton and drummer Ginger Baker founded the power trio Cream, which gained international recognition playing blues-rock and jazz-inflected rock music. Bruce sang most of the lead vocals, with Clapton backing him up and eventually assuming some leads himself.
With his Gibson EB-3 electric bass, Bruce became one of the most famous bassists in rock, winning musicians' polls and influencing the next generation of bassists such as Sting, Geddy Lee and Jeff Berlin. Bruce co-wrote most of Cream's single releases with lyricist Pete Brown, including the hits "Sunshine of Your Love", "White Room", and "I Feel Free". Cream broke up in 1968.
Collaborative efforts with musicians, in many genres – hard rock, jazz, blues, R&B, fusion, avant-garde, world music, third stream classical – continued as a theme of Bruce's career. Alongside these he has produced a long line of highly regarded solo albums. In contrast to his collaborative works, the solo albums usually maintain a common theme: melodic songs with a complex musical structure, songs with lyrics frequently penned by Pete Brown, and a core band of world-class musicians. This structure was loosened on his live solo albums and DVDs, where extended improvisations similar to those employed by Cream in live performance were sometimes still used.
In August 1968, before Cream officially disbanded, Bruce recorded an acoustic free jazz album with John McLaughlin, Dick Heckstall-Smith, and Jon Hiseman. This was issued in 1970 as Bruce's second solo album, Things We Like. The album was a precursor to the jazz fusion boom in the early 1970s, and more recently has been sampled by many[who?] hip hop artists.
Bruce's first solo release, Songs for a Tailor, was issued in September 1969; it too featured Heckstall-Smith and Hiseman. It was a worldwide hit, but after a brief supporting tour backed by Larry Coryell and Mitch Mitchell, Bruce joined the jazz fusion group Lifetime. With drummer Tony Williams, guitarist McLaughlin, and organist Larry Young, the group recorded two albums. Bruce joined on the second album, Turn It Over. However, Lifetime did not receive much critical or commercial acclaim at the time, and the band broke up in 1971. Bruce then recorded his third solo album Harmony Row, but this was not as commercially successful as Songs for a Tailor. The song "The Consul at Sunset" from Harmony Row, which was inspired by the Malcolm Lowry novel Under the Volcano, was released as a single in 1971 (Polydor 2058-153, b/w "A Letter of Thanks"), but did not chart.
In 1972 Bruce formed a blues rock power trio, West, Bruce & Laing. Besides Bruce, the group included singer/guitarist Leslie West and drummer Corky Laing, both formerly of the Cream-influenced American band Mountain. West, Bruce & Laing produced two studio albums, Why Dontcha and Whatever Turns You On, and one live album, Live 'n' Kickin'.
The band's break-up was announced shortly before Live 'n' Kickin's release in early 1974, and Bruce released his fourth solo album Out of the Storm later that year. Also in 1974 he made a guest appearance on the title track of Frank Zappa's album Apostrophe. Bruce was credited with bass and for co-writing the song. However, when asked about Zappa in a 1992 interview Bruce tried to change the subject and jokingly insisted that he had played only cello parts. In 1973 Bruce recorded bass guitar for Lou Reed's Berlin album, playing on all but two tracks.
A 1975 tour was lined up to support the Out of the Storm album with a band featuring former Rolling Stones guitarist Mick Taylor and jazz keyboard player Carla Bley, with whom he had collaborated in 1971 on Escalator over the Hill. The tour was documented on Live '75 (at Manchester's Free Trade Hall), but it ended with Taylor's departure, and no studio album was completed.
In 1977 Bruce formed a new band with drummer Simon Phillips and keyboardist Tony Hymas. The group recorded an album, called How's Tricks. A world tour followed, but the album was a commercial failure. The follow-up album Jet Set Jewel, while since commercially released, was rejected by Bruce's record label RSO upon its initial completion as not being marketable, and RSO ultimately dropped Bruce from their roster in 1978. In 1979 Bruce toured with members from the Mahavishnu Orchestra, reuniting him with John McLaughlin, and introducing him to drummer Billy Cobham. A 3-CD collection of his 1970s BBC recordings, entitled Spirit, was released in 2008.
By 1979, Bruce's drug habit had reached such a level that he had lost most of his money. Bruce contributed as a session musician to recordings by Cozy Powell, Gary Moore and Jon Anderson to raise money. By 1980 his career was back on track with his new band, Jack Bruce & Friends, consisting of drummer Billy Cobham, guitarist Clem Clempson, and keyboardist/guitarist David Sancious. After releasing an album, I've Always Wanted to Do This, at the end of 1980, they undertook a long tour to support the record, but it was not a commercial success and they disbanded. In the early 1980s, he also joined up to play with friends from the Alexis Korner days in Rocket 88, the back-to-the-roots band that Ian Stewart had arranged, and Bruce appears on the album of the same name, recorded live in Germany in 1980. They also recorded a "live in the studio" album called Blues & Boogie Explosion for the German audiophile record label Jeton. That year he also collaborated on the Soft Machine album Land of Cockayne (1981).
In 1981, Bruce collaborated with guitarist Robin Trower and released two power trio albums, BLT and Truce, the first of which was a minor hit in the United States. By 1983 Bruce was out of contract with the major record companies, and he released his next solo album, Automatic, only on a minor German label, Intercord. A European tour followed to promote the album enlisting Bruce Gary from The Knack (who had also played in Jack Bruce's 1975 band) on drums and Sancious from his 1980 band (Jack Bruce & Friends) on guitar and keyboards. In 1982 Bruce played with a short-lived ensemble A Gathering of Minds comprising Billy Cobham, Allan Holdsworth, Didier Lockwood and David Sancious at Montreux. In 1983 he sang on tracks 5–6 of the Allan Holdsworth album Road Games.
In 1983 Bruce began working with the Latin/world music producer Kip Hanrahan, and released the collaborative albums Desire Develops an Edge, Vertical's Currency, A Few Short Notes from the End Run, Exotica and All Roads Are Made of the Flesh. They were all critically successful, and in 2001 he went on to form his own band using Hanrahan's famous Cuban rhythm section. Other than his partnership with lyricist Pete Brown, the musical relationship with Hanrahan has been the most consistent and long-lasting of his career.
In 1985 he sang lead and played blues harp on the song "Silver Bullet" with Anton Fier's Golden Palominos. It appears on the album Visions of Excess. In 1986 he re-recorded the Cream song "I Feel Free" and released it as a single to support an advertising campaign for the Renault 21 motor car. A solo album, Something Els, recorded in Germany between 1986 and 1992, reunited him with Eric Clapton, and brought belated, but widespread critical acclaim.
In 1989, Bruce began recording material with Ginger Baker and released another solo album, A Question of Time. Baker and Bruce toured the United States at turn of the decade. Bruce played at the Montreux Jazz Festival in 1990, and was invited by Irish blues rock performer, Rory Gallagher (who had a long-standing relationship with Bruce, having supported Cream's farewell concert in the band Taste in 1968) to perform a couple of songs together on stage. In 1991 he was one of the supporting musicians for Vivian Stanshall's solo show "Rawlinson Dog-ends", but quit over a lack of adequate rehearsals.
In 1993 Baker appeared, along with a host of former Bruce band colleagues, at a special concert in Cologne to celebrate Bruce's 50th birthday. A special guest was another Irish blues-rock guitarist Gary Moore. The concert recordings with Moore were released as the live double album Cities of the Heart. On the back of this successful gig Bruce, Baker and Moore formed the power trio BBM, and their subsequent (and only) album Around the Next Dream was a top ten hit in the UK. However, the old Bruce/Baker arguments arose again and the subsequent tour was cut short and the band broke up. A low-key solo album, Monkjack, followed in 1995, featuring Bruce on piano and vocals accompanied by Funkadelic organist Bernie Worrell.
Bruce then began work producing and arranging the soundtrack to the independently produced Scottish film The Slab Boys with Lulu, Edwyn Collins, Eddi Reader and the Proclaimers. The soundtrack album appeared in 1997. In 1997 he returned to touring as a member of Ringo Starr's All-Starr Band, which also featured Peter Frampton on guitar. At the gig in Denver, Colorado the band was joined on stage by Ginger Baker, and Bruce, Baker and Frampton played a short set of Cream classics. He continued to tour with Starr through 2000.
In 2001 Bruce reappeared with a band featuring Bernie Worrell, Vernon Reid of Living Colour on guitar and Kip Hanrahan's three-piece Latin rhythm section. Hanrahan also produced the accompanying album Shadows in the Air, which included a reunion with Eric Clapton on a new version of "Sunshine of Your Love". The band released another Hanrahan produced studio album, More Jack than God, in 2003, and a live DVD, Live at Canterbury Fayre.
Bruce had suffered a period of declining health, after many years of addictions which he finally beat with clinical treatment, and in 2003 was diagnosed with liver cancer. In September 2003, he underwent a liver transplant, which was almost fatal, as his body initially rejected the new organ. He recovered, and in 2004 reappeared to perform "Sunshine of Your Love" at a Rock Legends concert in Germany organised by the singer Mandoki.
In May 2005, he reunited with former Cream bandmates Clapton and Baker for a series of well-received concerts at London's Royal Albert Hall, released as the album Royal Albert Hall London May 2–3–5–6 2005, and New York's Madison Square Garden.
Subsequent concert appearances were sparse because of recovery after the transplant, but in 2006 Bruce returned to the live arena with a show of Cream and solo classics performed with the German HR (Hessischer Rundfunk) Big Band. This was released on CD in Germany in 2007. In 2007, he made a brief concert appearance, opening a new rehearsal hall named in his honour at the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama, Glasgow with Clem Clempson, keyboard player Ronnie Leahy and Husband.
In 2008, Bruce collaborated again with guitarist Robin Trower on the album Seven Moons. It also featured Husband.
In May 2008 Bruce was 65 years old and to commemorate this milestone two box sets of recordings were released. Spirit is a three-CD collection of Bruce's BBC recordings from the 1970s. Can You Follow? is a six-CD retrospective anthology released by the Esoteric label in the UK. This anthology is a wide ranging collection covering his music from 1963 to 2003 and, aside from his work with Kip Hanrahan, is a comprehensive overview of his career.
Improved health led to Bruce playing a series of live outdoor concerts across the US starting in July 2008 as part of the Hippiefest Tour. He was supported by members of the late Who bassist John Entwistle's The John Entwistle Band, and headlined at a tribute concert to the bassist.
In November 2008 he recorded a concert in Birmingham, England for Radio Broadcast with the BBC Big Band, where he again played the Big Band arrangements of his classic songs. In December he was reunited with Ginger Baker at the drummer's Lifetime Achievement Award concert in London. They played jazz classics with saxophonist Courtney Pine and for the first time in 40 years played the Graham Bond–Cream classic "Traintime".
The same month, Bruce, with guitarist Vernon Reid, drummer Cindy Blackman and organist John Medeski played a series of Blue Note Club tribute concerts to The Tony Williams Lifetime in Japan. These shows were broadcast in high definition on television in Japan.
In 2009 a series of concerts was performed with Trower and Husband in Europe. Proposed dates in the US in April were cancelled because of a further bout of ill health. Bruce recovered and the band played summer concerts in Italy, Norway and the UK during 2009. This promoted the release of the Seven Moons live CD and DVD, recorded in February during the European leg of the tour in Nijmegen, Netherlands.
In August 2009, the 1983 Bruce solo album Automatic was released on CD. With this release, all his solo albums from his 1969 debut Songs for a Tailor onwards have become available on CD as well. In addition, all the discs up to and including How's Tricks contain previously unreleased material.
In October 2009, Bruce performed at the 50th anniversary of Ronnie Scott's Club with the Ronnie Scott's Blues Band.
Composing Himself: Jack Bruce The Authorised Biography by Harry Shapiro was released by Jawbone Press in February 2010. Shapiro had previously written biographies of Bruce collaborators Alexis Korner, Graham Bond and Eric Clapton. The book followed biographies from his Cream bandmates Clapton (Clapton, 2007) and Baker (Hellraiser, 2009). His songwriting partner, Pete Brown's, biography White Rooms & Imaginary Westerns was published in September 2010. They each have differing recollections of forming Cream, playing and writing together.
On 14 January, at the 2011 North American Music Merchants Show, Bruce became only the third recipient of the International Bassist Award, a lifetime achievement award for bassists, after Jaco Pastorius and Nathan Watts.
His first independent CD release, Live at the Milkyway, Amsterdam 2001, featuring his Latin-based band of the time, was issued in October 2010. The double album received an official worldwide release, distributed by EMI in February 2011. To support this release Bruce again played four dates in London at Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club with the Ronnie Scott's Blues Experience, followed by a further ten dates across the UK with the band. On 4 June 2011, Bruce played a special concert at the Royal Festival Hall in London, which was celebrating its 60th anniversary. The evening celebrated the 50th anniversary of the blues in Great Britain, and Bruce played with his Big Blues Band and special guest Joe Bonamassa.
Bruce started 2012 playing the Gerry Rafferty tribute concert in Glasgow, followed by a date with the traditional Celtic band Lau. BBC Scotland recorded a one-hour special on Bruce, which also included a performance with Lau. The completed documentary Jack Bruce – The Man behind the Bass was transmitted in February 2012 by BBC Scotland. It featured new interviews with Bruce, Clapton, Baker and Brown. It was transmitted again on November 9, 2014 on BBC2 Scotland and on November 17, 2014 on BBC4 in the UK.
February 2012 saw Bruce playing in Havana, Cuba, along with guitarist Phil Manzanera, supporting the mambo band of Augusto Enriquez. March saw another residency at Ronnie Scott's in London supported by his Big Blues Band, followed by a UK tour. The concert at the Stables, Milton Keynes on 18 March was due to be recorded as an Instant Live CD release, but technical issues prevented this. The following evenings performance at the same location was recorded and a 2CD version issued by Instant Live.
Spectrum Road was released in June 2012 by the US jazz record label Palmetto Records and was accompanied by a series of dates at large jazz festivals in North America and Europe throughout June and July.
Bruce released Silver Rails, in March 2014 on the Esoteric Antenna label, his first solo studio album in over a decade. Silver Rails was recorded at Abbey Road Studios in London, produced and mixed by Rob Cass and features contributions from Cream, lyricist Pete Brown, Kip Hanrahan and wife Margrit Seyffer as well as musicians Robin Trower, Cindy Blackman, Phil Manzanera, Uli Jon Roth, John Medeski and Bernie Marsden. The deluxe version of the album featured a behind the scenes documentary "The Making of Silver Rails" which was filmed on location at the studios and directed by Bruce's daughter Kyla Simone Bruce. This film was shown on the BBC Channel Four website on the BBC iPlayer on November 17, 2014 for 30 days Bruce's son Malcolm Bruce pre-produced the album and played guitar on several tracks, while Bruce's daughter Aruba Red was featured on "Hidden Cities" singing backing vocals.
In 1964 Bruce married Janet Godfrey, who had been the secretary of the Graham Bond Organisation fan club and had collaborated with Bruce on two songs written for the group. Together, Godfrey and Bruce had two sons, Jonas (Jo) Bruce, who grew up to play keyboards in his father's band and formed a band called AfroCelts, and Malcolm Bruce, who grew up to play the guitar with his father and played with Ginger Baker's son, Kofi. Jonas died in 1997 from respiratory problems.
Bruce died of liver disease on 25 October 2014, in Suffolk, England, aged 71. His publicist Claire Singers said: "He died today at his home in Suffolk surrounded by his family." He is survived by his wife, Margrit, as well as four children; Malcolm Bruce, Aruba Red, Kyla Simone Bruce, Corin Bruce and granddaughter Maya Sage.
His funeral was held in London on 5 November 2014 and was attended by Clapton, Baker and noted musicians Phil Manzanera, Gary Brooker, Vernon Reid and Nitin Sawhney among others. Dozens assembled at the Golders Green Crematorium paying a last tribute singing "Morning Has Broken", "Strawberry Fields Forever" and "Theme for an Imaginary Western". Bruce's remains were later cremated and then buried at a private family ceremony on 31 December 2014 at the Golders Green Crematorium.
Tributes and legacy
Writing in The Sunday Times in 2008, Dan Cairns had suggested: "many consider him to be one of the greatest bass players of all time." Steve Anderson, writing in The Independent said ".. he became one of the most famous and influential bass players in rock." Roger Waters of Pink Floyd recently described Bruce as "probably the most musically gifted bass player who's ever been." Eric Clapton posted on Facebook about Bruce "He was a great musician and composer, and a tremendous inspiration to me" and composed an acoustic song in his honour and Ginger Baker wrote "I am very sad to learn of the loss of a fine man, Jack Bruce... My thoughts & wishes are with his family at this difficult time." Guitarist Leslie West, of rock group Mountain, posted on Facebook, "It is with great sadness that one of the worlds greatest musicians and bass players, who I had the honor of playing with in West Bruce and Laing, Jack Bruce has died. I was hoping somehow that we might have gotten together one last time. Rest in Peace my friend." Black Sabbath guitarist Tony Iommi said on Twitter that Bruce had been his favourite bass player, saying "He was a hero to so many" and Black Sabbath bassist Geezer Butler regarded him as his "biggest influence and favourite bass player". Guitarist John McLaughlin said on Twitter, "Very sad to have lost my old friend Jack Bruce." Long-standing collaborator Robin Trower wrote on Facebook, "It has always been a great source of pride to me to have made music with Jack (one of the few musicians that can be truly called a force of nature) and Jack and I were proud of that music. He will be greatly missed". Fellow bassist Billy Cox also posted a tribute to Bruce on Facebook. Writing in The Daily Telegraph, Neil McCormick said, "There was a time when Jack Bruce was synonymous with the bass guitar in rock history, when he was widely revered as the best there was on four strings." Rush bassist and singer Geddy Lee wrote: “The sudden passing of Jack Bruce is terribly sad news. One of the greatest rock bassists to ever live and a true and profound inspiration to countless musicians. He was one of my first bass heroes and was a major influence on my playing and my music. My heartfelt condolences to his family and fans.” In March 2015, a tribute concert at London's Roundhouse scheduled for October 2015 was announced. Guest artists confirmed were, Joss Stone, Phil Manzanera, Ginger Baker, Ian Anderson and Mark King and musical director Nitin Sawhney.
|September 1969||Songs for a Tailor|
|December 1970||Things We Like|
|September 1971||Harmony Row|
|November 1974||Out of the Storm|
|March 1977||How's Tricks|
|December 1980||I've Always Wanted to Do This|
|October 1989||A Question of Time|
|March 1993||Somethin Els
|July 2001||Shadows in the Air|
|May 2003||Jet Set Jewel
(recorded in 1978)
|September 2003||More Jack than God|
|March 2014||Silver Rails|
|June 1975||Live at Manchester Free Trade Hall '75
(2-CD released 2003)
|1971–1978||Spirit- Live at the BBC 1971–1978
(3-CD released 2008)
|March 1994||Cities of the Heart
(live double album)
|October 2001||Live at the Milky Way
(Released October 2010)
|December 2007||Live with the HR Big Band|
- 1964 – Live at the Klooks Kleek released in 1972 as Faces And Places Vol. 4
- 1965 – The Sound of '65
- 1965 – There's A Bond Between Us
- with Carla Bley
- with Michael Mantler
- 1974 – No Answer (Watt/ECM)
- 1987 – Live (Watt/ECM)
- 1988 – Many Have No Speech (Watt/ECM)
- 1993 – Folly Seeing All This (ECM)
- 1997 – The School of Understanding (ECM)
- 2006 – Review (ECM)
- 1975 – The Early Cream Of Eric Clapton, Jack Bruce & Ginger Baker (previously unreleased material)
- 1977 – Primal Solos (unreleased material from 1966 and 1968)
- 1981 – B.L.T.
- with Robin Trower
- 1982 – Truce
- 1989 – No Stopping Anytime (compilation)
- 2008 – Seven Moons
- 2009 – Seven Moons Live (live)
- with Ellen McIlwaine
- 1987 – Everybody Needs It
- 1993 – Around The Next Dream
- 1994 – This That
- 1987 – Inazuma Super Session "Absolute Live!!"
- 2012 – Spectrum Road
|May 2008||The Anthology – Can You Follow?
- 1971, Rope Ladder To The Moon directed by Tony Palmer, 55 minutes, released 9 August 2010
- 2014, The 50th Birthday Concerts released by MIG, 235 minutes, released 1 December 2014
- Alan Clayson. "Jack Bruce obituary". The Guardian.
- Strong, Martin C. (2000). The Great Rock Discography (5th ed.). Edinburgh: Mojo Books. pp. 127–128. ISBN 1-84195-017-3.
- Welch, Chris (2000). Cream: The Legendary Sixties Supergroup. Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0879306243.
- "Good Scottish Pop – Jack Bruce". Firstfoot.com. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- Shapiro, Harry (2004). Graham Bond: The Mighty Shadow. Crossroads Press. pp. 85–86. ISBN 978-1872747071.
- "Cream - Disraeli Gears". Classic Albums. 3 November 2006. VH1.
- Jisi, Chris (November 2005). "Cream Rises". Bass Player. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009.
- Jack Bruce interviewed on the Pop Chronicles (1970)
- "The Jack Bruce Band: Live '75 – review". Cloudsandclocks.net. 10 June 2003. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "Jack Bruce official website – Somethin Els (1993)". Jack Bruce Music. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- "Vivian's Live performances".
- "Cream bassist, Jack Bruce, dies". The Guardian. 25 October 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
- Dansby, Andrew (16 October 2003). "Jack Bruce on the Mend". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "Clapton returns for Cream dates". BBC News. 3 May 2005.
- BBC Two - Artworks Scotland - "Jack Bruce: The Man Behind The Bass": http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01c6hw2
- Jurek, Thom (4 June 2012). "Spectrum Road – Spectrum Road : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "Jack Bruce to Release New Studio Album on Esoteric Antenna" (Press release). Esoteric Antenna. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- "Feature-Jack Bruce: Still going strong at 71". For Bass Players Only.
- "Jack Bruce interview on You Tube". PlanetMosh.
- Clash, James M. "Cream Reunion". Forbes. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Shapiro, Harry (2010). Jack Bruce - Composing Himself: The Authorized Biography. London: Jawbone Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-1-906002-63-3.
- Keepnews, Peter (25 October 2014). "Jack Bruce, Cream's Adventurous Bassist, Dies at 71". The New York Times.
- "Cream bassist Jack Bruce dies, aged 71". BBC News.
- "Jack Bruce funeral: Eric Clapton and Ginger Baker pay a farewell in song to the "all round legend"". Daily Mirror.
- Aruba Red's Tumblr
- Cairns, Dan (1 June 2008). "Jack Bruce, ace of bass". The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011.
- "Jack Bruce dead: Cream bass player dies of liver disease, aged 71". The Independent.
- "Song for Jack". Facebook.
- "Eric Clapton describes Jack Bruce as 'a tremendous inspiration'". NME.
- "Leslie West eulogy".
- "Tony Iommi and Geezer Butler pay tribute to Cream bassist Jack Bruce, who died at the weekend". Birmingham Mail.
- John McLaughlin tweet John McLaughlin on Twitter. October 27, 2014. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
- "Robin Trowe eulogy". Facebook.
- "Billy Cox eulogy". Facebook.
- "Jack Bruce was the greatest bassist in the world". Telegraph. 25 October 2014.
- "Jack Bruce tribute gig aids East Anglia's Children's Hospices". BBC News. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Jack Bruce -Rope Ladder To The Moon [DVD] ". Amazon.com.
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