Keys of Heaven
The Keys of Heaven, also called Saint Peter's keys, refers to the metaphorical keys of the office of Saint Peter, the keys of Heaven, or the keys of the kingdom of Heaven. It is explicitly referenced in the Bible in Matthew 16:19.
According to Catholic teaching, Jesus promised the keys to heaven to Saint Peter, empowering him to take binding actions. In the Gospel of Matthew 16:19, Jesus says to Peter, "I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on Earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on Earth shall be loosed in heaven." Saint Peter is often depicted in Catholic and Eastern Orthodox paintings and other artwork as holding a key or a set of keys.
The keys of heaven or keys of Saint Peter are seen as a symbol of papal authority and are seen on papal coats of arms (those of individual popes) and those of the Holy See and Vatican City State: "Behold he [Peter] received the keys of the kingdom of heaven, the power of binding and loosing is committed to him, the care of the whole Church and its government is given to him".
Bible verses associated with Peter and his position of authority include:
- Isaiah 22:20–23;
- Matthew 10:2;
- Matthew 16:18–19;
- Luke 22:32;
- John 21:17;
- Acts 2:14;
- Acts 10:46; and
- Galatians 1:18.
Bible verses associated with the transfer of powers from pope to pope include:
- Acts 1:20; 6:6; 13:3; 8:18; 9:17; 1
- Timothy 4:14; 5:22; 2
- Timothy 1:6
Symbols depicting the Keys of Heaven
Flag of the Vatican City
Flag of Leiden, Netherlands
The crest of St Peter's College, Oxford
- Coats of arms of the Holy See and Vatican City
- Keys of the kingdom
- Papal regalia and insignia
- Power of the Keys
- Primacy of Peter
- ^ "The episcopal college and its head, the Pope (para 881)". Catechism of the Catholic Church. Vatican Archives.
- ^ Mannion, Gerard; Mudge, Lewis S., eds. (30 January 2008). The Routledge Companion to the Christian Church. p. 235. ISBN 978-0415374200.
- ^ Matthew 16:19
- ^ Joyce, George (1911). "Power of the Keys". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- ^ Joyce, George (1911). "Chronological Lists of Popes". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- ^ Joyce, George (1911). "The Pope". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Joyce, George Hayward (1910). Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company. . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.).
- Knecht, Friedrich Justus (1910). . A Practical Commentary on Holy Scripture. B. Herder.
- Catholic Answers Magazine: Peter's Authority
- Catechism of the Catholic Church (Paragraphs 880–883)