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Jean-Paul Vesco conducted studies of rights and was a lawyer in Paris for seven years before embarking on the Order of Preachers in 1995 and made his religious profession on 14 September 1996.
Vasco was ordered Catholic priest to the Dominicans on 24 June 2001. After passing through the École Biblique, he moved to Algeria to Tlemcen in the Diocese of Oran where he responded to the call of his order to refound a Dominican presence, six years after the assassination of Monsignor Pierre Claverie.
In 2005, he was appointed vicar general of the diocese and from 2007 he is also economical.
In December 2010, Vasco was elected Prior Provincial of the Dominicans in France and he had to leave Algeria to settle in Paris.
On 1 January 2012 Pope Benedict XVI appointed him bishop of the diocese of Oran where he succeeded Bishop Alphonse Georger who retired having reached the age limit. He received the Episcopal consecration on 25 January 2013 in the Cathedral of Oran, by the hands of Cardinal Philippe Barbarin, Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lyon, Bishop Ghaleb Moussa Abdalla Bader, Archbishop of Algiers and bishop Alphonse Georger, bishop Emeritus of Oran.